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NITSCHKE BROS, 

k Manulacturers. 







w 



.^a^ 






And TEACHERS' GUIDE 







NEW YORK, JANUARY, 1883. 



Vol. VIL— No. 1. 



Lessons in Practical Writing. 

No. VIII. 

By Henky C. Spencer. 

Copj-rifflittd, JnnuAry. 18S3. b^ S)>eDcer Brotben. 




Front poiitiun ut dcek. Correct poaiHon of arms and hauds. 

Copy J is a movement exercise, which 
may be profiubly traced lightly, with the 
dry peu, and then practiced freely with ink, 
forrning and joining the letters throughout 
the cotnhiualion with comhined movement 
and making the compound sweeps left and 
right with forearm movement. Put mm 
iuto this exercise, and coutinu« until you can 
exeniitp it easily and ^y-11. Observe that the 
l'j.>psau- ihe s:iinc luAvidth as thw small <N, 
and on the same sUnt. 

Copy 2 requires etudy before practice. 
Ruled slant lines upon the page, and head- 
lines, ett(;h an i-space above the base- line, will 
assist iu sceunug correct slant and hight. 
Again, study the relation between short and 
extended letters: See how the first and se- 
cond strokes of t and its dot, apply in j; 
how the third, fourth and tifth strokes in n 
form also the first part of y; how the first 
four strokes of a apply in g; how the first 
and second strokes of « apply in z and the 
0, lengthened to 2\ spaces, forms the lower 
half of /. Also, see in the monogram how 
all extended letters, both above and below 
the ruled linp, depend upon the loop as their 
principal stem. Observe that j has no shade, 
that y, g, z and / are each slightly shaded 
on tbeirsecond strokes. Make all the strokes 
of the letters with prompt movements 
watched by a critical eye quick to detect 
faults. A fault moat common in writing 
the lower loop letters ie, slanting the loop 
too much. If, as is often the case, this fault 
he the result of turning the hand o^er to the 
right, or, because the third and fourth fin- 
gers are not drawn back under tlie middle 
of the hand away from the first and second 
fingers, to aHow them unobstructed play in 
making descending strokes, the only remedy 
is to correct the position— to thus remove 
the (Must of the defect. 

Copy 3, gives word-practice on the let- 
ters just taught. Other words giving such 
practice may also he written. Such words 
as the following : jws(, ;usf ice ; your* truly; 
faith, faithful; amaze, amazing ; good, 
goodness, etc. 

Be careful that you do not make your 
loops too long 
below the ruled 



which is a serious fault, one that gives writ- 
ing a confused, tangled appearance. 

Copy 4 teaches figures, signs and punc- 
tuation marks: 

The figures are ot even greater import- 
ance than the letters, because they are so 
often employed to show important results. 
Tliey should always he unmistakable. If 
a letter in a word is uncertain, its character 
may be determined by its connection j but 
it is not so with figures — they 
ent ch 



has b"en found excellent for the purpose of 
securing proper hight, spacing, and vertical 
columns. Draw a square four medium ruled 
spaces iu hight, which is just one and one- 
half inches. Be careful to have the four 



The figure 1, if commenced on the left 
with a short oblique stroke, as is often seen, 
is liable to bo mistaken for a seven or a 
nine; and a naught, 0, made with its right 
side shortened, is liable to he mistaken for 

The copy shows all the figures, except 
the six, to be one and one-half times the 
i-space in hight. It shows the six to he 
half a space higher, and the seven and nine 
to he half a space longer below the base line. 

Aualyze ihe figures naming their con- 
stituent elements— the straight line, right 
curve, and left carve; also, study forms and 
proportions, nad' uTjscrT^ ths 
slight shade. 

Learning to make the figures correctly 
may be greatly facilitated by placing trans- 
parent-paper or tracing-linen over the copy 
and writing upon that, guided by the cor- 
rect forms beneath. Then the pupil may 
write the figures upon hia transparent-paper 
away from the coi)y, and correct by placing 
them over tlie copy, and amending them to 
conform to it. 

Copy 5. The Fiquhes in Squares. 
Practice in writing the figures 




sides equal. Divide the square by vertical 
and horizontal lines into fourths, then iuto 
sixteenths, then into sixty- fourths, accord- 
ing to model. With pen and iuk write in 
the figures like the copy. The hight of all, 
except the six, should be three-fourths the 
hight of the squares. The six should be 
the full hight of a square, and the seven and 
^ nine extend below base line one-fourth of a 
each, haii*^ *£iuf,-e. -i . / 

Copy 6, Letteks Simplified. "To 
save time is to lengthen life," some one has 
truly said. In this copy we show how the 
labor of writing may be materially dimin- 
ished and much valuable time saved to the 
writer. This is done, maiuly, by omitting 
the first upward stroke in upper loop letters, 
and in other letters that have top angular 
joinings at the beginning of words, as in o 
^ Cj t't /. g, h, i, j, k, I, 0, p, t, u, w ; also, 
by omitting the last curve from lower loop 
letters occurring at the end of words, and 



1 squares 




ivocJoop i.etters. 



'-^-f^'-y'^y'^/^.^t^^y^yHy^^tn'^ 



3-^ C IVoTds embracing It 



f^i^--^^^^yY^l^-^^/^Z^f^y^^t^^ 




^llape . skun 'x d];.ide , 



^'/^s^cr6/rf//(^ ^^. 



/- 



■ p/- 



'^.^^/-^ 



SiJOCM— or they 
will iuterfere 
with the short 



^^^^7^\ ^^d^a^?^. y^^^l^^.^_ 



• -^/^^ 



from short letters where their essential char- 
acter is not afiected thereby, as in /, g, o, s, 
y, 2, final in copy. 

The final d in and, r in Iter, p in peep, t 
in tint, in copy, are modified in form to se- 
cure greater simplicity. Iu the figures a 
saving of strokes is made in the 2, 3, 5, 7; 
and S is somewhat simplified by beginniog 
with a shorter left curve, descending and 
completing with the usual compound curve. 

Thus you have, iu a nutshell, the method 
by which time aud labor can he readily 
saved in writing the small letters and figures. 

Study and practice will soon put you in 
possession of the art thus simplified. 

In lessons to follow we shall teach the 
capitals.. 

The Scrap-Boo k. 

By a. Sherman. 
Yes, my son, it is possible m almost 
every case to judge correctly ot a penman's 
ability from a single page of his work, for s 
master-hand in any department of s 
show itself iu its overy production. Tlirongh 
one combiuatiou of simple colors, ti 
ished peiloi],* one burst of mel'.<iy. gloj 
the genius of a great painter, orator ci 
sician. Our opinions are not forme 
tirely from the merit of the efibrt itself, but " 
also from an invisible something in e 
least work of a master, which seems to say, 
"The power that made me was not ex- 
hausted in my production, but is capable of 
infinitely more than you see in me." This 
is an indication of what is called reserved 
power, and it is always shown in real works 

We see this clearly illustrated in the art 
of penmanship : for the penman whose work 
does not indicate that he has skill and power 
in reserve will not be accounted great; and 
such a one is he who prepared the speci- 
men on the first page of your ecrap-book. 
It is prepared, in the fullest sense of the 
word, like too many specimens, till it has 
lost the beauty that is the result of ease and 
freedom. We, perhaps, might have for- 
given him for presenting so meagre a va- 
riety of capitals and so few loop letters, if 
he had not attempted to improve what he 
had written by fixing the shades, smoothing 
the lines, and finishing it generally. He has 
yet to learn that it is the highest art to con- 
ceal art, and that no matter how great the 
production, half the charm is lost if it seems 
to cost an effort. 

But here are a few lines from a penman 
who mixes brains with hia ink, and work 
with his genius, till every letter that flows 
from bis pen is the embodiment of grace and 
beauty, and every word on his pages seems 
not only proud of itself, but happy that it 
should be born in such good company. 
With .what ease it all appears to have been 
done ; but that ease is the result of hard and 



X 



' ^^^i^: y^A-tr7>ny. 



^-f-iy-uj 



'/^/T'^ ' '^^'^^- -<^/%^^ 



Cii^. yi7- i:^7-iy .^i^E^ , 



^.,<^/.y. 



• ^i<^ ^y^/. ^a^ , /J2Sj/J-/:^^f'f^yi 



patient study, 
well-directed 
and long con- 
tinued effort. 
But little is at- 
tempted, but 
that little ia 
done 80 well 
that we are led 



Vu I JoirnN.vi. 



to believe vastly more is possible. Display- 
lines are few, au«l bo aptly used and perfectly 
made tliat. they seem a necessary part. 
Every stroke on the page intlioatcB reserved 
power; and wo say, alnioat unconsciously, he 
can do even better thau this. 

The next epecimen was written bj one 
of the "movement" penmen. Yes, it is 
written with remarkable freedom— in fact, 
freedom is its principal and only noteworthy 
characteristic. These peuinen take more 
pride in the manner in which they execute, 
than they do in the work itself; consequent- 
ly, they are fatnoiis only to those who see 



the 



Ou( 



featu 



. the 



work of these penmen is the ind: 
connecting of any or all capital letters, and 
they might he properly called the Capital- 
Connectors. If they had charge of the 
christening of mankind, we would all have 
at least six iuiiials to our names, that ibey 
might show their maivelous skill by writing 
them all without once taking up the pen, 
and even after they had tinished the sixth 
letter their pens would slill go swooping on, 
seeking new worlds to conquer. In this 
specimen, my eon, your name is written in a 
wonderful manner. See the billowy waving 
lines surrounding that unpretentious little S, 
and what an etl'orl the G is making to climb 
up on the back of that great spreading C, 
whose encirclmg arm entirely surrounds the 
lopical small letters of the surname. 
I marked peculiarity of the Capital- 
<rs, that with the most colossal 
capitals they always use the tiniest 
small letters. 

That " Dear Sir" is a study, a be- 
wildering 'study; for it is so thoroughly 
connected and skillfully written that it 
has almost lost its identity ; but in the 
signature is the grand culmination — or, 
better, the grand splurge of all. At first 
eight the rolling, mazy mass fairly 
I dizzy, and it is only by pa- 
tient effort that the tangled lines can 
lade to tell us who it was that made 
i; but it was written, small letters 
Vd all, without taking up the pen, and, 
■ slill, like space in which the 
' planets revolve, it has, apparently, no 
beginning nor no end. Yes, all good 
penmen connect capitals to a certain 
extent, hut only 'those letters whose 
form permits an easy, a graceful join- 
ing. The Capital-Connecting Period 
in the life of a peuman is analogoua to 
the Hair Oil Period in the life of a 
man; something to be expected, the 
result of which is serious only when 
the attack becomes chronic. 

My son, remember this : he is ac- 
counted the greatest speaker who says 
the most in the fewest wcrds ; and he is 
accounted the greatest artist who produces 
the required effect with the fewest strokes. 
{To be continued.) 



persevering do rise. Great things are ac- 
complished little by little, and only ao. He 
who neglects little things will never attend 
to great things. He who wastes pennies 
will never save pounds; neglecting dimes 
and neglecting dollars are the same in kind. 
Do one thing at a time and do that one 
thing well, if you want to suweed. Learn 
one thing at a time, and learn that one 
thing well, if you want to be wise. Do one 
thing and do it well, and you have done 
something ; try many thiugs and fail in a\\, 
and you have done nothing. Such doing 
implies repetition. liepetitiou implies famil- 
iarity ; and familiarity, that the thing is old, 
dry, and perhaps uninteresting- 
Frivolous, idle people want and seek new 
thiugs; they do it because they want to be 
amusetl, entertained. 

Good teachers repeat often; they teach a 
few thing,*! and teach them well. They 
teach old lessons. An old lesson is dry, 
poky, stupid to the average mind. You 
must not forget that " there is nothing new 
under the sun," or above it either as far as 

There is no thorough knowledge gained, 
uoTcal skill obtained, no growth anywhere 
except by repetition, and repetition is a sort 
of drudgery, a phase of slavishness, and 

The laborer, the business man, the artist, 
the professional, must each alike repeat and 
repeat the same thing again and again to 



iu amusement* the same is true. No one 
can be an expert at a game without long 
and careful practice. 

Theoretical knowledge is not enough ; 
applied knowledge is quite as essential, and 
that comes by practice alone. A man may 
be a genius, but genius c;tQnot get on with- 
out labor. Genius implies ability ; it may 
help to give one inspiration — but to dispense 
with labor, it cannot. Genius shows us the 
need of patient, persevering effort; and even 
the man with smaller gifta — what might not 
be called genius at all — will oftentimes sur- 
pass a real genius or one of greater gifts, 
just because he submits to a careful train- 
ing, pursues a diligent course of application 
and makes good use of the talent he has. 

The fact is, that many a man who has the 
name of being a genius, is no genius, hut 
only a careful, diligent, unremitting worker. 

The man of small gifts has the good 
sense to apply himself, and by application 
he succeeds; while the man of greater gifts,- 
the genius, lacks the good sense to apply 
himself, and of course he does and must 
fail. Every great man Js a great worker. 

The reason why an expert can do a 
thing easily, quickly and well, is because 
he has done the same many many times be- 

Study, precept upon precept; thought, 
line upon line ; labor, here a little and there 
a little, is the only way ever to shine as a 
doer of great, good and useful deeds. 




Repetition— Skill. 
By C. H. Peirce, ol Keokuk, la. 

New things attract. Novelty esciles cnri- 
osity. Strange things awaken the imagina- 
tion. We weary of repetition. No one 
loves drudgery. "Familiarity breeds con- 
tempt," familiarity also begets love. We 
may see and admire a thing in a moment ; 
we may loarn a new truth iu a few seconds; 
but skill in the use and application of truth 
is gaiued only by familiaiity and repetition. 

All practical truths require repetition. 
Precept must be upon precept, liue upon 
hue ; here a little aad there a little. Every 
useful life is one of constant repetition, and 
repetition of little things. 

If you like you may call a useful life a 
life of drudgery ; some even call it slavery. 
Nothing is truer than the old adage : " No 
excellence without labor." No one ever 
rises high iu anytliing without labor. 
" Precept must be upon precept." Jt ig a 
law ot lift) — of all lile. Constant repetition, 
htre a little and there a Utile, is the only 
way to advance. The idle and careless 
c*unoi rifie. The diligent, industrious, 



know, to understand and have skill n 1 s 
catling 

The d fference between Ibf ignoramus 
and the scholar the amateur and the ex 
pen, is tl at the one has tra ned the m n 1 
the hand the ye the ear each and e ery 
faculty of the body, or some one particular 
gift, by long continued practice, till the 
thing done once has by repetition become 
second nature, a part and parcel of himself, 
and repetition has made the whole thing 
easy and natural. 

Why is one man skilled, an expert in 
business, at a given kind of labor, or some 
artistic handicraft? Just because he begins 
at the bottom, learns thoroughly by careful 
repetition each little thing, and by con- 
tinued, persevering repetition gains skill iu 
apidication aud manipulation. 

Another man may know just as much, 
but ho is not an expert; and ho Is not, just 
because he lacks experience, training, the 
skill that comes only by practice. 

What makes one man a schol&r and an- 
other man not one t It is not knowledge. 
It is a long- continued, careful training 
of the perceptive and reasoning faculties 
until one can see quickly, see correctly, com- 
pare accurately and judge with precision. 
The Bcholar has a well-trained set of men- 
tal faculties, while the man of knowledge 
has only a brain crammed with ideas. One 
is an expert, the other an atuatenr. Even 



Great souls feel the need an! know the 
val e of 1 bor so do n t d spense w Ih t 
S nail Bouts d not appre a e ll e need and 
value of labor of cl se an 1 areful a| j 1 ca 
t on BO they fa 1 and n st fail Dull dry 
poky ds rout ne may he t n. w thai a 
necessity. 

Our nature is such, and the world we live 
in is such that the only road to knowledge, 
to skill, to be an artist in anything, to do 
anythiug really good, easily and well, is by 
working it Into our nature by long-continued 
practice, is 'by making it second nature, is 
by making it a part of oui-selves, working 
and weaving it into our character. 

Practice makes the thing ins'ructive; 
hard at "first, it becomes easy by repetition. 

After a while we go straight and do the 
right thing, in the right time, in the right 
way, just because it is hard not to do so. 

There are not many great things for any 
of us to do in a lifetime, hut there are many 
little things to be done. 

We may learn the truth in a moment, 
hut with patience, through weariness, by 
many repetitions we get skill in execution. 

The crowuing effort will greet you, not 
because attention was paid to any one thing, 
but because you were sharp aud smart 
enough to blend everything into one har- 



Sample copies of the Journal, 10 < 



Ben. Gaylord on the Situation. 
By W. P. Cooper. 

" Well," said Uncle Ben, setting his staff 
against the counter, as he entered the store, 
and turning to the clerk, "I have just 
returned from a visit to that commercial 
Cidlege on the corner. A fine concern 
upon the whole— a fine concern that. Those 
professors are well qualified, energetic »nd 
efficient. They evidently understand every- 
thing about I hmr business, and they spare 
no pains to put their pupils ahead, and 
they," said Uncle Ben, emphasizing the word 
thet/, "sir, themselves work early and late. 
They deserve encouragement and something 
more — they should reach success. But in 
this as other businesses, there are dilBculties 
in the way, difficulties, perplexities, obstruc- 
tions. Yes, Bir, I have looked about ; I 
think I comprehend the situation." 

"There are grand fellows at some oi 
those desks ; noble fellows ; I could pick out 
chaps worth their weight in gold in any 
office, any counting-room — sharp, quick, 
critical and correct." "Yes, sir," repeated 
Uncle Ben, in a voice loaded with terrible 
emphasis: "They are critical, temperate, 
reliable and correct. That is the sort want- 
ed here, there, everywhere. Those fellows 
need no urging; they are on hand at eight 
in the morning. They leave when the halls 
close, and not before. Not a note, principle, 
planation, o' suggestion es- 
capes them. If they crowd their teachers 
a 1 ttle with business, they treat these 
masters with the most profound respect. 
They know their value to themselves, 
and hey have faith in their words." 

But iu that school there are other 
fellows — other fellows of quite another 
sort in fact, many sorts. They are not 
from any special craft or quarter. They 
ha 1 from all localities. These young 
nen a e, first of all, our countrymen — 
A ner due to tHe manner born. They 
have health, muscle, physical stamina, 
bra us quick eyes aud ready ears, and 
plenty of means; hut they want back- 
bone steadfast energy and firmness of 
purpose. They require urging, need 
^atch ng, long for flattery, ask too many 
graces beg too many privileges, fag the 
professors with repeated importunities 
t often, and, most of all, they lack 
attent on, perseverance aud application. 
They abound too much iu fits and starts, 
n stops absences and rests. Some of 
tl ese tellows are spoiled hoys, loaded 
w th tl e pernicious fancies, whims, cap- 
rices of princely names." 

Or they have rocked off the golden 
day* of mauy seasons in the well-feath- 
ered aud wadded cradles of Hamilton, Yale, 
or other ] r ucely endowed institutions. These 
are not all alike, are not all affected in the 
sa e ay They fill up the benches, but are 
poor stock The windows are too near their 
desks They see too much of the outside 
of the college, too many pretty faces, fast 
horses, gay equipages, tine fancy articles of 
dress, etc., etc. Their minds are absorbed 
with foreign mutters, tritles, fictions, stale 
and unprotitable trash. All of these draw- 
backs are not the fault of the original mate- 
rial, but they are the unhappy drawbacks 
of accident — of national, local aud home 
fouUshnees and nonsense. I say it is a great 
pity that all of this sort of college stock 
could not be revivified and converted to use." 
"This thiug is possible. I wish," said 
Uncle Ben, after a moment's pause, " I wish 
that I could reach the capable ears of all 
of these fellowS myself, a few times. I be- 
lieve that I could impress their really bright 
minds, naturally, with the true status of the 
situation. I should love to welcome them 
to a place in the front line. Indeed, I have 
in my life given the right hand of fellow- 
ship to a great many of these very fellows, 
after all drawbacks. The college is a good 
thing, aud I heartily wish it success, and I 
am ready to help aud encourage these en- 
terprises on as I have in the past. I have 
had grand ch-rks Iroiii these very conciiua. 
and I may want them again." 



Robert C. Spencer. 

Dv S. S. Packaud. 
It would have been the graceful and 
proper thing for the eldest son of the author 
of SpeDcerian Peomauship to hnvo inherited 
aod intensified the paternal qnalilies; to 
have realized, in the work of his own hands, 
the higher ideals to wliich his father's genius 
pointed. But Rolierl, though a dutiful son, 
and having a proper sense of his derived 
^eHlness, discovered early in his career, that 
while his intellect could grasp the principles 
of "pure SpeneeriaD," and his muscles exe- 
cute the straight lines and Riirves w hich enter 
into good writing, he lacked the artistic 
temperament, if not the plodding patience,' 
necessary to make a proficient pen-artist. 
By the time he had arrived at man's estate, 
he was a good, strong, plain penman, his 
writing possessing a torco and character sel ■ 
dom acquired at that age, and vrSs 
qualified to teach the art. At the 
age of twenty-three he became a«- 
Bociated with Mr. Rice, as teacher 
of penmanship in the public schools 
of Buffalo, succeeding that gentle- 
man as the Superintendent ot Writ- 
ing. In 1853 he joined Mr. Rice in 
a commercial school in Bufi'alo, 
which, the following year, was 
merged into the Bryant '& Stratton 
enterprise, being the second link, as 
Cleveland was the first, of the re- 
nowned "chain" of Colleges. In 
the Fall of 1856 he went to Chicago 
to assist Mr. Uriah Gregory in his 
attempt to compete with Judge 
Digby V. Bell, who fur six years 
bad been building up a vigorous in- 
atit'ition in that smart town. About 
this time, Mr. Stratton concluded 
that a "chain" of Nan-tnal Com- 
mercial Colleges without a link in 
Chicago would be too luuch like the 
play of Hamlet without the Prince 
of Denmark, and so began at once 
to move on the pfjemy'a works. 
Gregory had conceived the briUiaut 
idea of placarding Robert as the 
great expunent of SpenceriAn Pen 
manship. Stratton "saw the dial 
lenge, and " went one better, in the 
production of the veteran iuthor 
himself; and a genuine business 
competition was waged between the 
two schools, father aud sjn bemg 
played against each other, with all 
the warmth and zest of those ]1j 
ueei- days. Finally, the fauiil\ I 
inony was restored by the lu t 
of Robert into the pnnupil I ] 
the Bryant & Stratton sdu I I 
success of the Chica^ cut | 
was immediate and pusiti\e i 
ally absorbing the two other I 
In the Fall of 1859, Mi S| 
went to St. Louis, to establ I 
other link of the rapidly l(.uj,tl , 

ing chain. H« remamel heic foi 
four years, and finally, m I8(i.J, went 
to Milwaukee, establishing there, in 
connection with Bryant & Strattou, 
the school of which he is now 
proprietor. 

During all these many years Mr. 
Spencer has been a most faithful 
worker in the educational field. Although 
by choice and from peculiar fitness in 
ability and temperament, devoted to the 
specialty of business or commercial edu- 
cation, he has taken a deep aud wide 
interest in general education, aud in phil- 
osophical and humane movements. Dur- 
ing a large share of bis sofourn in Milwau- 
kee he has been an active member of the 
School Board. He was also one of the or- 
iginal promoters of the Wisconsin Humane 
Society, and its first secretary, and has been 
president of the Wiscousiu Phonological 
Society, devoted to the education of deaf 
mutes upou the German or articulation 

method 

Mr. Spencer has always stood well with 
c.)- workers, and there has been no time in 
ilie history of business college associations 
when the highest positions of honor were 



not at bis service. Of the old Bryant & 
Stratton Association be was alwaysan active 
and influential member, as also of its suc- 
cessor, the International Business College 
Association, of which he was a president. 
When the Penman's Convention — subse- 
qnently merged in the Business Educators' 
Assoniation of America— held its first ses- 
sion in New York, Mr. Spencer was the one 
spoken .'f for the presidency, hut being 
absent, Mr. Mayhew of Detroit, was called 
to fill the chair. At the meeting in Cleve- 
land, in 1878, he was mentioned for the 
position, but graciously withdrew in favor 
of Mr. Peirce, of Philadelphia. In 18/1), at 
tiie meeting in Chicago, be was chon-en 
jTesident, which position he held at the 
Cincinnati Convention in June last ; and no 
one who was present at that convention will 
soon forget the signal ability and judicial 



VUI JOI K\ V.I 



Drill— Drill. 
By W. p. Cooper. 
The columns of the JotmNAL on the sub- 
ject of drill have been sufficiently explicit, 
but inasmuch as every professor or ama- 
teur knows that there is no such thing as 
fixing or converting knowledge without 
review, if we again urge the consideration 
of matters already qnite thoroughly discHss- 
ed, it will be nothing of surprise to the 

We spoke quite fully, in the December 
number, of Stem Capitals and their legiti- 
mate drill — muscular movement. We have 
said that there are persons who can produce 
all capitals, large and small, with whole arm 
movement. This power is secured partly 
by tenacity of drill, and partly it is reached 
through a natm-al muscular and mechanical 
ability possessed by J»ut very few persons. 




each oval s 
is filled; f 



KOBliKT C 
fairness w ith which he discbarged bis duties. 
Mr. Spencer is getting to be one of the 
"old fellows," having passed his fifty-thii 



year, but he does not show it eithi 
sonal looks or in actions or tastes. It is 
much easier to call him "Bob" than any- 
thing else, and he always responds to the 
familiar name with great sweetness and zest. 
His twinkling black eye moves backward 
and forward, when in conversation, with the 
alertness of thirty years ago, and his sonor- 
ous laugh, when he catches the point of a 
joke, is just as infectious as it was before 
his head was so bald, or it became necessary 
for him to look at the world through eye- 



. Si'KlNCKH. 

Whole arm movement 
acquire, but muscular 
dred per cent, more difficult 



3 the left. 



lougb, g 



n per- ! vert, and it is worth 

gbt line is easy 
a, vertical line, b 
curves or stem oval is far harder to get, 
a great deal harder still the direct ova 
found in 0, E, H, M, D. We may 
deed got the mov< 
sure, " by practice 
the shifts 
far harder to hit. It 



Now is the time to subscribe for the 
Journal, and begin with the year and now 
volume. 



nt in alone, quite 
direct ovals," but in 
ous practice it grows 
I very likely in 2J the 
the old English 21 the easiest. 
Wo will here say there is such a thing as 
getting the ability to produce fixed; that is, 
so you will never lose the power to produce; 
buttoget the power to produce tbedirecl oval, 
large, medium, or small, and always on the 
une and where you please, always, is hard 



enough. It is worth a round hundred dol- 
lars—that is,, with hand or muscular move- 
ment; still, to get it is possible, and that is 
enough ; and further to aid you in getting 
this power, we will give a few more sugges- 
tions. You will remember that we are told 
that while practicing this movement we 
rest the arm two or three inches below the 
elbow This rest is more properly a semi- 
rest or movable rest; that is, it is not a 
fixed and immovable rest at all. You will 
observe by trial, that a poiut under the arm 
here describes, only on a smaller scale, each 
character produced by tbo pen upon the pa- 
per, from first to last. 

The exercises furnished, in the past num- 
bers of the Journal, to perfect this feature 
of the drill, are all good for practice. Here 
is a very good one: commence a line with 
0, twice medium size, lap the ovals as you 

-^ go on one-half, reducing a triile 

ccessively until the line 
30 increasing the speed 
of motion throughout the line. 
Practice this exercise ten or twelve 
minutes, repeating the practice in 
other lessons, until you have mas- 
tered the drill. Try, after this drill, 
the oval in coils, until you produce 
the perfett flourish almost e\ery 
time Try the other letters of the 
direct movement set, one after an- 
other, as a part of each drill, until 
these two are all mastered Then 
make up a drill of these and stem 
capitals made alternately, always 
pas««ing from slow to fast and from 
large to small, avoiding by all 
means all jerking and unsteady 
movements Having fixed the 
forms m the mmd, but using no 
permanent le-^t of either arm, or 
third and fourth fingers, and using 
the wrist on the cur\e3 naturally 
and freely If in obedience to these 
directions, you still repeat the dm 
gram'^, looking sharply to the cor 
rect structure of characteristics, you 
will— that is, if you indulge in no 
careless practice — ultimately secure 
the power above indicated in its 
completeness, a power which, as 
you have been often told before, is 
the greatest instrumentality of mod- 
ern penmanship. 

It would always be well to prac- 
tice ceitain kinds of flourishing in 
direct movement, to familiarize and 
perfect this muscular power. One- 
halt (f the flourishes in pen-work 
can be better produced by the pen 
in the natural, rather than the re- 
versed, position. A good llourisher 
will always use both; both posi- 
tions of the pen aud every move- 
ment direct or reversed. 

You will never see the day, write 
or flourish as well as yon please, in 
which Jim may not be benefited by 
recurring again and often to drill 
practice. In all of thi« practice, 
place yourself 6<iuare front to the 
table, b(dd the pen easily and 
firmly, place the feet easily and 
firmly upon the floor; fortify the 
firmness of the body and muscles 
light and decided support and stay 
rest on the left arm, and bring your whole 
moral brain power and ability to the sup- 
port of the work. Work to succeed, work 
to win, work to improve, correct or perfect 
some power, letter or movement. Work 
methodically and courageously, and the skill 
desired will be and remain yours. But 
when you are tired, stop. When attention 
lags, and the mind gets lazy and careless, 
stop. Burn up all trash about your table, 
save your beat marks, and ruu your eye 
critically over these at another time. 

We shall if desired to do so, show you in 
another number how to force flourishing 
into the service of drill, how to let orna- 
ment alone or use it, how to get form, and, 
above all, how to get that speed aud dispatch 
which few possess, but even theeducalioual 
b — bugs and bueineas men esteem so highly 



by a si 



i better hand 
in. Wo are 
183. Then I 
enough. If 
1 great "love for 
00(1 busiueaa col- 
lege, or Bubacrihe for tbw Penman's Art 
Journal, or both. I approve of teaching 
correct poeilion, as nearly as possible; peu- 
holding, and the foruis of letters and move- 
ment exercises j but it is useless to expect 
very good results. I agne with Mr. Porter 
that writing is as important as other 
branches of study. But it is an art, and 
more diJficult to learn than the others, and 
hence we cannot expect the same results as 
in ibem. Tbeio are many things I could 
say on this subject, but fear of becoming 
tiresome and the desire to liear others, for- 
bid. I would hke to hear from Mr. Porter 
again, as I am only a novice. I am a great 
admirer of good penmanship, and think the 
. is a perfect gem, and of inestima- 
■ B aspiring penman. I take 
penmanship, but it excels 
them all. In addition to this, I indorse all 
that has been said in its praise by others. 



But in this evolutionary labor, we ask you 
to go very often to these other eminent mas- 
ters. Put up some of Ames's best pen sheets 
in yoar rooms, and as well as borrow from 
others, create for yourself. 



Writing in Country Schools. 

By G. N. S. 
In the December number of the Journal 
is an article headed as above, by C. G. Por- 
ter. I read his remarks with mucli interest, 
and, being a teacher in a country school and 
somewhat interested in the art of writing, I 
would Uke to make a few observations on 
the same subject. Mr. Porter is dissatisfied 
with the present condition of our country 
schools as regards writing. So am I. He 
does not agree with the scholar wlio thinks 
if he can write legibly, that is good enough. 
I do. Eemember, I am speaking of country 
schools only. He also says it is not to be 
supposed that a school-teacher should be a 
pen-artist. Of course not. No pen-artist 
can be found teaching school for $25 per 
month. Hence, the impossibility of pro- 
ducing fine penmen. Since, then, the first 
degree of proficiency is unsatisfactory, and 
the second unattainable, I would like to 
know just where Mr. Porter thinks the line 
should be drawn. How good a penman 
should we look for in such cases? I tliink 
the student may consider himself very for- 
tunate if he can learn to write a rapid legi- 
ble hand. My reasons for thinking so are 
these: first, the desks in our schoolhouses 
are so narrow and of such improper heights 
that it is with difficulty a good penman can 
write on them. Position is simply out of 
the question, especially for the student, who 
knows nothing about it. Second. These 
schools are made up of scholars who have 
always been used to doing heavy manual 
labor. I ask if it is possible to train the 
muscles of the wood-chopper or fence- 
builder to do anything beyond plain writing, 
if that, in three or four months' time. Ex- 
perience and reason say not. Third. Sup- 
pose a teacher devote thirty minutes each 
day to the writing-lesson. This is as long a 
time as he can give — frequently, longer. 
Prof. Peirce tells us one hour a day is insuf- 
ficient in business colloees to acquire a hand- 
writing suitable for book-keepiug, in two to 
six months' time. What, then, can be ex- 
pected from half that amount of study in a 
country school t Fourth. The change of 
teachers with each term, would of itself dis- 
courage many, and produce poor results. 1 
agree with Mr. Porter, that a higher grade 
of penmanship should be required in teachers 
than exists at present. In this country (Mo.) 
it would be very appropriate to say scholar- 
ship, in place of penmausliip. Yet the aver- 
age teacher can and does wril 
than the average business 
educating our youth for bus 
say legibihty and rapidity a 
the student should e 
the art," lot him go 



Autographs. 

Anto^mpb itandfl for (ho mai 



plain, 
birth ftod gi 



able valui 
other papers i 



Sample copies of the Journal i 
1 receipt of prioe — ten oenta. 



Educational Notes. 

[CommuiiicationB for this Department maj 
be addressed to B. F. Kelley, 205 Broadway, 
New York. Brief educational items solicited.] 

Georgia's school population is 507,861. 

Edinburgh University has 3,237 students 
this year. 

There are in Atlanta, Ga., four colleges 
for Colored students. 

The moment a man ceases to be a syste- 
matic student, he ceases to be an effective 
teacher. — American Journal of Education. 

The average daily attendance in the pub- 
lic schools of New Orleans is 1G,142, the 
number of pupils registered being 19,946. 

Hon. John Evans, Ex-Gov. of Colorado, 
has given $40,000 to the University of 
Denver since the beginning of the enterprise. 

Nevada pays the largest monthly salary 
to both male and female public school teach- 
ers; the former averaging $101; the latter 
$77. 

The Sacramento School Board offer a 
prize of $20 to the young lady graduate 
who shall wear the cheapest dress on Com- 
mencement Day. ^ 

The Texas School Fund, which can never 
be diverted, now amounts to the magnifi- 
cent sum of $114,000,000, including land 
worth $110,000,000. 

At the meeting of the National Pedagogic 
Coutireas of Spain, at Madrid, there were in 
attendance 827 male and 505 female teach- 
ers. An address was made by the King. 

The percentage of illiteracy of the native 
white population in the State of New York, 
as given by the bulletin lately issued by the 
Census Department, must be considered 
quite too utterly utter, it being 2.2. 

Since the war, three men— Peabody, Slater 
and Tulane— have given $5,100,000 for the 



promotion of education in the South. The 
distribution of these funds is to be almost 
equally divided between white and colored. 
— Nashville Advocate. 

Dr.Robert Morris, of Kentucky, said that 
in Syria teachers receive ten cents a month 
for salary. The schoolhouse is mother 
earth ; the pupils are boys only, sitting 
cross-legged on the ground. The course of 
instruction consists of learning the Koran 
by heart. — The Age. 

In Italy during the year 1879, 48 per 
cent, of the bridegrooms and 70 per cent, of 
the brides were unable to sign their names. 
In England, 86 per cent, of the men mar- 
ried during that year, and 80 per cent, of 
the women were able to sign their name, 
but with a large per cent, of these a know- 
ledge of writing extended no farther. 

In a Chicago school recently the children 
were asked to give a sentence with the word 
"capillary." A little girl wrote : " I sailed 
across the ocean in a capillary." When 
asked what she meant by that, she turned 
to Webster's Dictionary and triumphantly 
pointed out this definition : " Capillary, a 
fine vessel." Further investigation showed 
that more than twenty scholars had made 
the same blunder. — Detroit Free Press. 

But .7 of one per cent, of the native white 
population of Massachusetts, from ten years 
of flge and upward, are unable to write. 
This is the best showing of any State or 
Territory. The per cent, for Alabama is 
25.0; Arkansas, 25.5: Georgia, 23.2 ; North 
Carolina, 31.7; Tennessee, 27.8; New Mex- 
ico, 64.2; Nevada, 1.1; New Hampshire, 
1.1; Connecticut, 1.0; Wyoming, 1.7. Wy- 
oming has the smallest percentage of per- 
sons who cannot read or write, when the 
whole population is considered. 

In Syria and Palestine, in 1881, there 
were 30 societies or individuals conducting 
302 schools ; of which 120 were of the Am. 
Pfes. ]Vn8sTon745 oflho ChurcTTMisa. Soc. 
of London; 80 British Syrian schools; 10 
under Friend Missions. These scboobi had 
7,475 male and 7,149 female pupils. In 
Beirut alone there were at non- Protestant 
schools, 8,183 pupils, of whom 1,250 are in 
the Jesuit schools. Of Protestant mission- 
aries there are 81 male and 110 female 
foreign laborers; 581 native laborers; 
preaching stations,140; organized churches, 



Educational Fancies. 



Kerosene is bad grammar; you should 
say Kero was seen— with her fellow. 

Archimedes invented the slang phrase,- 
"Give us a rest," when he offered to move 
the world with his lever. 

An express- wagon driver in Lynn, Mass,, 
is master of seven languages. He is evi- 
dently ready for his team to balk. 

Professor : " How is power applied to 
this machine t " Junior : " It is turned hy 
a crank." Professor: "Just step forward 
and illustrate." — Ex. 

'Twas but a simple pin on a chair, and 
the httle boy did grin like a bear when the 
teacher took a seat, and in a manner very 
tleet flew several feet in the air. 

" Why should you celebrate Washington's 
birthday more than mine f " asked a teacher. 
" Because he never told a lie ! " shouted a 
little boy. — Educational Eeview. 

Is anything more stubborn than a mulet 
Certainly, for marked as is a muloy stub- 
bornness, there is a " mulier," and that our 
Latin dictionary tells us is a womau. 

A Sunday-school teacher asked a pupil 
how many aacramenls there were. "There 
ain't any more left." " Why, what do you 
meant" "Well, I heard that our liok 
neighbor received the lut sacrament yeiter- 
6jk3."-~BMid'» CoOsgtJoitnmL 



Professor in Mechanics: "What is the 
strongest force in nature?" Student: "The 
force of habit." Compelled by tho same 
force, the professor recorded a zero. — Ex. 

" My son," said a tutor of doubtful moral- 
ity but severe aspect, putting his hand on 
the boy's shoulder, "I believe Satan has 
got hold of you." " I believe so, too," 
replied the boy. 

Master: "What does Condillac say 
about brutes in the scale of being T" 
Scliolar : "He says a brute is an imperfect 
animal." " And what is a man f " " Man 
is a perfect brute." — Ex. 

" In what condition was the patriarch Job 
at the end of his lifef" asked a Sunday- 
school teacher of a quiet-looking boy at the 
foot of the class. " Dead," calmly replied 
the quiet-iooking boy. 

" Speaking of shad, would you say the 
price has gone up, or has risen?" inquired 
a schoolboy of the fishmonger. "Well," 
replied the scale-scraper, ' ' speaking of shad, 
I should say it had roes." 

Scene in Latin A. — Professor B: 
"Conjugate the present subjunctive of «Mm." 
Student: " Sin, sis — I have forgotten the 
third singular." Professor B : " Very well, 
sir, you may sit." — Academy Trio. 

Teacher: "John, what are your boots 
•madeoff" £ot/ ;" Of leather." "Where 
does the leather come from ? " " From the 
hide of the ox." " What animal, therefore, 
supplies you with boots and gives you meat 
to eatf "My father." 

A man spends eighteen cents for lager, 
ten cents for tobacco, twenty cents for cigars, 
fifteen cents for street - car fare, and loses 
$1.50 at poker; he then permits his wife to 
purchase a button-hook for three cents, and 
figures that her extravagance will ruin him 
in three years. What is his capital T 

Said the teacher : " 'And it came to pass, 
when the kiug heard it, that ho rent his 
clothes.' Now, what does that mean, my 
children — 'he rent his clothes'?" Up 
went a little hand. " Well, if you know, 
tell 08." " Please, ma'am," said the child 
timidly, "I s'pose he hired 'em out." 



Send Money for the "Journal." 
Persons desiring a single copy of the 
Journal must remit ten cents. No atten- 
tion will be given to postal-card requests 



for same 

Card for the Public. 

To purchase pictures for ho 
tation is evidently a commendable thing ; 
but to always judiciously select is not so 
easy, or always possible. 

A few chromos, a few steel — say, histori- 
cal— engravings, an "oil" picture or two, 
as means will warrant; to these may be 
added, a few portrait- pieces, a home pic- 
ture or two, and albums for photos, art 
selections, etc.; and, finally, you should not 
fail to send for and display, with these se- 
lections, a few of D. T. Ames's grand illus- . 
trations of penmanship. 

Wliat shall we commend? Why, first, 
the Eagle and the Antelope sheets. These 
illustrate flourishing wholly. Then comes 
that wonderful gem, the Lord's Prayer, in 
Ames's best manner; and then the Centen- 
nial card or sheet. All of tho above speci- 
mens are miracles of art — not equaled in 
this line in the Old Worid at all. The man- 
ner is neither bought, stolen, borrowed, or 
imported, but equal it if you can. 

You will, having filled the above list, 
waut more. Their poasestion will, first of 
all, delight you and your friends ; next, 
they will force you to improve your pen- 
manship, whether you will or not ; and, 
lastly, they will do all of this without a 
sense of either labor, trouble, or expense on 
your part. W. P. Coopbr. 

Writing U the one art of which eveiy- 
bodj ihould bo a mMter. 



^^^^iiJJis'y- 



Letter- Writing. 

Articlk I. 

By D. T.Ames. 



To 1)6 ubie to write a letter— elegant and 
appropriate — in all tho numerous depart- 
ments of correspondence, is a most desirable 
and useful accomplishment to either lady or 
gentleman. A letter reflects largely the 
character and attainments of its author. 
One slovenly, careless 
writing is very likely 
things, while tho degree 
and quality of hie mind 
as well as education, 
refinement, and 
amiability of character, 
are sure to be made 
manifest in anyextend- 



.wbile another covered three pages with 
awkward, ungrammatical composition, 
where half a page properly composed would 
have sufficed. One touched off big writing 
with a profusion of flourishes and other 
superfluities; another waited long for a re- 
sponse that could not be given from his 
omission to name the street and number of 
his residence. And so to the end of the 
list, each writer has, through faults of omis- 
sion and commission, or the excellencies of 
his communication, proved or disproved to 
the satisfaction of a would-be employer, 
his capability and fitness to render 
factory service, and has accordingly gained 



subject in its general aspect, treating upon 
those things which are essential to all de- 
partments of letter-writing — sui'h as llie 
selection of material, style of composition, 
and method of arrangement of the several 
parts of a letter, superscription, etc., with 
proper illustrations. 



A Strange Tradition. 

Among the Seminole Indians there is a 

singular tradition regarding the white man's 

origin and superiority. They say, when the 

Spirit made tho earth he also made 

, all of whom were fair-complex- 



was found to contain spades, boes, and all 
the implements of labor; the second un- 
wrapped hunting, fishing, and warlike ap- 
paratus ; the third gave the white man pens, 
inks, and paper, the engine of the mind — 
the means of mutual, mental improvement, 
the social link of humanity, the foundation 
of the white man's superiority. 



Autographs. 
By W. P. Cooper. 
I glad to learn that the matter oi 
pnniog to receive a little of 
the long needed atten- 
tion. In this groat and 
nderful country the 



Not only is such ao 
accomplishment a most 
potent agency for open- 
ing avenues to employ- 
ment and success in a 
business point of view, 
but it is a most pleasing 
and fruitful source of 
friendly and social en- 
joyment. It is now a 
somewhat prevalent 
custom in our large 
cities, with merchants, 
professional men and 
others, who desire 
clerks or assistants, to 
seek them through ad- 
vertisementsin ourdaily 
papers, directing appli- 
cants to address in their 
own handwriting, and 
by the character of such 

plicants are judged, and 
fairly, we dare say, in 
most instances. 

The experienced 
of business, the 
lawyer, or other pro- 
fessional, reads iu thest' 




of 



for 



unerringly, the talent, 
attainments and general 
character of their 
authors. Such letters 
reveal— ^)'s^ as a mat- 
ter of observation, the 
artistic skill and litera- 
ry attainments of the 
writer; second, by iu- 
ferencOjhis general taste 
and judgment. The in- 
ference is drawn from 
all the attendant cir- 
cumstances : from the 
selection of writing- 
material to the super- 
scription and affixing of 
the postage -stamp. 

Perhaps there are 
one hundred appli 
for a position ; one is 
chosen ; just why, ho 
will not know; while 
ninety-nine will be left 
to wonder why their application was unsuc- 
cessful. Some were bad writers, some were 
bad spellers ; one made a fatal revelation of 
lack of good taste and judgment by 
^arge-sized letter or foolscap 
sheet of paper, which he folded many times 
and awkwardly to go into a very small-sized 
envelope, upon which tho superscription 
was so located as to leave no place for a 
postage-stamp upon the upper right-hand 
corner, where it should bo ; it was therefore 
placed at the lower left-liand corner, and 
head downwards. The pust-offic© clerk, 
from force of habit, of course strilies with 
his canceling -stamp upon the envelope 
where the postage-staui]* should be, thus 
disfiguring the superscription. Another 
wrote, with red Ink, a large sprawling hand ; 



signatures, is nearly 
passed. The Greeley 
and Wade Bohemian 
alphabet is nearly 
played out. An ox- 
cart and a stone-boat 
and a cat- track super- 
scription, still here and 
there worshiped with 
Buddhist devotion, we 
hope will soon be 
things that were, and 
not what the present 
either tolerates, craves 

needs. 

One envelope now 
in about twenty goes 
properly harked into 
the office. One law- 
yer of a Bar, one priest 
in a city, one professor 
in a college, one pupil 
in a high school, we 
can now commend for 
properly written docu- 

etc. A very revolu- 
tionary and encourag- 
ing condition of tilings. 
Thanks to Father 
Spencer, deceased! 
thanks to the nations 
of the whole phalanx 
of writers and pub- 
lishers for this move 
ahead. There was a 
when to write 
one's namorespectably 
would have evoked 
banishment. Looking 
carefully and cri- 
tically, yot in a Chris- 
tian spirit, the array of 
names, great and 
small, on the registers 
and documents every- 
where, we venture to 
say that there is still 



^for j 



iipro 



above is one of several cuU, prepared at the oj^ce of the "Journal," for Collier's " Cyclopa:dia''of Sociul t 
The work coruMb of about 700 pagea of useful and 7,aluahle information, elegantly printed and bound, 6; 



or failed to gain place and favor. 

In view of the great importance of this 
subject, and its very intimate relation to 
good penmanship, wo have deemed it a fit- 
ting theme fur a series of articles or lessons 
in a penman's paper; and especially so in 
view of the fact that thousands of this jour- 
nal's readers are yet pupils in our public or 
private schools, and are, therefore, favorably 
circumstanced to profit most fully by such a 
course. It will be our earnest endeavor to 
render the articles as interesting and practi- 
cal as possible. They will ho accompanied 
with numerous illustrations and examples, 
photo - engraved from carefully - prepared 
pen-and-ink copy, illustrative of every de- 
partment of correspondence. 

In our next article we shall present the 



oned, and that after making them he led 

hem to the margin of a small lake and 
bade thorn leap in and wash. One obeyed, 
and came out purer and fairer than before; 

he second hesitated a moment, duriug which 

ime the water, agitated by the first, had 
become muddled, and when he bathed, he 
came up copper- colored ; the third did not 
leap until the water became black with mud, 
and he came out with his own color. Then 

he Great Spirit laid before them three | especially tho young, how to write the 



ment, and especially 
with the young, tho 
gifted, the brilliant 
and the gay. If we 
have an aristocracy of 
dollars, we also have 
one of learning; and 
we may or should have 
one of art. We should 
leave now to China- 
men under prosoription, Irish bog-trotters, 
Dutch boors and Bohemian tramps, the de- 
sired accomplishment of a name without a 
letter, and a signature without a shape, and 
try ourselves, each and all of us, to have 
that mystical combination, the child of our 
own handy creative ability, called a name 
or sigiature, tolerably well written. 

Penmen now, we see, begin to propose 
teach by diagrai 



packages, and out of pity for his misfortunes 
in color, gave the black man the first choice. 

He took hold of each of tho i)ackugeB, and 

having felt the weight chose the heaviest; 
;he copper -colored man chose the next 

heaviest, leaving the white man the lightest. 



When thft packagei 



opened, the first learning to 



well, or nearly as well, 
should be done. Twenty cents for a 
name, or twenty cents for one ehirt- 
collar or ruffle for your neck, this is not bad. 
But hark — neighbor, while learning to write 
properly your own name, you are logically 



• also your correspondent's 



or your friend's. Is not this encouragingt 
You are not an artist, but you want an au- 
tograph and a good one. You forward your 
way of doing the thing ; the master sets at 
a glance your lack an<l your capahilily to 
produce; in short, reads you up artistically, 
and divines the very fashion of autograph 
you need. He sends one in character, but, 
business -like and practical, he gives you 
further — a choice between otiiers. He does 
not aim in what he sends to glorify himself, 
but to suit your case and also please your 
tAste'and your cnnespondeut's acumen and 
fancy. He, therefore, the master, should aim, 
in bis samples, to give you a new, a practi- 
cal, a business-like and artistic signature, 
that you, in a few evenings, can master and 
write anywhere and.every where, legibly and 
well and quickly too ; and this is what you 
need in this direction, and no more. 



The Power of Position. 
By C. H. Peihck, of Keokuk, la. 

The exe" "tion of superior work of any 
kind with the pen necessitates a position 
that will give the greatest power. 

There are many, many minor points to 
look after iu the execution of good writing, 
bat all may justly be considered under 
"Form," '* Position," "Movemeut." 
. Form nuiy be cousidered uuder five heads, 
viz., "Size." "Shape," "Slant," "Shad- 
ing," "Spacing." 

Movement under four heads, viz.: 
"Wholearm," "Foreanu," "Finger," 
" Combination." 

" Position gives power," if it is properly 
taken. Practice makes perfect if it be in- 
telligent. The ifs havit it the greater part 
of the time, however, and so reduce the 
statements almost to utter nothingness. 
You cannot get the desiied power iu any of 
the many many incorrect position; 
cannot improve your writing by i 
practice, if it be not of that intelligence 
retiuisite and necessary to advancement. 
There is but one right way to many many 
wrong ones ; and left to your owb selection, 
without the proper judgment or intelligence, 
you invariably fall into the wrong way. 

Position is only one of the essentials to 
good writing, but, as such, " must weigh in 
the balance and not be found wanting." 

Position: Wholearm Movement. Jst. 
Of the person— body; feet; arms; hands; 
fingers; wrists. 2d. At desk or table, sit- 
ting or standing — Front; Right; Right 
Oblique; Left Oblique. 3d. Of Pen. 4th. 
Of Paper. 

Position : Forearm Movement. 

Position: Finger Movement. 



You 



Combin; 



The spine should be kept straiiiht — not 
vertical — and, as the support of the hotly, 
must be permitted to bend but slightly, 
as the greater the curvature the weaker 
must he the position. Another serious ob- 
jection is, the shoulders are thrown forward, 
contracting the chest, which in time will 
produce disease. 

The position for the execution of pro- 
grammes " B " and " E " is not necessarily 
the same as "A," "C" and " D." In 
other words the positi>jn for forearm is not 
necessarily the same as wholearm. They 
may be the same without any serious in- 
convenience, hut to say that they must be 
the same would not be in keeping with the 

A good position of the body ; wholearm 
is not the saine with different per-ons, and 
not necessarily the same with any iudi- 
vidual ; t. c, good work may bo doue 
wholearm with the body varying in inclina- 
sion from forty-five to eiglity-five degrees 
from perpendicular, the difterence in execu- 
tion not being perceptible. While this can 
be doue, I Vould charge all amateurs to 
strike a happy medium until good work 
is established, then vibrate to suit your 

A good position for the feet is to have the 
lofl fool in the general direction of the body, 



a little forward with the right thrown on the 
right of chair with the heel rfestmg on the 
lower rung thus g ving a very great sup 
port to the spme If a lesk or st 1 is use I 
merely ha\e the right f ot undei the bidy 
When desirable the feet tan change posi 
tion which al\ays gives rest Unless 
s methiug of this kind 11 doue the weight 
of the b dy up n the spine w 11 give pain 
aor ss the small of the I ack Observe 
ho k keeper'^ and you will readily see that 
mv theory is well foi nded because they in 
variably do like the Dutchman s hen sit 
standing 

Thi I tern a I \e p siti n \e au«e the 
feet are placed so as to give the sti lei t tl e 
greatest possible power thus producing 
w< rk with dash giace and ease which is 



other w rds m case of fire you c uld spring 
in an instant and show a little life 



The position of the art i and forearm 
should always foim an acute angle — pos 
sibly a nj,ht— and sh uld rest withiu easy 
distau e fr 11 the b ly I caut n amateurs 
n t to get either ar n to far fro n the b dy 
and by all means kee): the forearm on a 
le\el and not witl the elb w raise 1 in air 
as 13 genenlly tl e case 

Tie hauls h ild t ru a little outward 
— at least it appe ir-. s — at d keep the side 
of hand next the b dy straight with f jre 



add very mateiially n giving a smooth 
stroke — and the eeoeral direition of paper, 
a little to the right of a straight line with 
the right ftreirm aud not straight with the 
forearm 

The pos tion for finger moveu ent should 
be erect hut 1 v no me ms aere^-sary in order 
to pro luce g( d res ilts Tl is is the child's 
hrst power and has beeo treated at length 
m October Jouhnai 1881 

In the position f r Forearm and Combi- 
nati>u movoineots the body must assume a 
more eie t carnage than for wholearm in 
rder to allow tl e muscles of the forearm to 
no\e w th that ci«e ousi«ttnt with good 
results The best results are secured with 
the greatest ease and do not forget that 
fricticu is a pnn iple of mecha; 




■ ni'jravrd frotn on ori'jinal pen-and-ink design (gSxfS). executed at tke ojjice of the "Journal." Copie 
jiiicly printed {t8xS£, and 11x14) oa Bristol-hoard, and the smaller size on bond papty.for fohUntj. J top;/ i.< 
given, free, as a premium with the "Joui-nal." Price of large size, bij mail, bO rent* ; small $i:e, S5 cents. 
Send for Agent's Circjdar. 



t be braced. 



indicative of character. Besides, the arm. 
swinging as it does from the shoulder — with 
that speed necessaiyto produce a smooth 
yet firm stroke in case of shade— the body 
does any machine, while 
on is going on, else a waver, or a 
the shoulder must change the centre 
n aud thereby produce a variety of 
results. 

A good set of capitals, or any other work 
of like character, cannot be executed while 
assuming a dead position. The muscles of 
the entire body must be teosioned a Hltle or 
the work will show a fltmsiness too coiuiiiuu 
among many of the so-called results. 
Sit as though yoii me.mt biiiioji, ,. 



Remark. The fingers ooosidered with 1 
pen-holding. 

The wrists are properly kept straight 1 
with the forearm and not allowed to drop j 
down. 

As to position at deah, I would recom- , 
mend the front for sitting, at least until you ' 
get some tangible results, and the left , 
oblique for standing. See article, August 
Journal, 188i. 

The ])en is held as per instructions in the 
" Pierceriau " System of Penmanship, which, 
by the way, differs somewhat from that of 

The paper, to consist of a single sheet, 
resting on a good blotting-pad — that will 



The body should iuctine a little forward 
and to the left, with support on left foot and 
left forearm. This will give^ the desired 
freedom of the right forearm and secure 
every possible advantage. 

While in these luovemonta, generally, lln^ 
feet can he placcHl together, or with ouh 
over the other if desired, should y(iu wish 
to give extra expression to any work upon 
an enlargiid scale, you must govern yourself 
simibirly to that iu wholeann. 

Peculiarities of Position. — As in other 
things, we here find peculinritieB or charac- 
teristic features. No two silting precisely 
the same. No two holding the pen pre- 
ctsuly thu samo, uwiug doubtless to various 



coDtlitions, ainoog which might be meu- 
tioned the difTereace id stature and general 
make-up. The difference in formatioD of 
hands, etc. 

We differ iu taste, style of dress, maoaer 
of thiuhing, etc. We are flveo so particular 
that we caDuot wear our hnt3 just as they 
are placed ud our heads.by other hands. 

A professional teacher cac give general 
ideas of how to do everjtliiug pertaining 
to this most beautiful art — the amateur chl 
usually do more— yet if the student fails to 
dri that which is recognized as his part of 
the play, failure must be the ultimatum. 
Or, if the student is easily satisfied, and bis 
aS|-iratioDs mcagrei tlien ordiilary results 
will be iu keeping with ordinary ideas. 

The physician may do his part nobly and 



Questions for the Readers of the 

"Journal." 

By Prop. C. H. PeirCe. 

1. Why are there so many failures in 
teaching penmanship f 

a. Why do 80 many abandon, early, the 
professiou f 

a. What will increase the dignity of the 
profession f 

4. Certain capitals are made too straight, 
others too slanting, by All>d "^ professionals 
and iVV of amateurs. Is there any remedy f 

5. Is nervousness, as generally considered, 
a mere whim f 

ti. How would you teaoh nervous pupils t 
7. What is the usual cause 



represented, by some of oar leading sys- 

18. Why do amateurs produce different 
incorrect results at each attempt of execu- 
tion T 

IU. What determines the handwriting of 

20. No two write alike even under like 
pressure. Is this a matter of choice f 

21. The A, N and M containing stem 
are very difficult to form well, and are not 
used in general writing by the mass. Why 
are they called standard capitals Y 

22. How are the copies of our leading 
systems prepared — with pen or pencil? Is 
each part prepared singly, or is the whole 
ol any copy handed to the engraver just as 
we see it in the copy-books? 



the misunderstandings arising from his illeg- 
ibility. 

Michael Anqelo. — In his caae there 
was sometimes a peculiiirity which it is not 
desirable that anybody should imitate. So 
long as he kept within the bounds of real 
drawing, his work was full of grandeur; but 
he sometimes, in the exuberance of an over- 
heated imagination, passed beyond drawing 
altogether, and exercised himself in the 
flourishes of calligraphy. A bold nnd rapid 
pen-sketch of his, representiug three reclin- 
ing figures, is di.stinetly executed with the 
dasliing curves and flourishes of the callig- 
raphist. It looks as if it had been done by 
some clever writing-master, as a llourishiug 
translation of a study by a learned ; 




The above cut w photo -engraved from an original design executed at the office of the "Journal," and is given as a specimen of pen-drawing and lettering. 

The above design has been printed, in fine style, on Bristol-board, writing and bond piper ; size, llx 14. ' Ihe Bristol-hoard is for framing, and 

the paper for rolling or folding. It is also printed upon a fine quality of Bristol-hoard, for framing, 17x22. This design is 

believed to be the most artistic and tasty fjrm yet published for a Marriage Certifiente. Single copies of size 11x14 

mailed for 50 cents; 18x23, $1. Free as a premtitm with the ''Journal." Either size given. 



well ; yet, if the patient cannot do his, death 
is inevitable. 

Again I repeat, " Position gives power," 
if it be properly taken. 

Study carefully the minutite, and as you 
improve in a general way, you will find 
Position keeping pace with all the rest of 



the E 



ntials to good writing. 



THE SLEEP OF THE JUST. 



- Chambtrt'M Journal. 



6. Why do 80 many fail in attempting to 
do their best ? 

9. What are the advantages of combina- 
tions t 

10. Why are extended movements that 
contain capital letters easier thaa single 
capitals? 

11. What constitutts a standard set of 
capitals ? 

12. What has determined our present 
system of writing? 

13. What determines the slant of each 
capital, supposing the standard forms be 
taken f 

14. What is the difference between an 
amateur and a professional T 

15. Can any professional penman execute 
a set of capitals with ink as perfectly and 
satisfactorily at a single dash as when 
several efforts are given each letter? 

16. Is it objectionable tt) check the 
hand suddenly at the finish of a capital 
letter? 

17. Why aie A, N and M so given, ba 



Extra Copies of the "Journal" 

will be sent free to teachers and others who 
desire to make an effort to secure a club of 
subscribers. 



The extraordinary illegibility of the late 
Dean Stanley's handwriting is known to all 
friends, and has been supposed to arise sim- 
ply from haste and carelessness. Certain 
correspondents have lately sought *to prove 
that the Dean was unconscious of his sins in 
this direction, but a statement from -his old 
friend Max Muller goes far to disprove their 
theories. Muller complained to him one 
day of a difficulty experienced by himself in 
writing, and well knowu to all who wield a 
pen many hours daily, being called by some 
doctors, Schreibekrampf or writers' cramp. 
"Ah, don't you know," Stanley hastened to 
answer, "I have had somothiug like that alt 
my life. I ratmot cnnintl my fingers, and 
t' at is why my handwriting has always been 
so wretched." So far from being unconscious 
the Dean himself told numberleas stories of 



M. Angelo, iu .this design, appears to have 
been intoxicated with his own facility and to 
have lost the self-control without which 
there can bo no truthful modulation of line. 
— Hamerion's G^raphic Art. 



Remember, that if you renew, or send in 
your subscription to the Journal, before 
February Ist, you will' get a 75 cent book 
free, or a $1 book for 25 cents extra. 



A Munich professor has invented a brace- 
let that will remedy the allliction known as 
" writer's cramp." The penholder is fast- 
ened to the bracelet in such a manner that it 
can be used to write with ease and without 
brineing the fingers into use at all. The 
hand can rest on the table, moving easily 
al/iug as the letters are traced, and it is said 
that little practice is required to give ex- 
pertness iu tho use of the iuvention. — Bos- 
ton Transcript. 




And TEACHERS' GUIDE. 

Publish.*d MontUy at SI 



Single oopiM of the . 

ADVERTISING RATES. 

Single ln»ertlon, 30 oenU per Hue nonpurall. 

'•wlnmn 130.00 ' ffiS.Oo' |120.o6 |17M 

I " '"[""" IKOO 19^00 40.00 7b!o 
I Inch, 13liiiee 3.25 6.50 lO.ft) ]8.0i 

r, payable quarterlj 



No dsvl 






LIBERAL INDUCEMENTS. 

> hope to randnr Iho JOURNAL Riifflolenlly iiitereM- 
LDil Barents; yet. knuiviii^ that the laborer ia worthy 



iniol Piotura oF Pngnu SHxUfl. 

shed Eagle. SixX!. 

:!"K Staff. a4x:K. 

prnyer. 19x24, 

rt M.-niorial Ii|x24. 

18x92. 



to twelve pagea, aui, several times, sixteen 
pages have hern fuuuil necessary tii cnTilaia 
which eeemed to demaDd a place 
columns. That we shall soon Bud it 
lake the issue regular at six- 
- _ ''pry probable ; enlarged as it 

to twelve pages, (and probably an in- 
to sixteen), without change from its 
originally low price of subscription, is cer- 
tainly a pledge to its patrons of a liberal 
course in the future. 

We believe that nowhere else are com- 
bined BO many circumstances favorable to 
the publication of a model penman's paper 
as in the metropolitan city of the new world, 
and in the present publication offices of the 
Journal; and it is our purpose to avail 
ourselves of these circumstances to the fullest 
extent possible for maintaining the Jouil- 
NAL, as it is now recognized to be, pre-emi- 
j nenlly the chief of penmen's papers. 

The "Penman's Art Journal" 
and "Teachers' Guide." 

On the first day of January the subscrip- 
tion-list and the goodwill of the Teachers 
Guide, published by J. D. Holeoinl., at 
Cleveland, Ohio, were transferred to the 
publisher of the Penman's Art Journal ; 
heuce the addition to its former title, which 
will be observed upon this issue. The Guide, 
as conducted by Mr. Holcomb, has been 
well edited, interesline and spicy, and has 



We have frequently and;checrfully; 
mended the merits of the Journal, ant 
now that it is to visit our friends in place ol 
the Guide, wo bespeak lor it a hearty wel- 
come. It is an able exponent of a much- 
needed educational reform, and teachers, 
especially, should give it the benefit of their 
influence and support. 

We trust that all the readers of the Guide 
who are not already familiar with tlie Jour- 
nal will thank us for bringing such an ex- 
cellent publication to their notice, and that 
they (yill forward their subscriptions to 
Prof. Ames, the publisher, as soon as our 
obligations to them are cancelled. 

Thanking our subscribers for their gen- 
erous support of the Guide, and hoping 
that this change will meeiwith the approval 
of all, we remain, their friends, 

J. R. Holcomb & Co., 

Late Publisliere o/ Ttathtrt' Guidt 

Cleveland, Ohio, Jan. m, 1H83. 



Report of the Convention. 
The Heport of the Convention held last 
June al CinclnDati, Ohio, by the Business 
Educators and Penmen of America, is now 
ready for distribution. It constitutes a vol- 
ume of 130 pages, and will be very inter- 
esting and valuable to all persons interested 
in any department of business education or 
penmanship. It is to be regretted, how- 
he most interesting dis- 



opening of an account in the name of the 
subscriber, the making out and sending of a 
bill, which, if done with all, would require 
a number of assistants, to pay whom would 
lead to bankruptcy, and if credit is given to 
one, why not to all who retiuest itf" So far 
as ability or willingness to pay is concerned 
there are very few of our subscribers with 
whom we are aciiuainted that we should be 
unwilling to trust for many times the price 
of a subscription. There are some we 
know, and all strangers, we should be un- 
willing to trust— who is to discriminate t 
Certainly not a mailing i-lerk. Hence, we 
should be personally burdened with all such 
responsibility and detail ; besides, much un- 
pleasantness would arise from the dUcrimi- 
natinns we should be obliged to make. 
We must, therefore, in all cases decline to 
recognize requests for renewals or subscrip- 
tions when unaccompanied with the cash. 



Charles Chabot. 

English Expert in Handwriting. 

A London daily newspaper, in a recent 
editorial on the death of Mr. Chabot, the 
expert in handwriting, ssys : " Brothers 
frequently write singularly like each other, 
and any one who has paid the slightest at- 
tonlion to the subject cannot fail to notice 
the broad peculiarities which the calligraphy 
ot certain people possesses in common. 
There is no mistaking the plain, expansive, 




New York, J anuary, 1883. 

Our New Year's Greeting 

In entering upon a new, and the seventh, 
year of its existence, the Journal greets 
its many thousands of readers with its best 
wishes for their prosperity and happiness. 
The past year has been one of unusual 
pro8|iprity throughout the land, and in it 
the Journal has enjoyed a large share 
—its subscribers now numbering nearly 
three-fold those of last New Year, while 
every indication for increase during the 
present year is superior to that of the last. 
The promptness with which renewals are 
being made, and in most instances accom 
panicd ,vith one or more new names and 
the most flattering messages on behalf of 
the Journal, is at the same time encourag- 
ing and inspiring to iui editors ; and to all 
by who.n such favors are bestowed, the 
Journal bears tho most earnest reeiproca- 
llot. and thanks. Prosi.pols bright for the 
Journal are equally so for its patrons, for, 
proportionate to the liberality of their sup- 
port, will he the means in the hands of its 
publishers for enhancing its beauty and ex- 
cellence. I 
During the past year tho regular size of I 
the Journal his been enlarged from eight ' 



enviable place a nong is eontempo 
rary edueat onal per d c Js Its n ergenco 
n the J uknal adds at once many th u 
sand na es cl eily of act ve teael ers to the 
already ve j Urge subscrpt on list of tl e 
Journal The ad 1 on of t, t tie to that 
of the Journal e dee n i be e , appro 
priate m view of the fact that a very large 
proportion of each isstie of the Journal 
I has been devoted to practical instruction in 
writing and to other departinenls of cduca 
tion and business. It will be the special 
effort of the editors of tho consolidated paper 
to so conduct it that, while it shall be alike 
interesting and valuable as a representative 
of the penman's art, and as a guide to good 
and efficient teaching, its general educational 
and literary merit shall he such as to coin- 
mend it to its many patrons, and enable it 
to hold an honorable rank among the 
educational periodicals of the day. 

The "Teachers' Guide" Consoli. 
dated with the "Journal." 

To the Suhscnbers of the Tenders' Guide ■ 
In accordance with previous announce- 
ment, and f.ir sufficient reasons already pub- 
lished, the subscription-list of the Teachers' 
Guide has been transferred to that of the 
Penman's Art Journal, the publisher of 
which assumes all of our obligations to sub 
scribers. The Journal will be mailed" 
regularly, without extra charge, to our sub- 
scribers untU their eabsoriptions expire. 



cnss ons and blackboard expositions of wri- 
t ng and methods of instruction could not be 
g ven n the report, partly from their very 
nature and partly from the absence of the 
rep ter from the special afternoon and 
even ng sessions ol the penmen ; but it is, 
to say the least, au interesting and valuable 
report. The price per copy has hoen fixed, 
by the Executive Committee, at 50 cents ■ 
on recei|pt of which, copies will be mailed 
from this office. 

Ending Subscription. 
It IS our invariable rule to give notice, by 
postal-card, to each subscriber at the expir- 
ation of his term of subscription, and to dis- 
cutinue the Journal at that time unless the 
subscription is renewed, and in no case is a 
renewal made, or n name entered as a sub- 
scriber upon our books, until the subscrip 
tioD-price is paid. Many cards are received 
requesting that the Journal he not discon- 
tinued, and also reijuests that the Journal 
be mailed to the sender, as a subscriber, 
on a promise to pay. To any person 
having a knowledge, or any just con- 
ception, of the immense labor and detail 
of conducting a paper with so large a 
circulation as that of the Journal, it 
will be very apparent that strict and uni- 
form rules must bo observed, else a disas- 
rmis lucrease of labor and confusion would 
•esult. Thereuewalortakingofasubscrip- 
'"" ""■'lout payment would necessitate the ' 



clearly formed letters of those who have 
been taught to write in the schools of Am- 
eriea. Tho admirable handwritings of the 
Scandinavians are so much alike that ex- 
perts will be able to pick out from a huu- 
dred examples almost every one executed 
by a Dane, a Norwegian, or a Swede. The 
Italian handwriting is also s'o marked that 
It IS one of the ' styles ' affected by writing- 
masters, and the pretty, scratchy characters 
of a Frenchman, with their flourishes and 
sudden redundances, inevitably suggest tho 
gay, volatile, fickle oharaoter of the race to 
which he belongs." 

Mr. Chabot was one of the most cele- 
brated of experts ever employed in the 
English courts; he gained his first notoriety 
in a wiU case in which his chief point was 
that, in examining a large number of docu- 
ments admittedly written by the testator, he 
had in no single case found the letter " o " 
connected with the other letters, whereas in 
the disputed will it was smiietimes so con- 
nected and sometimes not. The will was 
broken He was also employed by Hon. 
Edward Twisleton in the examination of 
the handwriting of the famous Junius let- 
ters, and its compariscm with that of the 
several susi.ected authors of those letters, 
with the view of discovering their true 
authorship. The result of Chabot's iuves- 
Ugation wns published by Mr. Twisleton in 
a quarto volume of 300 pages of letter-press, 
and 2«7 lithographio plates, constituting the 
moat extensive and exhaustive treatise upon 



expert eiaminations of handwriting ever 
published. It \wuld aeem by that report 
that Mr. Chabot succeeded in establishing 
beyond a doubt the identity of the writing 
in the Junius letters wiih that of Sir Philip 

Binding "Journals." 

Wo believe that no subscriber to the 
Journal, who has once seen our Common- 
aeuse Binder, will over do without it. By 
its use the Journal is not only perfectly 
preserved, but as convenient for reading or 
reference as a book. Each binder will hold, 
securely and well, four volumes of the 
Journal, and each number is added with- 
out difficulty or loss of time. Owing to the 
recent numerous orders, we have been able 
to reduce the price from $l.7rj to $1.50, at 
which the Binder will hereafter be mailed 
post-paid. By its use the value of the Jour- 
nal is more than doubled to any subscriber. 



The " Journal " for Practical 

Writing. 

A person for the first time glanciug at a 

copy of the Journal, and observing the 

many flourished and ornamental designs 

which appear up- 

on its page8,might 
be led to suppose | 
that it was the 
primary purpose 
of its editors to 
teach and illus- 
trate faney i)rn- 
mansl ] b t we 
trust that none of 
Its reg lar rea ler» 
are enteranng 
sucl an op u on 
fo tl e e CO Id be 
no greater m s 
take Tl e 
preponderaDoe of 
all the ed tor al 
matter as veil as 
lUustrat ous that 
have emanated 
from the office of 
publication, have 
been in the line of 
practical writing 
and 
teaching, and will 

continue to be so. 
The columns of 
the Journal are 
open to 



clubs; th'y come from him large and often ; 
there are few teachers to whom the Jour- 
nal is more indebted for subscribers than 
to him. The number and size of clubs 
since January 1st has been quite unprece- 
dented with the Journal. To all the 
senders we return our thanks, and regret 
that each cannot have the honor of sending 
the King. ^_^ 

Hymeneal. 

H. T. Loomis. oue of the proprietors of the 
Speneerian Businffls College, Cleveland, Ohio, 
and oue of the moBt accompliahed peunien and 
teacbere of the West, was married, on Decem- 
ber 26th, to Mi«e Lida Stradley, at the reai- 
deuce of the bride in Rocheetei", Ind. We 
abstract the following from the Socheater Sen- 
tinel, which contained a long and glowing 
report of the occasion : 

'' Mr. Loomie is a joung man of tine appear- 
ance and address, and worthy of the jewel he 
has woa. Words of praise for the bride would 
be out of plai-e ia this community where she ia 
80 well and fuvornbly known. She was reared 
here, and by her womanly virtues, gentle man- 
ners, and ai'holariy attainments, has endeared 
herself to all who love her for her modesty 
. The school in which 



^acher has lost c 



I of i 






of the vices of a badly formed handwriting. 
It is the only first-class publication giving 
a, full library of practical writing, while our 
new "Hand-book of Artistic Penmanship" 
is devoted exclusively to ornamental pen- 
manship. 

Both of these complete publications, to- 
gether with the Journal, for one year, are 
sent by mall on receipt of $2. 



This is the month for the Eagle and 
Stag. Will Brother Gaskell please note the 
change of time for the satisfaction of bis 
inquisitive correspondent. 



The Highest Monument in the 
World. 

The Washington Monument, which has 
been so long in process of erection at Wash- 
ington, D. C, has now reached the height 
of 300 feet, and is to be carried 250 feet 
higher — making a total, when finished, of 
550 feet, which will exceed the height of the 
great pyramid in Egypt (at present the 
highest human monument in the world) by 
eighty-nine feet. The 



constructed of 



marble blocks, 



Gilded Domes. 

The domes of the great churches in Mos- 
cow and St. Petersburg are said to be plated 
with g(dd nearly a quarter of an inch thick. 
The dome of the Isaac Cathedral in St. Pe- 
tersburg represents a value of $45,000,000, 
and that of the Church of the Saviour in 
Moscow, $15,000,000. 

Query. — How many more smiles do these 
tJO.OOO.OOO of dollars in gilded domes win 
from heaven than they would if judiciously 
expended iu teaching the ignorant and semi- 
civilized masses of Russia bow to read and 
write; or, in other ways for relieving them 
from their grinding poverty and hardship T 



How to Remit Money. 

The best and safest way is by Post-office 
Order, or a bank draft, on New York ; next, 
by registered letter. For fractional parta of 
a dollar, send postage-stamps. Do not send 
personal checks, especially for small sums, 
nor Canadian postage -stamps. 



Philadelphia, Jan. 4th, 1883. 
Editors of the Journal : 
While the Journal is doing its utmost 

tto elevate the art 
it advocates, cer- 
tain others are 
doing quite tlie 



stance, I have 
received a circu- 
lar from two 
particular pen- 
call their names) 
who, in my opin- 
ion, and in the 




tions and illiistra- 
trations upon all 
departmentsof 
penmanship, and even other subjects of gen- 
eral interest; but the primary efforts of its 
conductors will be in behalf of practical 
writing, for whore one patron can derive ad- 
vantage from any kind of fancy penmanship, 
one hundred or more will be benefited by 
plain practical writing, and our nmtto will 
ever be— The gnud of the many rather than 
the few. 

The King Club 
For this mouth comes from Bryant, Strat- 
ton & Sadler's Business College, Balti- 
more, Md., sent by W. 11. Patrick, the 
accomplished penman of that institution ; 
tho club numbers ninety-eight. The Queen 
Club comes from the La Crosse (Wis.) 
Business College, and is seut by H. C. 
Carver ; it numbers fifty-four. Mr. Carver 
is a recent graduate of Musselman's Gem 
City Business College, Quiocy, 111. He is 
an accomplished penman, and evidently a 
popular teacher. In the November number 
of the Journal, page 103, was reprodaced a 
specimen from his pen. with which, by 
sight, he was not credited. The 
libers jifty-one, and 
;eacber of writing, ul 
; College, Minneapolis, 
) old baud at sending 



The above cut representt a portion of one of three original ruttic alphabeU loktff appear tn Amess Hand book of Arttttic Penmanship- 

SS-paye book, giving all the principUs and many designs for fiourisUng, with nearly thirty standard and artistic alphabets. 

Mailed free, in paper covers, {£5 cents extra in cloth), to every person remitting $i for a subscription or reneival 

for the ^'Journal," before Feb. 1st. Price of the hooh, by mail, in paper, 75 cents; in cloth, ^1. 



opi 



of 



others, are either 
fools themselves, 
or knaves. Such 
clap-trap as they 
use degrades the 
art, and if it docs 
not virtually 
drive others out 
of the pnifessiou 
it deters many 
from entering it. 
I quote, from 
memory, the fol- 
lowing extract 
as I remember 
it: "If yim neg- 
lect this oppor- 
tunity to earn 



eight dollars 
day you i 



third club 
was sent by L. 'Asir 
Archibald's Bueines; 
Uinn.^ ^Mr. Asire i< a 



that beloug t 



V relations in life." 



Not Responsible. 

It should be distinctly understood that 
the editors of the Journal are not to be 
held as indorsing anything outside of its 
editorial columns ; all communications not 
objectionable in their character, nor devoid 
of interest or merit, are received and pub- 
lished; if any person differs, the columns 
are equally open to him to say so and teli 

Unrivalled. 

The sale of this unrivalled " Standard 
Practical Penmanship" since its issue dur- 
ing the past nine months has, beyond ques- 
tion, never been equalled by any chiro- 
graphic publication in this country nor in 
Europe. 

It is in elegant portfolio style, and em- 
braces complete work on elementary writ- 
ing, book-keeping forms, and business cor- 
respondence. It is conceded by the leading 
penmen and business educjitors to be the 
only reliable self-instructor for those desir- 
ing to learn to write, or to rid tbenuelvda 



feet long by three feet six inches wide, 
which are lifted into their place at tho top 
of the work by a steam elevator. 

There will bo a staircase extending to 
the top. Costly blocks of marble have been 
sent by various foreign governmonts, which 
are being placed on the inner facing of the 



The Hand-Book. 

Owing to tho unusual pressure upon our 
time during the holidays, we wore not able 
to complete tho plates of the Hand-book 
quite as soon as we anticipated at the time 
of its announcement ; but the work is on the 
press. Bound copies will bo ready to mail 
inside of ten days, when all orders will be 
promptly filled. 



Our Premiums. 

Inasmuch as the Journal will, this 
month, be mailed to many thousand persons 
who have no knowledge of tho character or 
stylo of the premiums, one of which is 
given free to every subscriber, we have 
added four extra pages for the purpose of 
iusertiug cuts — reduced size — of a portii 
them. 



the 
fool." The 
circular alluded to is full of this stuff. What 
does the Journal think of them T 

Respectfully, C. A. BuSH. 

Wo do not know what circulars are al- 
luded to by Mr. Bush, but we will say, in 
answer, that we often see circulars whicii 
justly merit such criticism as Mr. Bush 
gives. It is our conviction that if such ad- 
vertisers could know how greatly they lower 
themselves in tho estimation of all sensible 
people by such "clap-trap" and " bragga- 
docio," we are sure that they would omit it. 
Who writes himself a champion might as 
well say to the world, " Behold an ass ! " 



Send $1 Bills. 



We wish our patrons to bear in mind that 
in payment for subscriptions we do not de- 
sire postage- stamps, and that they should be 
sent only for fractional parts of a dollar. A 
dollar bill is much more convenient and safe 
to remit than the same amount in 1, 2 or 3 
cent stamps. The actaal risk of remitting 
money is slight — if properly directed, not 
one miscaniiige will occur in one thousand. 
Inclose the bills, and where letters c.ontain- 
of I ing money are sealed in presence of the 
' poitmaater we will aasume all the riik. 



Tin: I'k.vmvnS 



AK 1 JoilJ.NAL 




Answered. 



J. S., Upper Saudu?ky, Oliio, incloses 
Bpecimens exhibiting great improvement in 
his writing from practicing after the copies 
aod instruction given in the Journal, ami 
Bubuiits the fiillowing qnestion : Id the 
front position at the desk should the upper 
right comer of the paper be opposite the 
chest f Ans. — There may be a difficulty in 
determining just which u rner of the paper 
is referred to as the "upper," except id 
connection with the illustration referred to | 

(No. 2, in the July 

number). In all posi 
tioDs at the desk the 
paper should be held 
parallel, and the ruled 
lines at right angles to 
the arm. 

H. M. F. N., Carlisle 

Pa.— "What is the 

proper method of deter 

mining the actual im 

provement made during 

a period of, say four 

weeks' practice, having 

preserved a specimen of 

writing at beginning for 

comparison at close of 

term. 2d. Would the 

introduction of oblique 

peuholders in primary 

and grammar schools be 

as advantage or a detri 

ment to them ? Ans. — 

1st. At close ot lessons 

have specimens written, 

in class-room, of uni 

form length and cum 

position, as also should 

have been first speci 

mens — and all desi^ 

Dated by number iu 

stead of the Dame of the 

writer — so that there 

maybe do partiality ex 

ercised by the examin 

ing committee. The 

specitueDS should then 

be compared — first, m 

respect to correctness in 

forms of letters; secotf^, 

grace of combination 

and ease of movemeDt, 

third, proportions, spao 

iog, slope, shade, etc 

Ans. 2 — We would not 

commend the oblique 

holder for use of learn 

ers, and especially iu the 

lower grade of schools 

The oblique holder has 

DO advaotages over the 

straight holder if prop 

erly held ; but as many 

writers find it im|)rac 

tical or quite difficult tj 

maintain the hand iu a ^, . 

The above cu 
position siimciently ^^ 

turned toward the per I 
son to bring the nibs of | 

the pen flat or ~- 

upon the paper, the oblique bolder is m 
troduced to obviate this dilliLuIty and is 
serviceable only for that purpose 

E. P. B., Richmoud Va aeks several 
questions respecting the use ot the oblique 
holder, which questioob are substantially 
answered above, except as to the mannei in 
which tlio oblique holder should be held, 
which is the same as for a straight holder. 

E. H. D., Toledo, 0.— How many more 
lessons in the course by Prof. Spenrer, and 
cau I get the back numbers of the Journal 

from the beginning of the course f An3. 

There are to be eight more lessons, making 
■a course of sixteen in all, and you can have 
your subscription begin with the May num- 



ber, 1862, which contains ihe first lesson. 
The Journal, from May to January, 1884, 
with a choice of two from seven premiums, 
will be mailed for .$1.50. 

J. E. S., Prescoit, Canada.— Docs your 
" Haud-book of Artistic Penmanship " give 
copies and iustruction in practical writing. 
Ans.— "So; none whatever. It is designed 
as an aid in artistic pen- work and lettering, 
exclusively. The *' Standard Practical 
Penmanship," which we mail for $1.00, is 
the best guide to practical writing pub- 
lished. That and the Hand-book will be 
mailed together for $1.50. The Journal 
iocluded, one year for $2.00. 

G S , Glenwood Mo — 1st ' Can anyone 
become a good penmau by practicing from 
a compendium? 2d What is the use of 



and securing patrons for plain writing; it is 
in itself in demand, and remunerative for 
card-writing, engrossing, drawing, etc. 'id. 
Many of our bi'st penmen and teachers of 
writing passed their early years upon a 
farm, which we do not think to have been 
to their disadvantage, as, if their fingers 
and muscles were somewhat hardened, they 
were also strengthened and better fitted for 
prolonged labor and endurance. 4th. Which 
is most profitable depends chiefly upon the 
peculiar characteristics of each individual. 
If a person is a good teacher of writing, and 
has a taste and genius for getting up classes, 
itinerent teaching pays well; otherwise, not; 
but good writing and teaching pay, in 
connection, with district schools, many pen 
men organize classes in neighboring schools 




Books and Magazines. 

"Hand book of Takigraphy," by D. P. 
Lindsloy, 252 Broadway, New York, is a 
book of 172 J2mo. pages, in cloth, $2. So 
far as our limited knowledge of sborllmnd- 
writing enables us to judge of worit* of this 
kind, it is a meritorious publication. It is 
finely printed and bound. Tlie author claims 
that Takigraphy possesses many advantages 
over the various systems of phonography, 
which is shown by comparisons iu this work. 
"Viuk's Floral Guide for 188;j" is the 
most exquisitely and profusely illustrated 
floral publication that wo have ever exam- 
ined. What it docs not represent, or tell 
about Its cultivatiori, in the floral or horti- 
cultural lino, 18 scarcely worth inquiring 
aftei It 18 printed on the best of paper, 
has three colored plates 
of flowers and vege- 
tables, and full of useful 
information. Those 
who send 10 cents for 
it cannot be disappoint- 



with the Journal 



Mrt a pen and tnL drawmrf 24!'^S0 extcuttd i 
} hthojt ofhy j>ot file pi tr paper 19xS4 or 



La. 



I mailed to others than aubtcnberi fo} 60 i 



ed, 



1 the plates alone 
orth the amount. 



Rochester, N. Y. 

"Crittenden's Com- 
mercial Arithmetic and 
Business Manual," de- 
signed for the use of 
high schools, acade- 
mies, commercial col- 
leges, teachers, mer- 
chants and business 
men. By John Groes- 
beck, consnlting ac- 
countant, and principal 
of Crittenden's Phil- 
adelphia Commercial 
College. Containing 
410 16mo. pages. 
Eldridgo & Brothers, 
Phiiadelphip, publish- 
ers. It is splendidly 
printed and bound, 
wbile, in its arrange- 
ment and manuer of 
treating its various sub- 
jects, it is clear, concise 
and admirable. It ap- 
pears to contain just 
about the matter de- 
sirable fur an arithme- 
tic, designed as a text- 
book for advanced pu- 
pils, and a book for 
reference in a business 



The Art Amatettr for 
January fwirly overflows 
with those designs.illus- 
trations and practical 



ornamental pouinanshipf 3d Can a boy 
who hasdiue hard work upon a farm be 
come a fine writer? 4tli Which is the 
most profitable employment teaching wri 
ting (itinerant) or teaching distiict school? 
5th Do you judge from my writing that I 
could become a fine penman ? Ant — 1st 
A person may become a good writer by 
practicing carefully from good copies at 
home, without a teacher; but, if practicable 
to do BO, it would be economy, of timo at 
least, to take lessons of some experienced 
teacher; a few timely criticisms and sug- 
gestions from such a teacher might save 
months of hard, and often discouraging, 
practice, 2d. Ornamental penmanship baa 
many uses: it aids in attracting attention 



and towns, evenings, and often make re 
Bpeclable compensation beyond their salary 
Gtb We judge that with a little of the 
right kind of instruction and practice, you 
might become a good writer You need to 
give attftntion to movement and we think it 
would pay you to get the btandard Prac 
tical Penmanship," as it is the best aid 
known to us for self-learners. 

W. R. C, Garfield, Kansas.— Which is 
best — a large or small penholder? Ans. — 
A medium-size, unpolished holder is the 
best. Answer respecting oblique holder 

Education embraces the culture ot the 
whole man with ail his faculties. 



suggestions for art- 
work and home decora- 
tion which make this 
admirable magazine a 
welcome visitor iu so 
many cultured Ameri- 
can households. A su- 
perb portrait of the 
famous English etcher, 
Francis Seymour Ha- 
den; some striking 
charcoal and pencil 
sketches by Walter Shirlaw ; a very inter- 
esting tullection of miniatures by Cosway, 
and a double page of Salmagundi Exhi- 
bitiun bkotclies, are notable features of 
this nunibei The illustrations of Volkuiar 
faience aitibtio furniture and piano?, tapes- 
try needlework and jewelry are eei'pcially 
good. Practical articles on fan painting, 
miniature painting, china painting, and art 
needlework are given, together with valu- 
able "hints for the home" and "answers 
to correspondents." Iu Ihe supplement 
sheets are full-size designs for a panel of 
cherubs' beads ; apple-blossom decoration 
for a vase; birds and pine-uecdlcs for a cup 
and saucer; an ivy and owl decoration of 
seTenteon tiles for a fire-place facing; a 



foiir-p»ge floral design from the Royal 
S«li<>ul of Art Needlework, for au embroid- 
part of an embroidered cope, 
and Bixtepn borders for prayer-book jllurai- 
Price, 35 ceDln. Montague Marks, 
publisher, 23 UDion Square, New York. 



letter; G.W.Ware, a student at Fort Worth, 
College, a flourished bird ; 
D. E. Blake, Saybrook. 111., flouriahed bird, 
and plain aud fancy card-specimena ; W. A. 
Schell, Foxbury, Pa., a letter, aud net of capi 
late; L. Asire, Miimeapolie, a letter; L. C. 
WillianiB, Lockport, N. Y., a letter; R. H. 
Hill, Waco. Texas, a leller, and 8pe-:imen8 of 
practiriil writing; D. H. Snoke, North Liberty, 
and card-specimpua ; C. L. Perry, 
peniuiiii in the Bryant & Sti 
College, Louisville, Ky.. an elegantly written 
letter; Hubert F. Probert, Dunkirk, N. Y., a 
very fine specimen of portrait drawinp; F. A. 
W. Salmon, Eeet Bloomfield Station, N. Y., a 
letter; J. C. Breesfoi-d. Milcheirs, Oliio, a 




G. W. Michael, who for 
Bome time past has conducted ' " 

a peiimanehip school at Delaware, O., haa 
transferred his school to Oheriin, O. Mr. Mi- 
chael is enlhuBiastic, and apparently succesaful 
in the prosecution of bis profession. 



£he oho^3t cut was photo engraved f o a pen a d nk dra tng ^2xJt> execited at the Journal o^ct 
copies have b fen prutted, hy ^jhoto-liihographyy upon fine plate paper, 19x34, one of which is given a 
premium with the '^Journat." Copies mailed to others than subscribers, for .50 cents each. 




Specimens worthy of note ha%-e been re- 
ceived as follows: 

J. C. Miller, Icksburg, Pa., a superior speci- 
men of practical writing, drawiug, aud letter- 
ing ; J. W. Swank, WaMiinKlon. D. C, an 
elegantly written letter, accompanied by a well- 
deserved and liighiy oompliiUHntary notice 
from theWanliingtoa press; from the St. Louis 
Mercantile College, a letter; A. N. Palmer, 
Cedar Rapida, Iowa, seveial ekillfully exe- 
cuted specimeuA of flourishing and card- 
wriiing; A. E. Devvhi.rst, Uliea, N. Y., a 
flouMshed bird; R. M. Nettle. Central City, 
D. T., a Uouvinhed bird ; W. I. Moore, Eppiug, 
N. H., a letter;- P. H. Cleary, Vernon, Uicb., 



photograph of a pen-drawing, entitled, "Uucle 
Tom's Cabin "; L. A. D. Han, penman at the 
Davenport, Iowa, Business College, a flour- 
ished stag with lettering; W. H. Patrick, pen- 
man at the Bryant, Strallon & Sadler's Busi- 
ness College. Baltimore, Md., a letter; H. C. 
Carver, La Crosse, Wis., a letter; L, Aeire, 
Archibald's Business College, Minneapolis, 
Minn., a lelter ; H. C. Clark, Titusville. Pa.. 
Business College, a letter; L. B. Lawaon, Red 
Wing, Cal., a letter, and club of twelve sub- 
scribers; C. N. Crandle, Bushuell College, 
Buehaell, 111., sends flourished bird and letter. 



Complimentary from the Press to 
the *' Journal." 

The following are a fow of tho many flat- 
tering Qoiiues Irom the press, received dur- 
ing the past year : 

"Tlie JOURKAi, U (I tivulvepage paper, printed In tho 



of ll)« ffreatest 


tilltjr, Bud the low pr 


ce of aubsoriptiOD 


(|1 a year) plaot 


s it witUia reaoli of 


Imost everybody 


A good time to 


siibioribo iJ now, at 


he beginning "fa 








lor a sample OOP 


y.". Notre Daim Sch 


UuUe. 


'-Tb« oonree o 


fleuoDS(SpeDC«r'>) a 


re slone worth ten 


limes the pnceo 


a year's subscription 


••—Normai Jour 



liaaueightpuged II 
loe of leuohtog peuuii 



" It is ths bMt paper wa know af lu 



— no, but the kind of u 
out — Emerson. 



—SludtiU't J{fumal 



ties, nor tlie crops 
1 tbe country turoB 



-^ 



Aid %J<)IU{NAI. 



SPECIMENS. 



'S^k^' 



T"f " 




„niin„ 


ntii my floiiriflilog Is receiving 




SS, 


»'T 


N. PAI.MKII. Cedar RapidB. la. 






THE 

Popular Dictionary 





'%'" l'ill*i*'^^^'^H^'F^^^ 



M A Y H K W S 

UNIVERSITY BOOK-KEEPING 

Manual of Business Practice, 



IRA MAYHEW, LL.D., 

Detroit, Mich 



VISITING Ctmis nritlen and »or>l l>v mail at tV 
lowing nttirs : Spcrenun St^ript, -A^.u per .107 
per Uimdreil ; Vl .lilT^rent 'Inlgiitt, Uv. .i,.,iies „f ,.en- 
511 ct«; pen-lloiirishea. S3. ShinplM, ••:> rts N( 



'^'^''STI' 



Thi*! «oilt 18 unneisally conceilod by the press, piotessional peni.. , „.^ 

geupi illy, to be the most comprehensive, piactical, and artistic guide to » ruainental pen- 
iimiiship e\er published Seilt post mud, to any address on receipt of $4 50, ur aa a 
premuim for a cbib of 12 substribers to the Jouknal. 
_;;;^Thn al»nve out rcprpsenis fho li tie page r.f tlio work, whiofa ii I ) x 14 in riie. 



s^u\vvby^^^"^^^^^^v\^i'^^mvv\>^%^\^^^^ 



ESTERBROOK'S 



nf Sertes of 

acHonit PENS, 

^Ofif/i^fisrfj-iPfA'SM use ^ • ^ , » 




U^S 




* . 


".ro c" 


H- 


m. tn 


kuki wa 




c n 


UAKIN 


Tully N 

91 .■« Ie« 


.:,. 




i.5:So 


'^^i 


Sif. 


lor Leuon 



The Packard Commercial Arithmetic, 

liv S. S. PACKARD, of Packard's Business CoLi.i:<iE. 

AND BYRON HORTON, A.M. 

. IN TWO SEPARATE EDITIONS. 

I COBIPLETK. :taO pp., large oclavo. 2. School, 275 pp., duodecimo. 



mplc», and cerlain aubjeols not applicable to lileLy icboolB**^7u ^l^C■l'dlamiug iTooT" '*""*'°^' ^ 

Retail Prices: Complete Edition, $1.50; School Edition, $1. 
Prices to Sc?mls: Complete Edition, $] ; School Edition, 75 cents. 

S. S. PACKARD, Publisher, 805 Broadway, New Yor 



AGENTS WANTED, 

IN EVKKY TOWN IN AMERICA, 
olicit Buburiptiooi t" the Pkxmas's Aht Joun 
to Bell popular publlcetiuDB upon praolicul and art 



nil lowing 1 1 



It of II 



Garfield Memoriiil, I9r24 ; 

Lord's Prayer " ; 

Bounding Stag. 24x33 

Flo..ri»hed Eagle, 24x32 .;; ■ 

Cenlennial Picture ol ProgreM. 23x25 J 

„ ■■ " ■■ 28x40 I ( 

Oroamenlnl and Flonrisbed Cards, 12 detigna, new 

original aud anigiic per pack of 50 

"JO, by mail ; 

1000 " t4 50 ; by expreaa 41 

Live agenta can, aud do, make money, by takiDg in 

soribere lor the JOUilXAt^ and Boiling tbe above works. 
Send for our Special Rates to Agenfe. 

D. T. AMES, 
^-'-f- 205 RroadwBy, New Torli. 

Penman's Art Esfoblislimenf for Sale 

Careot PKKJUS'b Al(T JOUHKAI, 
1-^' Now York. N. T, 

ORGANETTES AND MELOPEANS. 



(.... .■X,.... !■. 1... 


■ i N. if-InitniotoT) . '75 


thow 01 bu.ior 


.25 


All for »1. 


*'"A5dr;«: -■■■**'» 


SAWrHR 


BROB,, Importers and Publishen, 


1-t.f. 


Ottawa. Canada. 




NOTICE. 


Througli this iiio 


Dth I ivill send, to any person '« od- 


dresn, Inclomng finw 


u centB. alio their autograph, a vari- 


etyofaulognipliji. t 


ree only for practice. 


1 will, upon wag 


ultiijjf ihi^lr autograph sent, propuro 


tUesewilliJiu eye to 


tlielr taste and ubUily to develope a 


good aiilogniph by 


•niclipe. 


2. To hunt up olb 


er people's aulographlo vaguriw may 


be poinmeuduble. b 


t to pruduo« your own •ignaliire or 


that or friend or con 


TspoDdend well may be u great deal 




J.n 


straicd catalogue sen 
HOLCOMB & CO. 


tree on epplicatiou. 
Bookeetlor« and PubllBbers, 
CLSVKLANI), OlIlO. 


L"' 


'!r,!!!!?'w i.v'"n 


L.(:x::.^!;:r^- 



I OOKHERE! 12 Caris your name only I80. 

l-ll. 13-61 AdOreu Pttiret'a Jluiinw CoUtg; Keokuk, Jowu. 



PuoF. C. n. PEIKCE. President, 

KKOKnC, IOWA. 



^^-^^^ 



'SPECIMEilViS 



fiC'f'i -F^.o/.'iiV=j-: 



Blackboards. 

LAPIUNUM (Stone-Cloth). 




Black Diamond Slating. 



ILe number usually ajiplied. 
fTied and gives Perfect Satisfaction in 
Colombia Collejro (Srhoo) of Miaee) • New York i 



Colleite u 
College o 



ROLL BLACKBOARDS. 

PRICES. 



CARD BLACKBOARDS. 

Plain. Without Shelf. 



Th 



.. craalhj admitted to he the lest 
ifcrial for blackboard in use. 

ORDERS PROMPTLY FILLED. 
PENMAN'S ART JOURNAL, 



i/on 




cdsopsipecala- 

THE COLUMBUS BUGGY ' CO? 

for s'SaS-feilSf te«/?™7_'" "-' ;vo'>J 
rlages, nad 




$1,000 to $10,000 Life Insurance Benefit in case of Deatii. 
$10 to $25 Weekly Indemnity in case of Accident. 

Under ONE MEMBERSHIP" 
UPON THE MUTUAL BENEFIT PLAN. 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 

Hon. EDWAltD D. LoVKKiDGE. Trt-s't of Bank of Cuba, N. Y 
E. C. HAZiKD, firm of E. C. Hazard & Co., Wholesale G 
Geo. \V. Lewis, Esq., Bridgeport, Conn. 
E. H. POTTEU, Esq., firm of Dodge, Potter & Co., Bankera, 

New York, 
I/EMUEL H, Wilson, Treaa, N. Y, &. Atlantic I!. R. 

Co,, New Y'ork, ^l£- C 1 

Lewis A, Osboiin, New York. ^\ (VV 




E. D. Wheeler M,D., New York. 



.O^ 



,^ 



.^^ 



sOO^' 



:"#....^""" So<^ 



.#^r 



i^^ 






wo 



# 



'-^^ OFFICERS. 

Geo. W. Lewis, President. 
Lewis A. OSBonx, F.-r. ,;■ Gt»7 Mm,ti/tr. 
Lemuel H. Wilso.v, Treasure: 
G. T. Potter, Seerctart/. 
Examining Finance Ccixmittee. 
Hon. Edward D. Loveridge, E. H. Poiter, F,bo. 
Medical Director: E. D. Wreicler. 



, Ll! 



i JIORSi:, 130 Broadm 



r York. 



ALL BENEFITS PAID IMIVIEDIATELY 

upon Satisfactory Proof of Claim, 

WITHOUT ANY DEDUCTION FOR EXPENSES. 

One Advance Assessment from Every Member 

ALWAYS ON HAND. 
Satisfactory Terms made with good parties to act as Agents. 

ll-12t CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED. 



A NEW BOOK, A NEW METHOD, 

A M'ork of Surpassittg Bmuty, Cowhininrj Instruction in 

BOOK-KEEPING and PENMANSHIP. 

Hy a simple, fascinating and effective system of illustrations and explanations, 

a knotcledr/e of tlie above brandies may be acquired by the student, 

with comparatively little labor on the part of tlie teacher. 



Better tlian the Best of its Predecessors, 

Tlie work ha. reeeiied tile liighe.t endor.Hioein of many of the most eminent commercial 
teachers, who have pronounced it '■ better than the best of its prcdecessori!," 
The completed book appeared September lOtli, 18tJ2, and has been already 

Adopted ^y Leading Business Colleges -J Commercial Schools 

Throuehoul the couutr,-. Circular, containing a large nn.nber of ringing testimor.ials, and 
giving a de,cr,pt,on of th. book tuethods, content., price, etc., will be mailed to teachers and 
echoolB oil appliuatioii, 

A Reference-Book and Key Free of Charge 

Will be furnished to schools adopting the w.irk (and to school, ouly), by the use of which the 
book can be introduoed at any time without inconvenience. Address, 

TS^ILLIA.MS & ROGERS, 

Business University, 
}± ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



Learn to Write. 



{. Slaol Spoclag. Shadmg, elo.. and if rijjbtly 
nuke you n eorrtct and tlegitnt ptnman. The 



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^■I2t- Olbvklikd, Ohio. 



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; of thii 
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pen itself always 
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INSTRliCTION 



Id PUila or Artistic Pen-work at your homM 
loriplioo of pen-work done to order at moderate {nloM. 1 
2-12t H. W. KIBBE, Utloft.N.T.-l 



THE ABOVE CUT REPRESENTS A TBRT 

3i>gll»h ami Toxt Leilering. The yl'uXnnn Uouble, 



eBuac<KU llUJilpei 



by Iho om. W 

»e thoui highly 










AT -iO.-l BllOAU 


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.a,./^^^'3:teachers' guide. 


Nr 


ESTEnED AT 

V YoliK, N. y., 


.THE PoST-OfFICE OF 

AS Second-Class Matter. 


0. T. AMES. Editor 
B. F. KELLEV, Aito 


nd Proprietor, 
iale Editor. 


NEW YORK, MARCH, 1883. 






Vol. VII.— No. 3. 



LESSONS IN PRACTICAL WRITING. 
No. X.— By Hrnrv C. Spencer. 

Copyrighted, Slarch, 1SS3. by Sptnetr Drothert. 
The iwo gTvntett inventiom o( liiinian Ingeniiilj*, Arc u-riting and monty: the common ianguagt of inlelU- 
t, nnd till" ctmTium language of K\f-inttrut. — Miiiadrau. 

The accompanying cut represents the pariial left-side position for writing; Bome- 
tiines called the accountant's position, because 
adapted to writing on books that cannot, con- 
veniently, be placed obliquely upon the table 
as wo may place paper. 

The cut also suggests the proper position 
for writing on a blackboard, which requires 
that the left-side be turned partially toward 
the board to secure the proper slant of letters. 
The left arm and hand are used to steady the 
position of the writer. A chalk crayon, ho\r- 
ever, is not usually held like a pen, or pencil ; 
the writing end is held between the ball of 
the thumb and the end of the first finger, 
ross the palm of the hand. 



B-bile th 




can, at siiihII cost, obtain 

partnieiit of Tin: Pknma 

We liavo received, fr 



obliquely 

IS an aid to the mastery of practical and ornamental pen- 
If the learner has not the use of a blackboard, he 

exible blackboard to hang in his room, from the supply de- 

Art Journal. 

a proiiiiueut State Normal School, a quantity of specimens 
showing the progress made by a claFs in writing, in a course of leesona where a part of 
each lesson required practice on the blackboard, and the iinproTement unirormly made by 
the pupils is remarkable. We have reason to believe that the blackboard practice was an 
important aid in producing such highly gratifying results. It is erf especial use in educat- 
ing the eye to a proper appreciation of forms, and the character of the consecutive strokes 
which compose letters and words. 

Movements.— In practicing the larger-sized capitals, two ruled spaces in hight, em- 
ploy tho whole-arm movement freely; next, make them one and one-half ruled spaces in 
hight, using the forearm movement, which is the wholearm movement modified, by allow- 
ing the muscle of the forearm, near the elbow, to come lightly in contact with the edge of 
the desk ; next, write the capitals eight-ninths of the ruled space in hight (medium-ruled 
paper), willi combined movement, in which the fingers slightly assist the forearm. In 
each of these movements the mind should be directed to the shoulder as the centre of 
motion, and tlic writing speed should be gradually hut surely increased, from moderate to 
highest degree of rapidity practically attainable, aiming, always, to produce the standard 
forms. He who aims at nothing hits noihing. Aimless practice is worse than uaelessj it 
is injurious to mind and hand. 




Copy 1 introduces the reversed-oval, which is the distinguishing feature of nine cap- 
itals, called the reversed-oval letters. 

To forming this oval, the direction of the movement is upward— the opposite of t'at 
which produces the direct-oval, or capital ; hence, the name, re i.crscd- oval. 

The square is an aid in eecuring the proiter slant and width of this oval. The loops 
at base of exerrifc facilitate continuous movement, round and round in same »val. Dwell 
upon this exercise until freedom, esse and good form are secured. 

The correct slant of a reversed-oval letter may be readily secured by making a light, 
straight stroke, on main slant, and then striking the oval around it. Observe the shade. 
How does it increase and diminish ? Where is it broadest ? 




nail loop of Z is on the slant of the lower part of right side of 
o make the loog loop on main slant, and, in the whol?aiin practice, extend it 
!-third ruled tpacc-s below base-line. 
d right curves in Q cross each other, closing the oval at base; loop is hori- 



zontal. Be careful to make the fourth stroke of IF a left curve, and t 
a compound curve. How many shaded strokes in each letter? 



mj2j 



Copy 3. The capitals are here presented .practical size. Width of reversed-oval, 
measured at right angles to main slant, one and one-half u-spaces; third stroke of X, 
descending, touches shaded oval at middle hight ; make it a true curve ; there is a tendency 
to make an angle at point of contact with shade, making the letter look like a K. Strokes : 
left curve, right, left, right. 

Caution : Do not begin the reversed-oval with too slight a curve, nor leave it too 
much open at base, producing a horse-shoe form. 

Pen on the wing ! sweeping down on the right, in the air, and upon the left on pxper, 
to produce full, free left stroke in reversed-oval, as it forms the prominent part of this 
large family of letters. 

Capital W. Oval same as in X ; width across top from oval to angular joining, 
one and two-third u-spaces; width between angular joinings at base, the same; narrow 
spaces at middle hight, equal ; final curve, two-thirds hight of letter. Strokes : left, 
right, right, left, loft. 

Capital Z. Make the oval as in TT; small loop, one-half i-space in hight ; width 
of oval turn, from base of small loop to crossing of long loop, one u-space ; width of 
long loop, one-half u-spaee, full. Be careful to make oval and long loop both on main 
slant. Strokes : left, right, left, right, left. 

Capital Q. Reversed-oval, same width as in Z ; right curve descending, crosses left 
curve near base, and passes one u-space to the left ; horizontal loop, narrow, and one 
u-space long; compound rurve, crosses both curves of oval. Strokes: left, right, com- 
pound. The monogram, which embraces TT^, X, Z, Q, is presontcd for study and 
practice. 



lyi^. 



t^^n-i-i^i^ 



IUy^t-£y 



Copy 4 affords practice upon words embracing capitals that have just been tanght 
separately. The X and Q join readily to small letters that follow ; so will the Z. Would 
suggest more extended practice on these letters. The name of a Buckeye farmer, Xeno- 
phon QuiotoD, is a good one to write ; Washington, another ; Zimmerman is an excellent 
combination for free practice. Many others may be thought of in this conneoUon and 
written, for improvement. 




Copt 5. In this copy the reversed-oval is modified to adapt it to the V, 
how the shaded stroke is brought down on the main slant ou the right. It is 
in nearly equal parts as to length, of right curve, straight line and left curve. 
the shade increase and diminish ? Practice this copy thoroughly, then pass on 



U, T, See 

compounded 

How does 

to the next 




Copt 6. These letters depend upon the reversed-oval for their top portion ; but the 
width of the oval is slightly reduced, and the opposite curves cross near the base line. 

If you wish to be represunted by a good-looking form — and who does not t— give 
special attention to capital J. Many excellent writers form it with but two strokes, omit- 
ting the final left curve. 

It is necessary in these letters, / J, to make first third of upward left curve, full I 
full ! I so that right curve descending will cross it above point of beginning. Obeerve posi- 
tion and form of shades.' 



Copy 7 bringa ua dovro to the practical and most ueeful size Hgain. 
Capital V. Reveraed-oval one and one-third; final curve two-thirds hight of letter, 
Strokes : left, compound, compouDd curve. 

^/l J /if 

Capital XJ. Reversed- oval, same as Id V ; distanoe between shadedstrokeand straight 
line, one space, full ; highl of straight line two-thirds of letter. Strokes: left, flompound 
right, Btraight, right. Ooly one shade, mind. 

Capital F. First four strokes same as in f/, finish with loop, like small y. Strokes: 
left, compound, right, straight, right, left. 

Work up the monogram, capital /. First or simple form: width of loop, one 
u-space ; crossing of curves one-third i-spare above base ; distance between curves on 
baae-line, one u-space. Strnkea : left, right. Shade lower third of right curve. The 
second or full form of the / is completed with au egg oval, one atid one-half i-8paces 
high, and two and one-half n-spaces long. Especial attention should be given to the 
direction and curve of the final stroke. 

Capital J. Top similar to /; loop below, one-half u-Bpace in width, shaded on right 
side. Be sure to give main slant to long down stroke. Strokes: left, right, left. See 
monogram showing relation of / and J. 



-rrr-i;-?- 



^-ir?^. 



di;a 



Copy 8. Practice on words. £7, Y and J are letters that join conveniently to any 
following small letters. Write also, t/»ic?e, Very respectfitily, Touts truly, I remainj 
promise, June, July, January, etc. 

We have undertaken a great deal for a single lesson ; but as the lessons are a month 
apart, the time lor practice is ample. 

The capitals we present, as most will agree, are plain and simple, and yet symmetri- 
cal, in style. The tendency of handwriting, in obedience to the demands of every-day use, 
is steadily in the direction of simplicity of form. It is not many years siece the re- 
vereed-oval used in the nine capital letters taught in this lesson was f()rmed with /o«i 
strokes, and now it is universally couceded thai two strokes much better answer the pur- 
pose than did the four. 

We warn our pupils against the use of redundant strokes in their writing. 

Some of our young people, especially when they have attained free command of hand 
indulge in extra curves and elaborated forms of letters, i^uite ridiculous in business anc 
correspondence, and the Spencerian System is often unjustly held responsible for such 
eox^ntricities ; when, in short, it condemns them. 

In conclusion I would remark that unfortunately the body of professioual penmen ii 
our country too often suffers in reputation, because held responsible for the gimcrack pro 
ductions of exceptionally vain, conceited and illiterate self-styled " professors" of pen 
manship. Other professions suffer also, more or leas, from having unworthy members 
whose acts they deprecate, but cannot control. 



A Talk About Writing. | 

By Paul Pastnor. 
This is what took place at our lyceum, j 
last week. We had a talk about writing. ] 
The subject had been brought up by the ! 
card of a writing-teacher, published in the , 
county paper, which announced that he ' 

should spend one month in R , for the ' 

purpose of forming a writing-class and in- - 
stmcting all who desired to join it in the 
beautiffll art of penmanship. It was an 
"off" night at the lyceum. The contest- 
ants who had been appointed to take the , 
leading parts in the debate, announced ■ 
themselves unprepared, for good and suf- 
ficient reasons, and the President excused , 
them for two weeks. " Now," he said, ! 
"let us have an inlormal talk on some sub- 
ject of interest. Part of the object of our 
training here is to fit us for speaking witli- 
out previous preparation on any subject 
which may be brought up. Will some 
member suggest a topic of interest for this 
evening t" 

I happeued to have in my pocket ihe Cou- ' 
ricr, with the writing -teacher's announce- j 
meut in it, and I stood up and said : " Mr. 
President, I see by a card in tliis week's 
paper that we are to have a course of writ- 
ing-lessons here in town." I read the card. 
" Now, Mr. President, and gentlemen, it 
seems to me that this is a subject which in- ; 
terests ua all, and inasmuch as the gentle- ' 
man who is coming here will depoud largely I 
upon the members of this lyceum for pat- | 
ronage and assistance, I would suggest that ] 
we bring out, by a talk on writing, the opin - ! 
ions of those present, so that we may ki'ow | 
who of us are in favor and who opposed to ; 
the project of a writing-.si;hool. If agree- | 
able to the members of the Society, I will 
state the question in this form : Resolved, I 
that we believe the possession of a go.id I 
haadwritiug to ha ot the greatest vdlue to | 



every young man, and that we will support 
and aid the proposed school of penmanship 
in this village." The subject was accepted, 
and also the form of statement. " I will ap- 
point no regular contestants on either side 
of the question," said the President, " but 
let each member speak when he chooses 
and as he chooses upon the subject before 
us." As I had introduced the matter, I was 
asked to open the discussion, which I did, 
as well as I could without previous thought, 
urging the considerations which I deem.d 
best calculated to support the affirmative 
side of the question. When I sat down, a 
young man— SOD of the village merchant— a 
fellow of considerable ability, though indo- 
lent, who bad been away at colJegH for two 
years, but was now speudiug the winter at 
home, for some reason not made public— 
this young man rose, and said : " Mr. Presi- 
dent : I regret that I am not able to indorse 
in every respect the opinions of the gentle- 
man who has Just spok.n. I do not believe 
that the usual stereotyped hand taught by 
writing-masters is worth, for bu»ines» or 
literary purposes, the time and trouble and 
money which are required to secure it. I 
admit that a good handwriting is of value, 
but I do not think that the best handwrit- 
ing 18 taught by following the usual cut-aud- 
dried method. It eeems to uje that a sys- 
tem which excludes the element of person- 
ality in penmanship is not one which we 
want to tie ourselves down to. I look at 
one of these Spencerian charts, and then at 
the handwriting of the teacher and of the 
more advanced of bis pupils, and I receive 
the same general impression. The writing 
18 ploasani enough to tlje eye, is easy to 
read, but it is formal, labored, and lacks the 
higher beauty of orieinalily and force. Now 
I have seen the handwritiug of a good many 
prominent business men. I had a chum at 
college who had collected, in a acrap-book, 
quite a number of scraps of letters and 



autographs of well-known men, both in 
mer-antile and literary life. I never saw 
but one piece of manuscript, of a business 
man, which was anythiog like a Spencerian 
copy-book, and that was the work of a very 
young man who had succeeded to a large 
business built up by his father. The father's 
handwriting was small and condensed, 
without an unnecessary stroke or an orna- 
ment anywhere. It was very plain, but he 
never looped his I's or shaded his t's. Ho 
wrote with a stub pen, and the lines were as 
black as night and as straight as a yard 
measure. All the business men represented 
in that book wrote diflerently ; their persuu- 
ality came out in strong liuea, and one could 
easily see that they never wasted time jmt- 
tering over a copy-book, or if they ever did, 
they had gotten bravely over it. I say it 
honestly, that their handwritiug was move 
beautiful to me than the finest copper-plate 
script. There was more in it. It had the 
beauty of adaptability, which is higher than 
the beauty of abstract form. So with the 
writing of literary meu. I saw sixty man- 
uscripts of American authors in that scrap- 
book, and not one of them would have been 
accepted as child's copy by a writing-master. 
The President of our college writes a rough, 
angular little hand, but it looks well on the 
page, and does a man more good than all 
the ' Be virtuous and you will be happy' that 
ever flowed from the painstaking pen o( 
writing-masters upon the copy - sheet of 
despairing youth. Now, Mr. President, I 
do not propose to attend this writing-school, 
and I do not propose to use any iuHueoce 
which I may have, either for against it. 
The system of writing which is now taught 
seems to me too uniform and lifeless, and 
not practically worth the time and money 
spent in acquiring it. These are the pointa 
I wished to bring rut." 

The young collegian sat down amid a 
perfect silence. I must confess that I felt as 
though my simply stated arguments had been 
east coosider-ibly into the shade, and I hardly 
knew what to say, in case it should devolve 
upon me to reply, in the end. I was very 
much relieved, therefore, -when the young 
principal of tlie village academy, a college- 
bred man and a graduate, rose and said ; 
" Mr. Presideui, as the question is now open, 
I should like to say a few words by way of 
comment upon the artruinents which have 
just been advanced. The gentleman has 
made a very brilliaut and forcible plea, but 
his blows, I think, have been uiosily de- 
livered into the air. He claims that the 
system of penmanship now taught excludes 
the element of personality. How does it 
exclude persouality ? He says that the 
chart, the handwriting of the teacher and of 
the more advanced pupils convey the same 
general impression. I challeoge him to 
prove that they are so much alike that one 
<:ould be mistaken for another. The fact 
that they convey the samo general impres- 
sion is that which marks them as exponents 
of a common art ; the fact that they are not 
servile repetitions of one another, as a type 
is repeated upon paper, proves that they 
contain originality. If I can distinguish 
difference in a word or sentence 
one of my pupils from the sau 
sentence written by myself, so that I could 
not mistake the former for my own. then 
I claim that there is originality in that word 
or sentence of handwriting in both cases, 
and originality in every letter and line of it ; 
lor It is logic, that what is true of the whole 
is true of every part. I can distinguioh br- 
twe<^n the handwriting ol an advanced pupil 
and his teacher, between ditferent advanced 
pupils, between different writing-masters, 
between auy two professional or skilled 
writers in the world, and anyone can do it 
who ha*, at all an eye for the art. There- 
fore, I claim that there is originality in cor- 
rect penmanship. There is originality in 
any two products which are not exactly alike 
fljirf proved idtntical. Again, the gentle- 
""- who has justspoken, claims that skilled 
anship lacks force. Now, if be will 
* juat exactly what qualities constitute 
force in penmanship, I think we shall find 



by 



that the highest form of the art possea^fs 
thom. For myself, I should think that thf- 
qualities of force in penmanship were con 
sistency aud legibility ; at ail events, a 
handwriting not possessioe these qualiliis 
is weak, characterless. By consistency I 
mean, adherence to the same general princi- 
ples of form. In consistent handwritiug the 
slant is always the same, the letters arf 
formed upon the same general model, the 
manuscript pages present harmony. I 
claim that the present style ol correct writ- 
ing is consistent. Legibility is the uthiT 
quality of force. A style of penmanship 
which does loop its I's and shades its x\. 
certaicly cannot be be less legible than ime 
which so far departs from perfect and a"-- 
kuoniedged forms as to disregard th.-pe 
points. Add to this the care of the accom- 
plished penman io making every letter com- 
plete as well as beautiful, and I think it will 
be accorded that the artistic form of pen- 
manship, as taught, is the most legible. 
With consistency and legibility, I claim that 



the . 



uncultivated, or slovenly, or, if you will, 
characteristic, handwriting alluded to by the 
gentleman, I do not think that the descrip- 
tion of them strengthens his argument. I, 
too, have seen some specimens of the hand- 
writing of representative men. Amoui: 
literary men. Dr. Holland's for instance, 
and Longfellow's, each a model of beauty 
and correctness. James A. Garfield wron- 
a writing-master's hand. A« to business 
correspondence, take the majority of letters 
which pass between large commercial 
houses. If the gentlemen of the firm do 
not write their own letters, they at least 



' thev be^t wish the: 



for, next to professional pen- work, the busi- 
ness correspondence of this country presents 
the most beautiful specimens of penmanship 
extant— clear, dean, running, harmonious 
script, that ont- feels more like framing for 
its own sake than abstracting a message 
from and then throwing into the waste- 
paper basket. And as to the argument that 
it does not pay to acquire this art of pen- 
manship, I think that the fact of all ih.sp 
salaried business correspondents, young and 
successful and rising men, defeats it. There- 
fore, 1 think that we ought to support the 
resolution which has been offered." 

The young teacher was warmly ap- 
plauded as he sat dowu. and I do not need 
to add that the question was decided ac- 
cording to the evident desire of the mem- 
bers, in favor of the affirmative. 



eptu 



Scepticism. 

of the age strikes deep. 



It asks not merely, is the Bible inspired f 
But, have we a Bible! It not only ques- 
tions whether a miracle is possible ; it de- 
mauds whether the Christian religi.>n \b 
supernatural. It not simply seeks to know 
whether Christ made au atonement: it in- 
quires. Is there a God ? It examines less thp 
question of the doctrine of future punish- 
ment than the more fundamental question, 
Is there a future f 

How widespread is this queati<miug o( 
the corner-stone of Christianity cannot hp 
said with precision. But it pervades, hi 
least to soMie degree, the educjited dasees ..f 
the community. It is indicated in the p» 
pers, in the Nineteenth Century, and other 
magazines. It is evidenced in the popu- 
larity of Mr. Mallock's " Is Life Worth 
Living." It is voiced in diBcussions in phil- 
osophical societies and literary clubs. Of 
the spread of this scepticism among the 
rank and tile of the community also there 
can be no doubt. " Materialism," remark- 
a keen English writer, " has already begun 
to show its efforts on human conduct and on 
society."— JIfacwii/faw. 

Subscribers who may desire to have theit 
subscription begin with Prof Spencer't^ 
course of lesscms, which began in the May 
number, may do so, and receive th*» Jour- 
nal from that date until January, I8S4, for 
$I.SO with one prsminm. 



Some Scraps of History. 
Bv S. S. pACKAim. 
Ml/ dear Ames: 

You ask nie to M-rite you a sketch wf uiy 
life to accompany a portrait which you have 
(loci(]od tu publish in your March issue ; and 
you request me, moreover, to forget that I 
am " Packard, chuck full of modesty, and 
just do him fail juaUce in all the depart- 
menljs of his life's work — hb teacher, author, 
litterateur, aod man." 

Of course I " hasten to reply.? Almost 
anybody would; anybody, 1 irman, who 
JHu't suffocated with modesty. There may 
be exceptions among business college men, 
but they are exceptional, anyway. I look 
upon it as a rare opportunity — such a one, 
in fact, as I have no moral right to throw 
away. Opportunities are the gold mines of 
life; and gold mines, to produce anything, 
must be worked. I will work this even if 
it produces notliing. 

But you have ajiked of uie two impossible 
things : first, to. forget that I am Packard, 
and next, to do myself "Ml justice." I 
cannot forget that I am Packard. I only 
wish I could. It is the one thing in my life 
that I am always promptly conscious of. I 
liave often tried to cheat myself in this re- 
spect i to forget my pereonality ; to think 
myself another, \vith different tendencies and 
different envii-onments ; but always at the 
MTong moment the same old man tiuns up, 
with the same infirmities, the same obstruct- 
ive elements, tlie same uoreasoniug hopes, 
and tlie same unsatisfied desires. No, I 
cannot forget that I am Packard, although I 
did once forgot my najiie. That was in 
Cincinnati, more than tliirly years ago. I 
called at the Post-ofijce for a letter, and 
wheu the delivery-clerk asked my name the 
ludicrousness of the request so disconcerted 
me that, for the life of me, I couldn't think 
of it, and actually had to take my place at 
the end uf the line and collect my scattered 
wita. It wflfl a case of temporary aberra- 
tion. I am occasionally troubled in that 
way. Sometimes, even, I forget that I am 
ou-ing a man until reminded of it ; and once, 
I remember, I let my subscription to the 
Journal lapse until one of those sweet 
little insinuating i>oatal-c^rds came to me, 
like Banquo's ghost, aud set me right. I can 
forget things like this, but it is useless to try 
to forget that I am Packard. 

And as to domg " full justice " to myself, 
that is quite out of the question. I couldn't 
do it if I would, and I wouldn't if I could. 
The fact is, I neither want to do justice to 
myself, nor to have anybody else do it. This 
is something that I have always dreaded. 
Of course I don't doubt that in the long 
eternity there will be an evening up of 
things, and everybody will get his deserta. 
Then I expect to catch it, with others of 
your delinquent subscribers; but I am like 
the boy who was sent liome with the prom- 
ise of a thrashing when his fatlier cauie. 

"Don*t hurry, father," .'laid tlie boy ; "I 
can wait." 

Nevertheless, I will do tlie best I can, aud 
you can print as much or as little of what I 
write as you choose. Even if you leave it 
all out— and the portrait, too— your rea<lere 
won't blame you, nor will I. There was a 
time in my life when, if I had-been told that 
before I died the editor of a great paper in 
New York would desure to publish my por- 
trait, and say something about what I had 
done in the worid, I wouldn't have had half 
the faith in the fulfillment of the prophecy 
that some sensible people eeem to liavc had 
in the coming of Wiggius's storm. And if 
by any means I could have been induced to 
believe it, I should have been wholly at a 
loss to Burmise what the line of human ef- 
fort would be that should entitle me to any- 
body's considerathm. For there was no 
dinne intimation in the bent .jf my boyish 
fashion, nor in the achievements of my boy- 
ish life. The most that I can remember of 
my earlier schooldays is that I loved all the 
nice httle girls, and had a fashion of " leav- 
ing off head" in my spelling-claAS. I do 
remember, too, that I had a genuine admi- 
ration—I WM going to say *' •deration"- 



for a new bixik. And so strong is this sense 
in me, even now, that the very smell of 
printers' ink or binders' glue sends me back 
involuntarily t<t those "baby days"; audi 
think of myself, lying upon the floor in the 
"best room," when the light from the un- 
curtained window streams in upon the open 
pages of a new book — one of the rarest 
things for a boy of those days to hold in liis 

There was probably never bom a boy 
who, during all the years of his adolescence, 
had a greater reverence for "print" than 
had I. Kaised, for the most part, in a one- 
horeo town in central Ohio, to wliich my 
father, with our family of five boys — and no 
girl — had emigrated from Cummington, 
Mass., in 1833, I had no chance to see or 
know men of letters. A real live editor I 
had never seen — let alone an author. Such 
pereons were, in my imagination, beings of 
a high order, whose feet might possibly rest 
on the earth, but whose heads were certainly 
in the clouds. The editor of our country 
paper — the Newark Gazette — which I re- 
member with as much distinctness as I do 
the Neic York Tribune which I read tlus , 
morning — was, in my opinion a " bigger 
man " than Horace Greeley over dreamed 
of being. There was absolutely nothing he 
did not know, and nothing in an intellectual 
way he could not do. 
With this prodigy before me I made up 



the whole matter that is to me as irresistible 
as it is unaccountable, and there has been no 
time since my early manhood that I have 
not been in some way connected with print- 
ing. I ought to have been a great editor or 
a great author, and I am satisfied that the 
only thing that has kept me from one or the 
I other— possibly both — has been the lack of 
ability. Once I thought I was on the way 
of becoming a magazine publisher, and the 
few people now living who have not quite 
forgotten Packard's Monthly and "The 
Wickedest Man in New York " will know 
to what I allude. I am quite sure, even 
now, that I struck a genuine thing, and be- 
lieve tliat I should have succeeded in mak- 
ing a fair reputation and a good living as a 
publisher if I had had a little more money 
and a little more leisure. As it was, I made 
a stu-, and invested a few thousand dollars in 
a very pennanent way. 

I began to teach at sixteen, and that, I 
am eoiTy to have to say, «'as forty yeare ago. 
" Pity the sorrows of a poor old man " who 
has to own up that he is fifty-six years of 
age! 

My firat school was in Delaware County, 
Ohio. I visited the old schoolhouse last 
summer on my way to tlie Cmcinnati Con- 
vention. It stood on the old spot, by the 
roadside, solitary and alone. In front of it, 
however, was a locust tree, some eighteen 
inches in diameter, which had twice been 




my mind, at the age of twelve years, that I 
would be an editor as soon as I became a 

About this time an advertisement ap- 
peared in this same county paper for a boy 
tu learn the printer's trade. It caught my 
eye, aud I answered it at once- that is, I 
wrote the letter at once ; but, as it would cost 
ten cents to send it by mail, I had to wait 
until I could send it by private conveyance. 

The fii-st man that hauled a load of wood 
tt) town carried my letter. I got an imme- 
diate reply, with an off of the place — erand 
came very near running away to accept it, 
as my father refused to let me go. I think 
I never quite forgave him for it, and even to 
this day I look upon his decision as a well- 
meant but unwarrantable blunder. I got a 
mild revenge, however, in having a " piece 
of poetry" published in the paper a few 
weeks aft*r. It bore my initials, and my 
revenge was in seeing my father's eyes stick 
out when he read it. I am sorry to say that 
this "piece" has never appeared in any 
collection of American poetry. 

I was never in a printiug-otKce, aud never 
saw a movable type, until I was eighteen 
years of age ; but my reverence for printing 
and printers, and printing-offices and printed 
pages, which began long before that, contin- 
ued to grow and has grown withoutabrrakto 
the preeeut day. There is a glamour about 



struck by lightning, but, in the language of 
Daniel Webster, was "not dead yet." I 
planted that tree with my own hands — and 
a little assistance from the boys and girls — 
forty years ago next month. 

In 1845 I went to Kentucky to teach 
writing. I remained there a little more than 
two years, when I was called to Cincinnati 
by "Father BartJett," the pioneer of busi- 
ness colleges, for whom I taught writing for 
another two years. I don't think I was ever 
much of a writing-master, and I am sure I 
never liked the business. Bartlett, however, 
thought I was a prodigious chap, and used 
to blow my horn with all his lungs. He 
oven has a kindly remembrance of me to 
this day, and treats me with the fond affec- 
tion of a father. 

I married in Cincinnati in 1850, and in 
July of the same year I moved with my 
httle wife to Adrian, Mich. Here I taught 
wTiting in the Union School until I was 
stricken down with malarial fever, wliich 
followed me and kept me on a low diet of 
health and ftmds until I got discouraged aud 
disgusted, and left for the East 

I landed, with my wife and ten months' 
old baby, at Lockport, N. Y., having come 
by canal boat from Buflido, on the nine- 
teenth day of November, 1851. I was 
barely able to walk— was pale, emaciated, 
•nd weak — a stranger in a strange land, i 



with not more than five dollars in my 
pooketf and no certainty of employment. 
But I was in the State of New York, with 
Michigan fevers at my back, and was happy. 
1 was soon ciiiploycd sin teacher of writ- 
ing, book-keepmg, and drawing in the 
Lockport Union School. But the little 1 
knew of book-keeping ami drawing wouldn't 
hurt anybody. The smallest head could 
carry it without producing the mildest cere- 
bral commotion. But I did what many 
another better man has done — I studied and 
taught, and managed to keep just a little 
ahead of my pupils, and won an undesen-cd 
reputation of being a good teacher. Some 
of those boys and girls arc alive to-day. 
Some of them may even read these lines 
and wonder how they could have been so 
taken in. One of them — a boy of twelve — 
is now the proprietor of Sadler's Business 
College of Baltimore. Ho seems to have 
followed in the footsteps of his old teacher, 
either from an impulse received at that time 
or from a con\iction of duty wiiich seized 
him later in Ufe. 

While in the Lockport school I attempted 
the publication of a monthly school-paper, 
"The Union School Miscellany." It ran 
about a year. I have a bound volume of 
the complete edition, and, judging from its 
literary character, I think it should have 
been called a weakly rather than a monthly. 
From Lockport I went to Tonawanda, a 
thriving town on the Niagara Kivcr, be- 
tween Buffalo and the Falls. Here I pub- 
lished a weekly newspaper for three years, 
and was as happy as happy could he. While 
in this congenial and delightfitl occupation 
chance threw me in the way of H. D. Strat- 
ton, who, with Bryant & Lusk, had just 
started the Cleveland Commercial College. 
I had previously known Lnsk in Cincinnati, 
where he was attending a modiciil college, 
and he set Stratton on my track. For a 
year I resisted the wooing, but it was use- 
less. Stratton was a man who never yielded 
a point. He had set out to make a commer- 
cial college man of me, and he succeeded. 
Under a general arrangement I took charge 
of the Buffalo College on the first of Sep- 
tember, 1856, about as poorly qualified to 
run a business school as any tramp could bo. 
To be sure, I wrote a fair hand — not Speuce- 
riaii — and had a smatteiing of book-keeping 
and arithmetic; but I have often thought 
that if Stratton had known how really igno- 
rant I was of the science of book-keeping 
ho would as soon have thought of recom- 
mending me to fill a Buffalo pulpit as of en- 
gaging me to conduct the second link in his 
great " International Chain of Commercial 
Colleges." But the best part of it was that 
I was as ignorant of my ignorance as Strat- 
ton was. If I hadn't thought I could do 
the work in a creditable manner I surely 
should not have undertaken it. I tremble 
now when I think of my temerity; hut I 
wonder still more that I got along somehow, 
and nobody seemed to know what a humbug 
I was. But hopeful as I was of myself, I 
did not long rest ignorant of my own short- 
comings, and I determined to muster book- 
keeping in the shortest possible time. The 
text-book used in the school — or rather the 
hook of reference, for we made a virtue and 
boast of using no test-books— was Thomas 
Jones's Book-keeping, It was the first 
philosophical treatise on the subject that I 
had seen. I had used and tried to under- 
stand Crittondon, and Han-is, and Marsli, 
and Fulton & Eastman, and Duff, and sev- 
eral other authors whose names I do not 
no\v recall, but from none of them ha<l I got 
an inkling of the real science of book-keep- 
ing. 

rhoiiuis Jones was to me a revelation. 
In his crisp, lo^eal method of stating prop- 
ositions, his presentment of the two aspceis 
of double-entry, wherein effect always 'fol- 
lowed cause, and cause always preceded and 
produced effect. I saw, as it wcre^ the 
heavens opening, and the angels of God 
descending. The whole subject of double- . 
entry book-keeping seemed to tla^sh upon 
me like a vision; and although my thouglits 
were necessarily crude, and my generaliza 
tiona often extravagant and wide of the 



mark, the germ of the matter had found a 
lodgment in mo, and T knew it could be 
nurtured iuto a lively plant. 

But, after all, Strattou cared move for my 
literary liolj) than for my ability as a teacher. 
He had conceived of a "chain of colleges." 
and ho not only wanted teachers, but wTit- 
ers — those who could put his ideas before 
the public tlii-oiigli tlio columns of tlie news- 
papers, and through books and circulai-s. 
This was congenial work for me, and opened 
up to iny imagination great possibilities in a 
chosen field. 

Said he : " With Bryant to hold the points 
when taken, and you and mo to deploy the 
pickets and plant the staudards, we cau sunn 
have the entire country invested and every 
stronghold iu our powoi'." 

In November, 1856, we went to Chic igo 
and togetlter opened the "Chicago Uuk ' 
Stralton did the outside work, while I imn 
aged the srlmol, aud wroto editorials foi the 
local enliiTiiiis of the daily papois, foi the 
insertion uf which we agreed to p\y ten ceuts 
ft line — 'tue-hnlf in tuition — icpicsent(d b\ 
scrip — and the other half in cish It ^p 
peared to the outside world tint the dtih 
press of Chicago was 
very favorable to tlio 

which it surely was. 
The yoimg men of 
the city and of the 
Burrouuding cojinfry 
devoured those fervid 
editorials, and ciiiiie 
flocking to our stand- 
ard. The two com- 
peting schools were 
those of Judge Bell 
and Uriah Gregory. 
Bell had been estab- 
lished about sixyeare, 
and had a fine school. 
Gregory was of a 
more recent imjiorta- 
tion, but had the re- 
ligious advantage 
over his opponent of 
opening his school 
with prayer. He did 
not seem to be greatly 
troubled about Bell, 
but the incursion of 
Stratton into the do- 
main, with a link of 
the "gi'cat interna- 
tional chain," quite 
put him to his trump?. 
He at once made suc- 
cessful overtures to 
R. C. Speucor to come 
into the fight, and to- 
gether they opened a 



tion lived about two years, but was i 
a very vigorous child, and its last days 
somewhat piteous. Its disease was a i 
bination of literary and financial 
It simply pined away and died. Nobody 
knew for a certainty when it stopped breath- 
ing. The most that I can remember about 
it at this remote date is that it was finally 
dead. My impression is that the faot of its 
death was concealed from or softly broken 
to the public by merging it into a circular 
for the new college which was beginning to 
get a slight foothold. One thing about this 
ehort-lived magazine it is pleasaut for me 
to remember. We published in it a por- 
trait and sketcli of Cyrus W. Field, just 
after the laying of the first Atlantic cable. 
A few mouths thereafter, wlien the wire 
had become dumb, and the public couhdeuce 
m its success was rapidly waning aud Mr 
Field was forced to take hold of his paper 
b isiuess in Beekman Street to sa\ e it from 
the general wreck he called on me one day 
with a sample of printing paper in his 
hands to sohcit our patronage Three 
months before this reilly great mau had 
been the centre of interest and admiration 



and being the "official" text-book of "the 
chain," its financial success was assured. 
While I did not hope to say anything new 
on this trite subject, I felt it necessary to 
depart somewhat from the plans of previous 
authors. In looking over the (.iHcial sta-te- 
inent of one of the State banks, I discov- 
ered that it was simply a trial-balance of an 
open ledger, with the resources on one side, 
and tho liabilities on the other — and that 
these were equal ! This was, indeed, a dis- 
covery, and it formed the b:wi3 of my whole 
work. There are a number of the old 
teachers now living who will remember the 
commotion which followed this departure 
from Tiiomas Jones's classification, and 
the discussions which grew out of it. Jones 
himself, who was always one of my very 
best and warmest friends used to pttv my 
blindness in not beiug able to see how im 
possible it was that the proprietoi s account 
should show a liability — tliat a man should 
owe hxmself lilt himself up by his own 
bootstraps, as it were and I pitied him is 
I did Folsom and olliers, who had to ex 
plain the credit balance of Stock account as 
beius "the earnings of a previous business " 



Sponecrian" campaign. Whether or not 
Robert iussistod iu llm devotional part of the 
work is nt»t known to this historian. It is 
kiio\™, however, that Stratton accepted tho 
Spenceriiiu challenge, and at once sent for 
the author of Speuccriim Penmansliii>, itud 
tho father nf R.iboi-t, the veritable " P. R.," 
and that wli.-ii I left Chicago for tlie East, 
just befi)R' Cliiisliuas, the son Robert was 
with Stratton, in charge of a school of 
seventy five pupils, and Gregory was be- 
yondpraying for. 

From Chicago I came to Albany, where, 
on the first of January, 1857, I opened the 
Bryant & Stratton Albany College. In 
March, ISr.t^, I came with Strattou and 
Elihu Burrilt to New York, for the purpose 
of opening a college aud publishing a 
magazine. The first step was to attempt 
to buy out " Hunt's Merchants' Magazine," 
which, on account of the recent death of the 
recent proprietor, Frecnian Hunt, was for 
sale. Two obstacles stood in the way, how- 
ever: first, too much money was asked for 
it, and second, we had no money to invest. 
Si> instead of buying a goodwill we pro- 
posed to make one. 

The magazine was started, and christened 
"The American Merchant." Bryaut & 
Stratton were tho publishers. I was the 
editor, and Elihu Burritt was conductor and 
special contributor. This unique publica- 




for the people of two continents, and had 
rode down Broadway at the head of the 
largest and most imposing military and 
civic procession this city had everVitnessed. 
Now he was simply a business man trying 
to retrieve his broken fortune through the 
legitimate channels of competing trade! 
The conduct of this man under adversity 
has always been an iaspiratiou to me, aud 
I have often held it up as an example to 
young men. 

The time came at last when it seemed 
necessary for " The Chain" to have some 
text-books. Mr. Stratton liad already made 
overtures to Thomas Jones to write a work 
on book-keeping. I tdd him I thought he 
would make an irretrievable blunder to em- 
ploy an outsider and a competitor to do his 
work of authorship; that if it couldn't be 
done " in the chain " the sooner the chain 
resolved itself into its separate links the 
better. He at once challenged mo to under- 
take the work, and all unfitted as I wjis, I 
accepted tho challenge. The running of 
tho New York College was put iu ]\Ir. 
Bryant's hands, and I embarked on the 
troubled sea of authorship. When I now 
reflect upon my slim equipment for that 
work I wonder 
which attended i 



the 1 



:ts, it was deemed a great imprt 
most of the books then in 



But I have had the satisfaction of seeing 
my theory of " equal resmirces and liabili- 
ties" generally recognized by thoughtful 
teachers everywhere, and of knowing that 
the Bryant & Stratton series of book-keep- 
keeping has bad its full share of favor from 
the public. 

And 80 I could go on talking to the end 
of time ; but I won't. I don't hope to bo 
known in the future as a distinguished au- 
thor, or a litterateur, but I would like some- 
body to remember me as a schoolmaster 
and a man. It is the dearest of all my 
hopes that when the earth shall liave been 
shoveled over my mortal remaiaH.and I shall 
no longer go in and o'ut before the boys and 
girla of Packard's Business College, I shall 
still be sweetly remembered by a few loyal 
hearts as one who tried, while living, to 
make other lives than his own blessed and 
fruitful. 



The " Hand-book " as a Premium. 
We have decided to coniinuo to mail, 
until further notice, the "Hand-book" (in 
paper) free to every person remitting $1 for 
a subscription or renewal to the Journal 
for one year, or, for $1.25, the book hand- 
somely bound in cloth. Price of tho book, 
by mail, iu cloth, $1 ; in paper, 75 cents. 
Liberal discount to teachers and agents. 



Rufus Choate's Chirography. 

In his very interesting sketch of journal- 
ism in tho United Stales, Frederic Hudson, 
formerly editor of the New York Herald, 
relates the following : 

Horace Greeley was a better penman than 
either Rufas Choato or Napoleou I. Any 
one who will compare Greeley's notes with 
the specimen of Napoleon's chirography in 
the Lyceum at the Brooklyn Navy Yard, 
will readily admit this to be a fact. Choate's 
penmanship was positively shocking. On 
one occasion he delivered an Address at 
Dartmouth College, we believe, and two re- 
porters from New York— one from the Tri- 
bune a,ud the other from the Hcrald—wQre 
in attendance. Finding that Mr. C. had 
prepared his Address, they arranged to take 
his manuscript after he had finished its de- 
livery, and assist each other in making an 
extra copy for one of the two journals. So 
they formed a part of tho audience, and 
congratulated themselves on saving the 
liboi that taking stenographic notes of the 
oration would involve. The last word of 
peroration scarcely reached the ear of the 
most distant hearer 
before the manu- 
script was in the 
hacds of the report- 
ers. They looked 
over the pages of 
Choate's brilliant 
eloquence; they 
turned the pages up- 
side down, then side- 
ways, then comer- 
ways, then all sorts 
of ways, and gazed 
at each r)ther in 
blank astonishment. 
Not a word could 
they decipher. They 
sought the orator. 
"Why, Mr.Cho- 
ate,"^aid one of the 
reporters, " we can- 
not make out aword 
©f your manuscript. 
What shall we dof 
" Cannot read it ! 
Thai'sunfortunate," 
replied Mr. Choate. 
'■It seems plain to 
me; but I cannot 
aid you, for I start 
immediately in an 
opposite direction 
for New York. But 
e ; I guess 
I can help you. An 
old clerk of mine 
about twelve 
read it," and off 



miles from hero, 
went Mr. Choate. 

The two reporters hired a team and drove 
over to the residence of the clerk. He read 
ami they took steuographio notes, and suc- 
ceeded in reacliine New York in time to 
write out their reports for their respective 
journals. These reporters, ever after, in 
asking for manuscript, first carefully in- 
spected the ohirography. 



The old art of illuininatiou w; 
with much labor and expense, 
further back than the Middle As 



s attended 
To go no 
!s, we find 



cloisters spending a whole 
lifetime in the ornamentation of one manu- 
script. Days and months and years were 
occupied in the elaboration of a single capi 
tal letter. All the talent, thought and ex- 
perience of the artist were concentrated on 
the title of a gr)spel, or on a page of the 
Fathers, and, as he worked in his seclusion, 
years slipped by and the flight of time was 
unhoctled. Naturally, those who owned 
such illuminations counted themselves rich 
men because of that very fact, and oven to- 
day, a fine specimen of ancient illumination 
is more valuable far than a four-story 
" brown stone front" in Now York's swellest 
^venue. — Qeyer^s Stationer. 



^Mf'X lUl .^sj^fsa^:^ ^ :^,/p^rj*4*Kji*4^'^^- 



Letter-Writing. 

Akticlk III. 
By D. T. Ames. 

In our last issue we presented a model 
for the coustructiuu and arniiigeineDt of tlio 
several parts of a letter, and we closed witb 
Bome hinis regarding peninauship in corre- 
Bpondencc. Wo will now coueider more in 
detail the coiietrucliuu of a letter. 

Wo here repeat, by diagram, the form 
previously given : 



The Sionatur 



Should be very plainly written. Remember 
tbat uo context cAn aid in decipberinp an 
illegible autograpli. Hundreds of letters in 
course of a year, from this cause alone, re- 
main unanswered in our own office, aud 
many others from the omission entirely of the 
name or place. Ladies addressing strangers 
should make known their sex and condition, 
as ( Mrs.) Jennie Williams, or { Miss ) Mary 
Wood; otherwise, unpleasant mistakes 



Complimentary Closing. 



The Heading 
Shotild commence sufficiently to the left of 
the middle of the ubeet to leave room for 
the name of the place and date on the head- 
line, viz : 

Valparaiso, Inc., March 1st, 1S83. 

Valparaiso, Ind., 

March 1st, 1883. 
If writing from a largo city, the street 
and number should be specified, thus: 

205 Broadway, New York, 

March 10th, 1883. 
If writing from a hotel, or institution, the 
name should be given in the title. 

Complimentary Address. 
The name and address are most properly 
writteu at the opening of the letter, upon 
the left-hand, thus: 

205 Broadway, New York, 

March 10th, 1683. 
S. R. Hopkins, Esq., 

21) Warren Street, New York. 

It is the practice of some writers, and ad- 
vocated by some authorities, to place the 
name and address of party addressed at con- 
clusion of the letter.upon the left-hand side. 
We, however, prefer the former method. 

The Salutation 
Is written to the right, and ou line below of 
the address, and its form varies according 
to the relations of the parties. lu friendly 
correspondence, the word Sir, Madam, 
Friend, etc., is preceded by tlio word Dear, 
which word in business, official, and other 
letters, is omitted. 

The Body of a Letter 
Should commence about two inches from 
the top of the sheet, or if short, so as to oc- 
cupy the central portion of the sheet. Each 
distinct topic should constitute a paragraph. 
There should be a margin upon the left, of 
at least one-half of an inch. 

Complimesta'ry Closing. 
This, also, varies greatly according to 
the mutual relations ol the parties. In let- 
ters of business it is, Yours truly, Your^ 
respeclfutly, Yours very retpecl/ally. In 
letters between friends — Yours t-ery (ru/j/, 
Sincerely your friend, Affectionately yours, 



might occur in addressing a reply. 
Superscription. 
Much of taste and habit is displayed in a 
superscription of a letter. It should be 
plainly written, and complete. The name, 
nearly central upon the envelope; place 
below, and to the right of the center, coun- 
ty and Slate, still below, and to the right, 
thus: 



Itt. Rev. Juhn Pritst.— A bitfln.p. 
Rtv. Jameo Minor. — A priest, 
of any pereuaBion. 

Prof. Jamea Wise. — ProfeBBOr of 



Official Titles. 

„. „ „ S The Preeidt 

Hu Excellency j ^^j ^^^^-^^^ 

f The Vk-e 



, Gov. 



Heads of 
live DepartmentB, State 
ilional Members of Con 
and State Lfgislaturea. 
■ Govemora, judges, and 



of the army and navy should be 
according to their rank. 
One title only should be prefixed to any 
name, as Hon., Dr., Rtv.,Prof. ; but as 
many may be affixed as a person is entitled 
to use, as A.M., M.D., LL.D., or D.l)., 
LL.D., etc. Where persons aro addressed 
in the plural the proper title is Messrs., 
which is a contraction of the French word 
Messieurs. To uumarrii d ladies it would 
he Misses ; married ladies, Mesdames. 
{To be continued.) 



Uusl 


V.SSC.™. 


Nam 






s 










Cakb ok. 




Plack. 


— 






CODNTY. 

Statk. 










— 










In directing a letter it is custoinary and 
proper to make use of some title before or 
after the name, as Mr. James Johnson, «r 
James Johnstm, Esq. Ouly one title should 
bo used. Where a letter is not scut by 
mail, but is taken by private hand, it is 
customary to place upon the lower left-hand 

corner— Politeness of Mr. , or. Courtesy 

of Mr. . If a letter of introduction, in 

the same position, the name of the person 
introduced. 

Honorary Titles. 

Every person of whatever degree is en- 
titled, respeclively, to the appellation of 
Mr. (mister). Master, Mrs. (contraction 
for mistress), or Miss. With persons oc- 
cupying a high social or professional posi- 
tion, the prefix, Mr-, may be omitted, and 
the customary title belonging to their re- 
spective positions may be used. For the 
legal profession, Esq. is the proper title ; for 
high official and legislative positions, the 
title of Hon. for honorable is prefixed. 
Members of any profession should be ad- 
dressed by their appropriate professional 
titles, as Prof, for professor; Dr., or M.D., 
for doctors. The following are the profes- 
sional titles in use in this country : 

James Blackatone, Eaq. — Attorney at Law. 

Dr. Charles Medicue, ^ 

Charles Medicus, JH.D. ^ 

Ittf. James GouimaD, D.D. — Doctor of Di 

Itcv. (or Prof.) James Wise, LL.D.— 'Dqc 
tor of Laws. 



,• Doctor of Medicine 



Educational Notes. 

[ComnmnicatiouB for this Department may 
be addressed to B. F. Kklley, 205 Broadway, 
New York. Brief educational items solicited.] 

At least 7,000 American students are in 
German Universities. 

A member of hor Class of '53 has just 
made Yale College a present of $60,000. 

There are 1,493 students now enrolled in 
the various departments of Oberlin College. 
The study of Latin has been made com- 
pulsory in the high schools of Charleston, 
S. C. 

Brooklyn has sixty-six public schools, 
200,000 scholars and 1,343 teachers. There 
are, besides, about 25,000 pupils in private 
schools. 

Miss Edith Thomas, daughter of Pro- 
fessor Thomas, of Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity, has recently received the first degree of 
Ph. D. ever granted to a woman by the 
University of Zurich. 
— N. 0. Christian 
Advocate. 

lu California about 
130,000 children 
were in school last 
year, while about 
50,000, who should 
have attended, did 
not do so. — Public 
School Journal. 
Miss Kittie Hoyt, 
a teacher in Wyandotte, Mich., punished 
the son of the ex-Mayor, and was arrested 
for assault and battery. She was acquitted. 
— Public School Journal. 

Forty students have been imprisoned in 
St. Petersburg for expressing doubts of the 
administrative ability of Count Tolstoi, 
Minister of Public Instruction— AT. Y. 
Witness. 

A note from Whittier, the poet, who is a 
trustee, is published, in which he expresses 
his hope that the "noble old institution'' 
will bo open to women— a measure, he says, 
" which I feel certain would redouod to the 
honor, and materially promote the prosperity 
of the coUego." — House and Home. 

The Fourth Annual Report of the Super- 
intendent of Public lu-itruction of the Ter- 
ritory of Montana, just issued, shows tbat 
there are in the Territory, 180 schools, 191 
teachers, and 6,054 scholars. In regard to 
illiteracy it stands very well, coming just 
after New York and Pennsylvania, and just 
before Indiana, Vermont and Massachusetts. 
—AT. Y. Tnbune. 

Educational Fanoies. 

" School Tax." — Does he mean large- 
headed ones, such as the teacher sat down 
on? 

Give the miser a knowledge of the mathe- 
matic and he will cipher more.— i^. 0. 
Picayune. 



Professors: "If you attempt to squeeze 
any solid body it will always resist pres- 
sure." Class smiles and cites examples of 
exceptions which prove the rule. 

At one of the schools in Cornwall the 
luspector asked the children if they could 
quote any text of Scripture which forbade a 
man having tM"o wives. One of the child- 
ren eagerly quoted in reply the text, " No 

Many a boy has declaimed at school Chaa. 
Sumner's famous speech in regard to the old 
battle-fliigs. Tiiere is one sentence in which 
the orator, referring to the fallen eoldiera, 
exclaims, " Let the dead man have a hear- 
ing ! " Wo remember listening to the 
rendering of this piece by a youthful aa- 
pirant for oratorical fame before an audience 
of select visitors. Imagine the horror of 
the teacher when, in stentorian tone, the 
boy cried out — " Let the dead man have a 
herring ! " 

" Don't you have any schools here f " 
" Had a kind of school here last chowder 
season, but the teacher was two willing." 
" How so ! " " Oh, some uf the blue fiahera 
asked him if ho thought the world was 
round or square, and he said seein' he was 
out of a job, he'd teach her round or square 
— just as the school-hoard wanted it teached. 
Said it was immaterial."— iV. Y. Star. 



Inquirers 

Fkosi Various Parts of the Country. 

By C. H. Peirce. 

1. "Do you think that, in a few montha, 
I could improve my penmanship sufficiently 
to enable me to become a successful teacher 
of the art t" 

This question takes the form of an as- 
sumption, with a very largo percentage of 
the intelligent of this day and generation. 
There is, to say the least, no logic embodied 
in it, and with iis common construction is 
utterly void of sense. To presume that one 
capable of writing even a good hand can 
teach well, without proper training, is just 
as preposterous as to suppose that a good 
singer is necessarily a good composer. 

Questions of an analogous character may 
servo to determiue a proper answer. Be- 
cause any one can write well enough to dis- 
play even superior ability, does uot indicate 
teaching-power beynnd mediocrity. The 
ability to write, and the ability to teach, are 
as far apart, literally, as it is possible to 
conceive. A good writer may be a good 
teacher; an excellent writer may be an ex- 
cellent teacher; a superior writer maybe 
a superior leacher; an excellent writer may 
be a poor teacher; a superior writer may 
be a poor teacher. 

It is only iu isolated cases that the two 
harmonize- We, then, must conclude that, 
in nine-tenths of cases, preference is given 
to either one, and that the power to execute 
is by far the all-absorbing question. Is this 
just? Isitrightl IsitproperT Lookto 
your laurels, and if it is your ambition to 
enter the teacher's profession, make the 
science of teachiug the leading feature. 
Normal schools are established all over the 
land to meet the demand that Princeton, 
Harvard or Yale fail to supply. 

To learn to write with mathematical ex- 
actness is truly a secondary consideration. 
Young men and women do not study their 
best interests when they give their entire 
time to executive ability. To be able to 
impart instruction upon scientiBc principleB 
that aro progressive, to gain the confidence 
of pupils and students, to wiu respect and 
esteem, and establish yourself thoroughly 
audeft'cctively with a scrutinizing public, ia 
the labor of a varied experience, based upon 
details which are readily gathered from an 
experienced teacher. 

While it is possible for one to become a 
good toactier with but little assistance, the 
majority will do better, everything con- 
sidered, to profit by the mistakes of the one, 
and thus shorten the road to success. The 
answer to the original question ia : You can 
improve your pemuanahip very materially ; 



^^¥fr 



you can get teaching-power; but I cannot 
promise that yoii will be eucctasful. 

2. " Do you think that I eau learn to 
H-rite a good, neat and elegant hand, with 
proper application, when I poaseea a very 
large hand and fingers f " 

Yea ; a large hand and fingers are not 
detrimental to the acquisition of the liigheat 
order of execution. A small, or very small, 
band ia objectionable, and in many 'caaea 
has worked disastrous refiult«. While you 
have no choice in the matter, you must be 
content. AUow me, however, 1 
late you upon one of Nature' 
viz., a large, strong, healtliy han'l. 

P- S. — I trust that it correeponds with 
your heart and brain. 

A Modern Prodigal Son. 

By Maey E. Martin. 

A large schooner had just been securely 

fastened to one of the lower docks in New 

York when a boy of fourteen stepped from 



f congratu- 



The bootblack aaw that the boy wae in 
earnest. "Give us your hand on that; you 
have got fight in you, if you did roine from 
the couDtry." There was a genuine look of 
respect in the bootblack's face for this boy 
who was so ready to fight. 

" How did you know that I was not fri>m 
the city f " atked the hoy. 

" I knew it the minute you butted into 
me that way, Going to visit friends in the 
city T" 

"No," said the boy; "to tell you the 
truth, I have run away from home, and I 
am not going back again." 

The bootblack gave a prolonged whistle. 
" Run oflf, have you ! Well, where are you 
going to stop t I suppose you have got 
plenty of money." 

"No," answered the lad ; "I haven't got 
but fifty cents lef^." 

" You had better go back home," advised 
the bootblack. 

" Never," said the boy, proudly. " I am 
going to make my own living." 



As he walked along, how he wislied he had 
learned to write well. Now he had no time 
to learn ; it could not be secured in a mo- 
ment. "Oh, if only I had not idled my 
time away when I was put to writing ! Now 
I might have writteu well." Well, he 
might have wished it — he would have been 
been saved by it from sinking into the wild 
arah life that afterwards came to him. 

It was getting well ou in the aftornouu, 
and he had grown more than hungry. He 
bad eaten nothing that ilay, and the long 
walk made him feel almost famished. He 
had felt like eating in tke morning, but put 
the money back in hie poirket, fearing it 
would not last long. Now he could resist 
DO longer, for he was just in front of a win- 
dow where everything was displayed to 
tempt the appetite. He went in, and ate as 
only a hungry boy can. What was his 
astonishment when he asked for the hill! 
The man said: "Fifty-cents." He left 
without a cent, and not a friend in that large 
city. At the appointed hour he made his 



I her. The day before, the father, Mr. Stead- 
I ham, had severely punished the boy, and, as 

time proved, very unjustly. He was a man 

of ungovernable temper— stern, and unre- 
, lenting at alt times. In vain the mother 
! pleaded to him to g<i in search of the boy 
[ and bring him back. " No," he would an- 
I swer, "he will eoon be starved out, and be 
i glad enough to come back." It was this 

spirit that had finally driven the boy to the 
, step, and now that he had taken it, he had 
I all his father's will, and would not go back 
' — no matter what happened. The mother 

did all she could to find her hoy, but in 

After four years of street-life, Billy, as 
every street- boy called him, was a tall boy 
, of eighteen. His best friends would not 
I have recognized in him the neatly- dressed 
boy who stepped from the schooner four 
I years before. Although he was as tattered 
I and torn as most street-boys, yet he had 
I never caught up their vices. He had learned 
I to love this wild, free life ; yet, at first, eon- 




her deck. He had a noble, manly face, and 
hia eyes had a fearless look as they sought 

" I hope you will have no trouble in find- 
ing your way home," said one of the men, 
as he patted him kindly on the shoulder. 

'• I don't think I will," answered the boy ; 
but he had a terrible homesick feeling, as 
be walked on up the street. The noise and 
confusion annoyed him so tliat he was 
tempted to go back and tell the man his 
true story. Ou second thought — no, he 
w<.uld never give up now. On he wont up 
many streets, until he was far up into the 
i-ity. Suddenly, as he turned a comer, he 
ran squarely against a boot-bluck— a boy 
near his own age. The collieion was so 
sudden that one hoy rolled one way and one 
another. 

" I say, country," said the bootblack, 
jumping to his feet, " don't try any more of 
your goat-butting on me. You must have 
practiced that with Billy himself. I have a 
good mind to give you a good thrashing for 
that." 

"You know 1 did not intend to do it," 
said the other ; " but if you wan't to fight 



" Not so easy done as you think, my boy ; 
but I'll help you all I can." 

" Where do you sleep at night! " asked 
the boy, beginning to he anxious about 
shelter. 

"Sometimes in a doorway; often under 
a box ; hut if it is very ctdd I go to the 
News-Boy's Lodging House; but I'll meet 
you here at five this afternoon." 

They imrted in front of a building so 
large and so well known that the bootblack 
knew that the boy would not miss it. The 
neatly-dressed lad went on, into every store 
where he thought a hoy could be wanted. 
In some, he was turned off with scarcely an 
answer; at many, he was told they wanted 
a boy but he must write a good hand. Once 
when he thought he had certainly secured a 
place (it was in a small store), and the 
owner was pleased with his looks, but gajd ; 
" Let me see your handwriting." The man 
tosaed the paper back with disgust when ho 
saw it. " You will have lo write better 
than tnat, my lad, if you ever expect to get 
a place in a store." Sick and disheartened, 
the boy turned from one place to another • 
but this cry always met him : " We have 
no aso for a boy who does not write welL" 



way to the spot where the bootblack had 
said he would meet him. He was there be- 
fore hitii, and, as the boy came up, he called 
out: " Say, Billy, have you made your liv- 
ing yetf " 

" My name is not Billy," snid the boy. 
Why do you call me so t " 

" You hutt so well that I intend to call 
you Billy." 

And Billy was the name that he was 
known by in all the years that he staid with 
these street-boya. 

In a town, some distance from New York, 
there was a house "f a merchant. It stood 
a little way from its neighbors, and had an 

a certain grandeur about both house and 
grounds. The family were seated at break- 
fast, nlien the servant, sent to summons 
the only sou of the family, came back to 
say that he was not in his room and could 
nowhere be found. Still the family were 
not hlamied, but finished breakfast before a 
final search was made. All search was in 
vam, and they had come to the conclusion, 
before his mother picked up a few tines, 
written to her in a cramped hand, saying that 
be bad run away, but wa« sorry to leave 



^ troubled hii 



before hir 



d ever and often in 
lis mother's face would come 
tnd he would half determine, 
as he arose from some hard lied, that he 
would go back to her ; but it was put oti', 
until conscience troubled him no more. 

One morning, as he was at the depot that 
he might ditipose of some remaining wares 
that he had for sale, a handsomely-dressed 
young man, very little older than himself, 
came from a train, and, walking up to Billy, 
said; " Will you take my satchel and show 

me the way to No. Streetf " 

As Billy had Just concluded his sales, he 
consented. They walked together, and the 
longer Billy looked at the young man the 
more certain he felt that he knew him. At 
last he knew that it was his old playmate, 
the minister's son from his own home. He 
lo()ked at this young man, so handsomely- 
dressed, and for the first time he realised 
what he had lost. At what a disadvantage 
he had placed himself by hia own act ! All 
this rushed over Billy as he walked along, 
and from time to time cast stolen glances at 
his playmate, and thouglit, with a horrible 
revulsion of feeling, that he was now his 
paid servant, and, probably, he would not 



AHT JOUKNAt 



have him for that if he knew who he wa; 
There never came over Joseph, in Egypt, 
greater longing to know from his brethren 
than fame over Billy to know if hie parents 
were atill alive. Hi» .Mtreei-trainiug had 
not heen in vain, eo be, by qtiestione, deter- 
mined to tiud out. Afl they walked on, 
Billy pointed out ohjefls of interest to 
the stranger, and, tiually said: "But you 
will have time enough to find out all about 
the city if you intend to stay very long.'' 

" I am going to a business college, and 
intend to make my home here for some 

"Where is your hornet" boldly asked 
Billy. 

The young man named the very town 
from which Billy came, and his heart 
bounded at even hearing the name called. 
Some close questions on Billy's part caused 
the young man to speak of his school-life 
in his native town, and he ended a remark 
by saying — " But 1 have never been bo at- 
tached to any schoolmate as I was to 
Clarence Steadham." 

Billy had to turn away -his bead to hide 
the tears. His own name— then they did 
remember him ! He had thought himself 
long ago forgotten. As soon as he could 
n cover himself, be turned, and said : "Why 
did you not persuade him to come to the 
business college with you ? " 

" He ia dead," said the youug man ; "or, 
rather, hie friends all think so. He ran 
away, aud we have never beard from him." 

" Would you care anything for him if 
you were to meet him now, and he was 
poor?" Billy asked, looking wiatfolly into 
the young man's face. 

"Indeed, I would care just as much for 
him as I ever did ! But I fear I shaU never 
see him again." 

Billy's heart bade him make himself 
known, but hia pride was not all gone, and 
he said to himself — " not in these rags I " 

Billy went tu the street aud number with 
the young man; was paid, aud went back, 
but with a repugnance for the life he was 
leading that amounted to horror, and with 
such a yearning for his own home. He 
could not give way to his feelings in the 
street, so, paasing a newspaper building, he 
went up the stairway aud sat down in a 
dark corner and cried as if bis heart would 
break. Stout boy as he was— almost a 
grown man — his very frame shook with his 
sobs. How he longed for a better life— for 

It was just here that a reporter, coming 
out of an office above, found BiUy. Of all 
unusual sights to see a don't-care street-boy 
of his size, crying. The reporter looked on, 
astonished at first, then, kindly lifting the 
bowed head, said : " What can I do for you, 
my lad?" He bad unconsciously eboseu 
the very form of speech that was moat con- 
soling. 

In broken sentences, Billy told bis story 
to the reporter : Of his father's harshness, 
bis own willfulness, aud how he had run 
away. At first, trying u> keep up, then 
gradually sinking to what he was. 

The reporter said: "Why don't you go 
back now? I will get you a ticket." 

" No, exclaimed the boy ; " not in these 
rags.'' 

"Well, let me try to get you some em- 
ployment t" 

" But 1 cannot write," said BiUy ; and 
the old horror came bark of bow he had 
been repulsed from every place because be 

" A boy your size, and cannot write ! " 

" I could write a little," said Billy, when 

L left home ; but I cannot do much at it 

The reporter hesitated just a moment. 
Should he take the trouble to help this boy 1 
The city wa^ full ot just such cases. It waa 
only for a moment that he hesitated ; then, 
turning to the boy, be naid : " I will teach 
you to write." 

The boy looked up in surprise, and with 
an eager, hungry look, said, in half aston- 
ishment, half adoration ; " You — teach — me 
—to — write I " For this seemed to the poor 



outcast as the only barrier between him and 
a respectable life- -and that there could be 
one person who had the power, and was 
wilting to put this magician's uand in bis 
hands, seemed impossible- 

" Yes," said the reporter, " come with 
me up into the office.'* There he esiplained 
to Billy that he tnight have the use of a desk 
that the reporter owned, and placed every- 
thing in it that Billy would need for writing. 
He did not stop here, but hade Billy wait for 
him for a few minutes. When he came 
back he told Billy that he had secured a 
place for him in the building at so much .a 
week, and that he could sleep in one of the 
rooms upstairs. Billy could hardly believe 
that all this wa« done for him ; hut a warmer- 
hearted fraternity than priuters never ex- 
isted, as he soon found when the reporter 
came back and handed bim a small sura of 
money raised for him. It was sufficient to 
put him in neat clothing and keep him until 
be could draw his first week's salary. 

The young man now worked with a will : 
he had an object in view ; he must go back 
home, and see bis mother. Yet nothing 
could be done until he bad learned to write. 
He was a handsome, fine-looking young 
man, after he had put on his new attire — so 
thought the rep<nter often, as he watched 
him, while trying so bard to learn to write. 
The reporter was not satisfied with simply 
teaching him to write, but as Billy would 
not return home until he had made a living 
for himself, then the reporter determined he 
should be a fiue penman. He stimulated 
the young man by constantly holding before 
him what a high point in penmanship might 
be reached : showing him beautiful speci- 
mens of writing, aLd opening to the young 
man such beauties in the art that he who 
had only thought of it as a passport to 
securing a position was charmed, and would 
not be satisfied, until he, too, had ai;com- 
plished this. It took months to do what the 
reporter wished, and at what the young 
man aimed. He had also been preparing 
himself, through books, for the position he 
now hoped to get. Being in this office had 
been a great help to him ; for if a young 
man cannot be in school, then no better 
place can he found for him for improvement 
than a printing-olfice. 

One morning the reporter came in and 
touched the young man on the shoulder, and 
said : " I have found you a fine place, my 
boy." 

He went into his new position— not Billy, 

the street-boy, but Mr. Clarence Steadham. 

Some months after, the reporter, as be 

stood by the young man's desk, in the large 

house of & Co. , said : " Do you think 

of going home now f " 

And the young man answered, " Yes, but 

A short time brought him the success he 
wished. So, bidding the reporter good-bye, 
he started on his way over the distance that 
was between him and his home. 

It was autumn when Clarence Steadham 
returned to his home — autumu, with its 
great pomp of reddening woods and purple 
grapes. A 90ft allemoon-light rested over 
the little town as he reached it. The hills 
stood out more dietiuctly in the fading light. 
The sun was sinking lower and lower, and 
was almost dc.wn as he crossed the little 
rustic bridge and laid his hand on the laleb 
of his own gate. His steps halted here : 
what should he find wiihinf Was it too 
late? Had he put otl' the coming too long t 
These are the questions that haunt him as 
he lifts the latch and passes up the walk. A 
servant admits bim as he rings, and he 
passes on to the sitting room she points out. 
He has no need to be shown the way. How 
he has romped through that hall when a 
boy ! Nothing Is cbauged ; it only seems 
last night that he stole out of that door, his 
heart hot with auger against his father. He 
opens the door of the sitting-room; his 
nootber does not hear him, but sits, gazing 
Badly and wearily into the fire that has just 
been kindled upon the hearth. How his 
heart smites him as he looks at her care- 
worn face, and knows be has caused it all. 



He goes farther into the room, and, in his 
eager longing not to lose one glimpse of 
that dear face, he stumbles against a chair. 
She looks up n«>w, and prepares herself to 
meet a stranger. One look more — "ran ii 

be t' ' " Yes, it is ." And her face is 

glorified with look of intense love as she 



'Clai 



He clasps her close, and murmurs : " Can 
you ever forgive me, mother t " 

" Forgive you, my son f You do not need 
it ! " Mrs. Steadham drew her son to a 
chair beside her, and watched, with eager 
interest, the changes that time had made in 
liis favor. Not in his first hour of renewed 
affection did Clarence tell bis' mother all of 
his story ; but so busy had they been in 
conversation that they started when they 
heard coming footsteps, and which Clarence 
knew were his father's. 

Mr. Steadham entered the room, and 
Clarence saw tbat he had grown old rapidly, 
and carried his sorrow in his face. He 
knew his son in an instant, and, in a voice 
tbat sounded like a thank-offering to God, 
he went up to Clarence, and, holding out 
his hand, said: "My son, I am glad to 
have you back." 

There may not have been killed the 
"fatted calf." but there went up deep re- 
joicings from that hearthstone that night. 
Clarence Steadbam's ezperienoe was of 
great value to him ; and, after the first days 
of home-coming, his father persuaded him to 
come into business with him. He had long 
wished this, aud the clear insight that 
Clarence now possessed for business was 
what his father lacked, and felt the need. 



The Peircerian System o! 
Penmanship 

And Method of Instruction in 

Public Schools. 

Continued. — Article VI. 

Bv C. H. Pkirce, of Keokuk, Iowa. 

So many charges have been given the 
"Jury," that I would not be surprised if 
some would be forgotten and thereby impair 
the rulings of the "Court." If, however, 
there seem any inaccuracies, mysteries or 
inconsistencies, no pains will be spared to 
satisfy any reasonable inquiry. 

It might be well, just here, to embody in 
direct instruction, what has been given in a 
general way through preceding lessons. 

Programme " A " is made up of eleven 
distinct classes of instruction. Under each 
class is f«.und so many parts, and each of 
these parts constitutes a copy, and each copy 
is to be passed, singly, by one or more 
efforts, according to the " Rules Governing 
Class-Work," in copy-book or in October 
Journal, J881. For example, a pupil is 
making a figure 4 for the first lime in the 
preseut course of leaaons, five or ten lines 
(per agreement) have been made and the 
work is ready for criticism. The teacher 
finds it carelessly done, or poorly doue, or 
done with reference to a wrong impression. 
Whatever may be the cause, the work must 
be done again with an honest criticism from 
the teacher. The next effort of five or ten 
lines is still unsatisfactory. Again the work 
must be done over, and again, if necessary, 
until you are positive the child has done his 
best, and produced reasonably satisfactory 
results for his years. Deal honestly, and 
study the child's nature. The majority of 
children advance slowly at first, hut as their 
age and judgment increase, so will their 
progress be accelerated. The result is, 
that generally the number of efi'orts is 
diminished with each succeeding class of 
work. The child liaving passed the No. 4 
satisfactorily, he is now able to cope with the 
next copy and the next, and the next much 
more readily than if poorly done. Never 
pass any class of work without having made 
fair improvement, and this ia sure to be the 
result when both pupil and teacher have 
done their best, with a systematic course of 
development applied in each and every 
case to individual want and requirements. 



What is true of the figures is true of the 
letters. 

We now begin No. ."j, ■ xtended letters 
with a few, leaving the re.>^' ■>( the claas all 
along the skirmish line. A ^hort explana- 
tion may, to advantage, precede any class- 
work. Yet, when pupils are taught to 
rely upon their own powers, aud gain ad- 
vancement by individual efi'orts only, each 
pupil, without exception, will ask the very 
questions that will lead to the earliest and 
best results. The advancement of any set 
of pupils is in proportion to the responsi- 
bility they bear individually. There is 
nothing beyond general responsibility when 
pupils write from copies as prescribed by 
our leading systems, and why f 

1. All are required to write the same 
copy at the same time. 

2. The class being made up of fair, poor 
and good writers, the results must coincide. 

3. The work prescribed cannot he within 
the ability of all. 

4. Personal attention is of but little 
avail. 

5. A failure to understand work gone 

6. Carelessness encouraged. 

7. In case of absence (for any cause) the 
pupil must omit work or make it up. 

8. In case of transfer, the copies, and 
often the books, do not tally. 

9. In case of promotion or demotion, the 
present book which is, or Is not, suitable is 
cast aside for another, which may, or may 
not, he suitable. 

10. Grading necessary to awaken interest 
or compel application. 

11. If the grading of copies be sys- 
tematic, and the pupil thorough, many 
known causes fail to do the work given, the 
remaining part cannot be satisfactorily done. 

12. When pupils become conscious (and 
they always do) of an easy mode of getting 
along, they adopt it at once. 

13. Criticisms are made difficult and un- 
piofitahle. 

14. No work secured out of school hours. 

15. The anxiety and worry is thrown 
upon the teacher. 

16. The entire class go from one page to 
another regardless of results. 

17. Confidence destroyed. First. As to 
pupils' ability, in not doing good work. 
Second. In the teacher, beeause the pupils 
have failed to reach any satisfactory results. 

I repeat it, each pupil must earn his ow^ 
way and never be allowed to advance, ex- 
cept by his own merit. Every pupil is now 
working with a will, anxious to pass the 
next time. There are none so far behind 
but what have some company, and even 
with them there is ambition. Now is your 
chance to show partiality by helping the 
slow pupils more than you help anyone else; 
take advantage of it, and you will be counted 
the best teacher on record. 

The work of No. 5. is passed like all 
other — one letter at a time — each effort con- 
sisting of five or ten lines as you may de- 
cide upon. There will he no unnecessary 
hurrying, because each one knows that if 
the work is not well done the dose will be 
repeated. One by one the letters are passed 
until eacli in turn is ready for words in long 
letters, which constitute No. 6, Prograuime 
" A." As fast as prepared, each continues 
this class-work the same as all others 
passed over. 

(To be continued.) 



The progress of languages spoken by 
different people is said to be as follows : 
English, which at the commencement of the 
century wa.^f only spoken by 55 millions, is 
now spoken by !)() millions ; Russian by 63 
millions instead of '60 millions ; German by 
6t> instead of 33 ; Spanish by 44 instead of 
22;Italian by 30 instead of 18; Portuguese 
by 13 instead of 8. 

Remember, you can get the Journal 
one year, and a 75-cent book free, for $1 ; 
or a $1 book and the Journal for $1.25. 
Do your friends a favor by telling them. 




And TEACHERS' GUIDE. 

Pabli«h»a MontlilyatSlper-Y 



ADVERTISING RATES. 

SiDgl0 iniertioD, 30 oenta per lice oonparei). 

1 month. 3moa. 6 mos. Ij 

.oolomn tOO.OO tfiS.OO $120.00 |17 



LIBERAL INDUCEMENTS. 



;rciiire of Progress 



of aDy iiioulli to give U8 Qolice; but we 
have fuuud occasional delays io publicutioD 
una void alilo, aud delays Id tranBmiasioD 
through the mails so frequently, tliiit we 
deem it best thnt notice should not bo given 
before the first of the month following pub- 
lication, when, on receipt of same, we will 
at once mail an extra copy. No subscriber 
can be more desirous of receiving every 
number of his paper surely and promptly 
than are we that he should do so. And we 
shall certainly use every reaaonable en- 
deavor to remove any cause of such delay 
or failure on receipt of proper notice. 

Nearly 250,000 pieces of mail are an- 
nually dispatched from the office of the 
Journal. Who among its readers would 
undertake, under bonds, to perform all the 
labor of preparing this matter for the post- 
olfice without a mistake, to say nothing of 
gnarauteeing a safe transmission and de- 



livery at its destination ? Truly, 
would require something more tha 
And anyone once haviug tried it i 
it a task more difficult than wril 



,o do this 
11 humau. 
'ould find 
iug testy 



3.00 50 " 

e hy Posl-olbr^ Order or by I 
IS ART JOURNAL, 



SaljMiipttoDi to tb» P] 

prompU; aUeuded Io by the 

IMTERNATIONAL 



Art Joursal, or 

COMPANY. 
1 Jiouvene Strict. IfleetSt.l.. 

London. England. 

by postal-card to Hubacribera at 



' York, March, 1888. 



Time of Mailing the "Journal." 
It has been our purpose to mail the 
Journal as early as possible on the 15th 
of each month, yet in some iustances, owing 
to unexpected demands upon our time, and 
other causes beyond onr control, mch as 



delay in ongraviug, etc. 


it has been mailed 


some days later. We t 


rust our readers ap- 


preciate, at least to so 


nc extent, (and yet 


those who have never 


conducted an illus- 


trated periodical must 


come (ar short of 



doing so), the great labor of conducting aucb 
a paper as the Journal, and this, in ad- 
dition to tho time and labor demanded for 
the prosecution of an extensive and laborious 
business. If the Journal baa sometimes 
been tardy in its arrival, it has been from 
the unwillingness of its editors that itshould 
go robed less beautifully or having a smaller 
degree of excellence. Aud who of its 
readers have ever been unfavorably disap- 
pointed in these respects when it has arrived f 
If any, they have failed to report to us; 
while, upon the other hand, the most flat- 
tering commendations flow iu by every mail. 
In a former iseue wo requested subscribers 
who had not received their paper by tho lath 



The King Club 

For this month is the " King of ICinge"; it 
numbers ttco hundred and sixty-nine sub 
ecribers, and was sent by G. W. Michael, 
teacher of writing at Oberlin, Ohio. So large 
a club, not only tolls well far the work be- 
ing done by Mr. Michael, but for the grow- 
ing popularity of the Journal, where it 
has found its way, it has not only stayed, 
but its friends have rapidly multiplied. The 
Queen Club comos from L L. Williams, 
President of the Ilucheater (N. Y.) Business 
University, and numbers one hundred and 
twenti/six. The third club in size numbers 
one hundred, and is sent by W. E. Donsou, 
assistant teacher iu the Theory Department 
of the Miami Commercial College, Dayton, 
Ohio. A club of Jifly-six comes from S. 
S. Packard, of Packard's New York Busi- 
ness College. It will be observed that four 
clubs rtceived during the past month, alone 
aggregate 551 subscribers, while clubs of 
leas magnitude have been received by the 
score. Nothing like it in the history of the 
Journal. Our largest hopes have been 
more than realized; verily, "nothing 
ceeda like success." 



Quackery in Advertising. 

Nest to the pride of personal standing 
and success, should be that of the general 
welfare and dignity of the special calling in 
which one is engaged. There can bo no 
donbt but that writing is among the moat 
necessary and useful of human attainments, 
and that an intelligent and successful teacher 
of writing, should, therefore, hold rank with 
teachers in other departments of education. 
Yet, while it is true, that most of our writ- 
ing-teachers are personally highly esteemed 
aa a class, they do not rank with those of 
most other branches of education. That 
tbia i>^ so, wo conceive to be the fault of the 
fi'w rather than the many. 

A few noiey quacks, who, after the man- 
ner of showmen, resort to all manner of 
tricks and frauds to attract attention and 
secure patrons, whom they, in some way 
victimize, can and have done more to de- 
grade the profession of penmanship than 
many skilled, faithlul and quiet workers can 
do for its dignity and popularity. Wlien- 
ever we see a circular or other advertia- 
ment, wherein the author styles himself a 
" Champion," " Prince," " The Recognized 
Chief," etc., of penmen, we instinctively 
feel that he is, if not a charlatan, a per- 
son whose instincts and breeding are very 
much better suited to the jockey or tl.o pre- 
siding genius of a bar- room than to a teacher 
iu any department of education. No sensi- 
ble person will associate honest, skillful and 
successful teaching, or even true manliness 
with that species of bombastic and idiotic 
advertising. 



Packard in His Glory, 

On the evening of the (ith inst., thi 
uating exercises and tweuty-fiflh 
sary of Packard's Business College of this 
city took place at tho Academy of Music. 
Notwithstanding the extremely inclement 
weather, the immense hall and galleries 
of the Academy were filled with the elite of 
the city. Chief Justice Noah Davis pre- 
sided over the meeting. Besides the speak- 
ers, graduates and faculty of the college, 
there were, upon the stage, W. H. Sadler, 
of the Baltimore ( Md.) Business College; 
A. J. Kider, of the Capitol City Business 
College, Trenton, N. J.; Coleman, of the 
Newark ( N. J.) Business College; H. W. 
Wright, of Brooklyn, and D. T. Ames, of 
New Yoik. The music of the evening was 
by Ebon's 23d Regiment Band. The Ad- 
dresses were admirable. After an opening 
prayer by the Rev. W. H. Lloyd, Justice 
Davis briefly addressed the assemblage, in 
part as follows: 



• rolls I 



I. editcr 



teaoher». Stale (iiid Nitliiinal logidators. Judge*. 
>n, merclinnla, hotel proprislon, railroad luperio- 
nl« and ntini C4ipitaliil«. 
e t(rcutwt aenia of delight whtob comtM to me ot 









Ttiroiigli a long per 



Judge Larremt 
of Mr. Packard i 

ever that suliject 
the speakers — an 
favor of it — the a 



re then gav 



m account 
work, and spoke 
ducation. When- 
inti.ined by any of 
of them spoke in 
pplauded vigor- 



as called upon by Justice 
nd ho responded tu the in- 



ooinparaUvtly yo 


»K 


nan or sixty suveu, vlg 


«, iurelligent and 


pub 


ci.«j<iriled— ju«l ua \v« 


d«y. Mr.GreoU 


■, fit 


(he green age of forty- 


writing cdilonal 


m 


lie fourth slor>* of the 



ously. President Hunter, of the Normal 
College, followed Judge Larremore, and 
spoke in favor of giviag every man an edu- 
cation better than that which his father had 
enjoyed. After a piece of music had been 
played, ex-Judge Fithiau spoke. Then 
A. Oakey Hall was called upon by Justice 
Davie. Mr. Hall spoke in part as follows : 



After a short speech had been made by 
tho Rev. Dr. J. M. Buckley, William H. 
Lloyd delivered the Valedictory to the Class, 
and tho diplomas were distributed by Presi- 
dent Packard, to fifty graduates, among 
whom were several young ladies. 

Tho Address to the graduates was 
liveied by tho Rev. William Lloyd. The 
Hun. Chauucey M. Depow had been 
pected to deliver this Addreas, but was ■ 
tained unavoidably in Poughkeepsie. 
telegram was read from bim, in which he 

What I n-onld liave tried Io asy to your youag i 
you hare better inid in your twenty-Hve years of hi 
work and good example. May yoii continue in the i 



Sample copies of the Journal i 
<D receipt of prioa — tea cent*. 






gaie of -10,000 piipUi 



Back Numbers of the "Journal." 
Please Note. 
Every mail bringa io(puries respecting 
back numbers. The following we can send, 
and no others: All uuuibers of I87d; all 
for 1879, except May and November; for 

1880, copies for months of January, Feb- 
ruary, April, May, June, August and 
December only remain; all uuinUers for 

1881, and all for 1882, except June. It 
will be noted that while Spencer's writing 
lessons began with May, the second lesson 
was iu the July number, so that the series 
of lessons are uubrukeu by the absence of 
the Juno number. Only a few copies of 
several of the numbers moutioned above 
remain, so that pors'jus desiring all or any 
part of them should order quickly. All the 
51 numbers, back of 1883, will bo mailed 
for $4 0(1, or any of the numbers lU 10 cents 
each. 



8 drilling. During ihe twealy- 
Ihe Pooknid Builoeu College 



The Next Convention, 

It will bo sotsu by an announcement in 
our advertising columns that the time of 
holding the next Couvontion of the Busi- 
ness Educatora' aud Penmen's Association 
has been fixed for tho lUih to 15th days of 
July, at Washington, D. C. Everything is 
promising for the largest and most interest- 
ing Convention yet hold. The early an- 
nouncement will enable everybody to get a 
good ready. Let each member begin at 
once with a resolution that he will con- 
tribute to the full extent of bis ability to a 

Remember, that if you renew, or send in 
your subscription to the Journal, you 
will get a 75 cent book free, or a $1 book 
for 35 cents extra. 



^Xfya^jrii''--^ 



Answered. 



G. W. H., Iiiglewoud. Va.— How many suh- 
soribere elmll I sund at the full rate of $1 t>ach 
in order to get Ilie Cominon-SeDBe Binder as a 
preniiuoi T Am.~Foar. 

H. B. Segur, Hiland Park, III. Can you 
furnisli me the back numbers of the Jooknal 
up to last May t Aiit.—'We can furnish all the 
back numbers cxcoi)l (h;iL fur June ^liicu 
m.d liK-lu-iv<. of Mny. 

Subscriber asks ua to explain the late arrival 
of the February number. Ane. — Our great 
anxiety to give him the worth of his money, 
wbioh led us to undertake more than wfi could 
get done in a shorter lime, in the way of cuts 
for illustrations. We hope to do better in 
future. 

J. M. F., Wheeling, W. Va.— When will the 
Executive Committee lix the time of holding 

the next Convention of the Business 

Educators' aud Penmen's Convention T 
Am. — The mailer has been informally 
considered, and the time will probably 
be the week following the Fourth of 
July. 

J. D. H., Worcester, Muss. — I noticed, 
■ome lime since, a question in the Pen- 
man'i Gazette, by a subscriber, respect- 
ing the period of the Stag and Eagle in 
the Pk.vsiax's Ai:t Joukxal. I be- 
lieve that there has never been any 
question respecting their paternity ; but 
question 



Valuable Aids to Good Writing. 

<*The Staniknl Scrii>t Unler" which 
places constantly before the writer correct 
models for all the large and small letters, 
figiires,aud, in combinations, the proper &calo 
of size and proportions of writing. They are 
invaluable to the pupil, teacher, accouut- 
aat ; in short, everybody. The couuting- 
house ruler, tifteen inchea long, brass edge, 
mailed for 30 coats. School ruler, same as 
above, without brass edge, 2(1 cents. If 
you order either of them, you will certainly 
be delighted withy our investment. 

" The Porlfolio of Standard Practical 
Penmanship" contains the best and most 
complete soriea of copies and exercises for 
enabling the learner, by liome or 'office 
practice, to become a good writer, ever pub- 
lished. Mailed for Sl.OO. 

" The SpoQcergraphic Straight and Ob- 
lique Penholder Combined " mailed for 12 
cents J two for 20 cents. 

" Ames's Hand-Book of Anisiic Penman- 
ship," Si large pages, oontaiua all the 







N. y. 



D. H. Farley is teacher of penmanship and 
book-keepiug at the State Normal and Model 
School, Trenton, N. J. • He is a superior 
writer aud a popular teacher. 

Prof Southworth conducts a special class in 
penmansliip at the Northern Indiana Normal 
School, Valparaiso, Ind., in which there are 
about one hundred pupils, all cf whom sub 
scribe for the JOURNAL— correct. 

W. G. SlusBor, Inglewood. Va., will please 
accept our thanks fur a number of notes of 
Confederate money lately received. Any par- 



E. K. Biyaii'a Business College at Canton, 
>liio, was lately destroyed by fire. Beside 
he loss of school-furniture, etc., Mr. Bryan 
oBt a valuable library and the electrotype 
ilates of a portion of a work which be had in 
I of preparaliou on book-keepiug. Wu 



may not fully balance the i 
is at full liberty t 
the credit side of 



but Mr. B. 
r sympathy upon 




I the ( 



■ ot 1 






appears 


as the ninth lesson for practical 


writing 


u Gaskell'n Compendium ; also. 


in Shalo 


's Compendium, and in a later 


work, ill 


which it appears to be about 


the sam 


, the imprint of one Jones is 



branded on the beast. Can the JuUU- 
S'AL throw any light on the thirugraphic 
pedigree of the animal f and, by the 
vay, ia it appropriate to give, as a copy, 
I picture of a liou, for the ninth lesson 
n practical writing f Ana. — We have 
lur views as to the aulhor&hip of that 



Liou, but prefer not to give 


Ihem until 


the returns are all in. As 


to the last 


(juestion, we will eny, if, in 


learning to 


write, you find a liou in you 


r way, you 


can pass by on the oiber side 


aud suder 


no harm. 









\^ ^<i2«>*-i^'^.'^M,As*«-<^4-'Z--^^ 



W. E. B., Sliinberry, Mo. — As through 
business life we use the common com- 
mercial pen, why not teach with them 
instead of the finer sorts? Ant. — lirsi, 
it is not a Tact that we all use a "com- 
mon commercial pen " through liie; all 
really artietic aud professional unity re- 
quires a finer grade.of pens. Who can 
know, when learning, the precise use to 
which be will put his writing in after 
lifet Second.—A. fiue and more perfect- 
ly pointed pen produces perfectly any 
desired quality of line and shade as well 
as form of letter, and the pupil and in- 
structor are better enabled to judge of the 
writing while practicing from the copy. 

Third.— AW the copies in the books and 

on the slips used in most of the publicschools are 
from delicately engraved copper- plates, to imi- 
tate which requires a fiue and perlectly-pointed 
pen. With a coarse, slitf, an<l often very im- 
perfectly-pointed penthe exerciden of even the 
skilled pupil can bear little resemblance in liiu 
copy, and be cannot therefore judge as well of 
the merit of his eflforts. Fourth.— A person 
having learned to write well, with a fine and 
delicately-pointed pen, experiences nodillicully 
in afterward using a coarser pen. 

Send Cash with Advertisements. 

We wish to remind all persons wishing 
to have adveriiscmeuts appear in the Jour- 
nal, that it is entirely useless to send copy 
unaccompanied with cash, at the rate of 
thirty cents per line (nine words estimated 
as a line) for space less than an inch. See 
rates at tho top of the tirst column of the 
centru page of the Journal. No adver- 
liaemout mserled for less than $1.00. 










Specimens of penmnushtp worthy of mention 
have been received as follows : 

E. R. Reevts, Ennis, Texas, a letter. 
A, S. Clark, Cambridge, Muss., a letter. 
G. W. Slusser, Inglewood, Va., a letter. 

letter and 

Frank B. Lotbrop, South Boston, Mass., a 
etter executed in a superior business hand. 

C. W. Rice, of the Denver (Col.) 
Bu&iuess College, a letter. 

J. M. Frasher, Business College, 
Wheeling, W. Va., a letter. 

T. E. Youujans, card-writer. Savan- 
nah, Oa., a letter and cards. 

H. C. Spencer, of Washington, D. C, 
ft letter in most elegant style. 

S. D. Gmchess, Wright's Business 
College, Brooklyn, N. Y., a letter. 

W. P. Cooper, Kingsville, Ohio, a 
letter, specimen of copies and capitals. 

D. H. Farley, Trenton, N. J., a 
phulograpb of skillfully engrossed, 
memorial. 

J.E.Ockerman, penman aud teacher, 
Tell City, Ind., a letter aud flourished 

U. MoKee, penmen at the Oberlin 
(Ohio) College, a letter most excel- 

D. W. Stahl, teacher of writing at 
the Normal School, Pelrce, Ohio, a 
letti-r and card specimens. 

J. M, Goldsmith, penman at Moore's 
Businesa Uni%'er8ity (Atlanta, Ga.), 
an elegantly-written letter. 

Charles Hills, penman at the Cril- 
tenilen Commercial College, Phila., 
Pa., a letter aud set of capitals. 

G. W. Ware, Bonliam, Texas, a 

well-written letter, flourished bird, 

apitals, which are 



Thx above letter ia photo-engraved from an original letter, written by G. W. Michael, teacha- of penmanship 
ai Oberlin, Oki<i, on Maivh Glh. Mr. Michael added nine names to the Club 
therein— mahing S09. 



and whole- 



r, teacher of penmaa- 
Is, B. &. S. BusluesB 
Mich, a letter in ele- 



Sampl© cepiea of the Jour 



principles, with 
ishing, with twenty 



gna for Hour- 
standard aud artistic 
3f monograms; also, 
hinta for designing and executing fine artis- 
tic ^len-work. Sent by mail, in paper covers 
for 75 cents; in cloth, for $i.OO. In paper 
covers it is given free, as a premium, tu 
every subscriber to the Journal for Sl.OO. 
In cloth, with the Journal, for $1.25. All 
tho above articles are promptly mailed from 
the office of the Journal on receipt of the 

Packard says " that about the first thing 
in his life he remembers is of loving all the 
nice little girls." Some of the girla are 
wondering if ho has got over it yet. We 
should think not— from the large uuinber of 
nice young ladies who every year graduate 
ftom Packard's Bueiness College. 

Remember that for $1.00 you can get the 
} year, and a valuable book on 
: poumanahip, free. 



ido. 



e similar specimens a 
} by addressing him. 



The Oberlin (Ohio) Timea says : " Forty-two 
new caue-seated chairs have lately been added 
with other new furniture to the college-wriling 
rooms." It pays a high and well-deserved 
compliment to Mr. McKee as a popular and 
successful teacher of writing ; bia elapses num- 
ber upward of one hundred aud fifty. 

l''ieldingSchofield, who has long held high 
rank among the skillful and euccesBful teach- 
ers of the East, is now engaged in the Normal 
Penmanship Department of Musselman's Gem 
City Business College, Quincy, III. We are 
pleased tu note that this instttuliou is In a most 
Hourishing condition, numbering over three 
hundred students. 

Frank B. Lothrop, of South Boston, Mass., 
will please accept our thanks for a copy of 
"Foster's System of Penmamhip; Or, Art of 
of Rapid Writing," published in 1835. It was 
evidently a work of rare merit in its day. The 
copies are all finely engraved, and printed from 
copper-plates. We shall say more of the work 
in the future. 



George Sp^ 

College, Deti 
gaiit style. 

C. L. Stiibbs, penman at Nelson's 
Business College, Ciucmuati, Ohio, a 
letter, and a list of twenty-six aub- 
aoribers to the Journal, 

Eugene K. Scherrer, Galveston, 
Texas, photo-engraved copies ot two 
elaborate and well-executed specimens 
of penmauehip. 

Chas. A. Eriiey, Patent OUice, Washington, 
D. C, a phulo-liihographic copy of an en- 
graved memorial, which is very creditable. 

W. U. Howe, Waukegan, 111., a photo-en- 
graved copy memorial chart, which is ingeni- 
ous in its design and creditable in its execution. 
R. S. Bunsall, penman at Carpenter's B. 
&. S. Business College, Si. Louis, Mo., a letter 
and a gracefully executed specimen of flour- 
ishing. 

H. C. Carver, penman at the La Crosse 
( Wis.) Business College, a letter and cIub-IiBt 



the Jo 

J. A. Rendall, penmai 
Commercial College, St. 
and a list of ihirty-fivi 



ubering twenty - tivi 






he Mound City 
is. Mo., a letter 
ibera to the 



, penman i 



A. M. Palme 
Iowa) BuHi,e. 

als, ni.d a viiiiety of really s 
ant-y writing, mid a list of ti 
.8 subscribers tu the JoURN, 
n our advertising columns. 



the Cedar Rapids 
iuperior plain and 



J. E. SouIp. of Soule'i B. & S. Philadelpbia 
BueineflB College, au flegantly- written letter, 
aod a Biiperl. photo of himself for our eciap- 
book— iliaiikB. 

H. B. McCreery. .n th« Utioa, (N. Y.) Buoi- 
nfas CoIlBgw, u Iwlttr; uIbo a epeoimen wrilten 
by Ma«t«tr C. L. Opimfton, a pupil in that In- 
tttitultt, which id exc«l)eat. 

C. N. Craiidle. peuinau at th»> Weeiern Nor- 
mal College and Cumm»rcial Institute, 'Kusb- 
iiell, 111., a letter aud a club of tbirty-tive 
HubaoribHrB to the JoiiiiNaL. 

J. M. Holniee. Wilkins Runn, Ohio. Bpeci- 
mena before and siuce practicing from the les- 
ttons givHii in the Journal, which specinieue 
show very marked iinprovemeni. 

TlioB. E. PhillipB. Poughkeepcie. N. V.. a 
letter. Mr. Phillips unyB; -I have taken the 
JouRNAt. a little leee thau a year, and I never 
inveBt«d a dollar where I got a greater return." 

0. E. Newman, penman at the Pacific Husi- 
nesB College. San Francisco, Cal., a letter, 
Hpecimens of practical writing, and several 
upecimene of written carda : all are of a high 
order of merit. 

J. C. Miller. leksburg. Pa., an elaborate 
and akill fully-executed Bpecimen of flouriBh- 
iug, and a set of splendidly-executed capital 
letters. Attention ig invited to Mr. Miller's 
card in our advertising columnei. 



When to Subscribe. 

For several reasons it is desirable, tlm',3o 
far as is practicable, subscriptions should 
begin with the year, yet it is entirely op- 
tional with the subscriber as to when his 
Bubscription shall commence. Those who 
maybe specially interested in the very prac- 
tical and valuable course of lessons com- 
menced by Prof. H. C. Spencer may have 
their subscriptions begin with the May 
number, in which \» the first lesson of the 



Spencer Memorial Library. 

The association of citizens of Geneva, 
Ohio, have secured a charter, and are now 
raising funds to build a Hall and foand a 
free library, to be called the P. R. Spencer 
Memorial Hall and Library. It will be a 
shrine of chirograpliic art as well as litera- 
ture and science. Certainly, a most fitting 
memorial to the founder of the Spencerian. 
Under the name of .Spencer, over the por- 
tals of the ball, should be inscribed, in 
the words of the late President Garfield : 

" He wrought out that system of pen- 
manship which has become the pride of our 
country and the model of our schools." 



Our Premiums. 



Inasmuch as the Journal will, this 
month, be mailed to many thousand persons 
who have no knowledge of the character or 
Btyle of the premiums, one of which la 
given free to every subscriber, we have 
added four extra pages for the purpose of 
iuaerting cuts — reduced site — of a portion of 

Notice. 

Our stock of the Centennial Picture of 
Progress, 22 x 28, being exhausted, and the 
plates, from which it was printed, destroyed, 
it can DO longer be sent free as a premium. 
We, however, have a stock of size 28 x 4 ; 
finely printed on heavy plate-paper, which 
will be mailed with a bey as a premium 
for 25 cents extra. Many thousands of this 
picture have been sold by agents at $2 per 
copy. There is no more interesting and 
valuable picture for schoolroom or office 
than this picture. 

How to Remit Money. 

The best and safest way is by Post-office 
Order, or a bank draft, on New York • next 
by registered letter. For fractional part* of 
a dollar, send postage -stamps. Do not send 
personal checks, especially for small sums, 
oor Canadian poBtage-atamps. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Editors Penm 



)RK, March. -ird, 1883. 
Art Journal: 



Sirs : In the last issue of your paper I 
notice a clipping, said to have come from 
the Atlantic .\fonthlj/. The writer pro 
nounces the Compendium system " rank 
humbuggery," and claims that the auto- 
graphs in many cases are not written by the 
parties who claim to have written them, and 
"in other cases are ' doctored ' before they 
are engraved, until the writer himself would 
scarcely knoH' them." 

This fellow, whoever he is, is talking 
wild. He koows nothing whatvever 
about the matter. Thpse autographs have 
always corresponded with the handwriting 
of the letters inclosiug them, and I do not 
believe that any of them are fraudulent. 
As for the doctoring process, iiny real pen- 
man knows very well that it would be much 
easier to write the entire signature over — to 
make a good counterfeit — than to " doctor " 
it, and thus make it better. Whatever they 
may lay at our door this doctoring business 
ia a little too big a load. It would be more 
sensible to charge us with writing the whole 
thii'g, and to declare that even the portraita 
are' fictitious. 

As for the style of writing, the same ob- 
jections weigh against it as are brought to 
bear against all other Spencerian or system- 
atic penmanship. The writer says the liand 
lacks "character." This is a question for 
writing- teachers. It don't prove that the 
Compendium is a fraud or its publislier a 
swindler. Very truly, 

G. A. Gaskell. 

PACKARij'a Business College, 
305 Broadway, 
New York, VarcK 7»(, 1883. 
My dear Ames: 

Enclosed find check for $5lj to cover o'i 
subscriptions to the Journal, made by our 
young men. This is only the first install- 
ment. We are pledged to 100 at the least. 
Yours truly, S. S. Packard. 

Ames's Hand-Book of Artistic 
Penmanship. 

Packahi»'s Bu.s!ine.s8 College, 
805 Broadway, 
New York, March I3th, 1883. 
Editws of the Journal : 

I have never seen anything more gener- 
ous than your offer of the Hand-book. It 
is a golden inducement, and should speedily 
boom your subscription-list. This is a 
book which nobody can afford to be with- 
out on such terms. Our students promise 
a still larger list of subscribers to the Jour- 
nal than they have yet sent. Yours, 

Wm. Allen Miller. 
What a few among many others say : 

Mr. Ames has made an admirable little 
work for beginners, and it will prove of 
great value to those who desire to learn 
ticKirishing and to make fancy alphabets. 
Of tiie alphabets there is a great variety, 
and all are elegant.— A^. Y. SchoolJournal 



W. P. Cooper, Kit 



, Ohi( 



'Iti 



Questions for the Readers of the 
"Journal." 
Bt C. H. Peircb. 
i. What a 

2. What a 

3. What if 

4. What a 

5. What a 



6. What a 



J. D. Holcomb, Cleveland, Ohio.—" It 
a valuable little work, worth at -least 

rice the published price, and those who 
take advantage of your liberal offer will 
have reason to congratulate themselves 

)on the investment they have made." 

John F. Shepherd, Harrison Switch, P.O., 
Tenn.— "laro surprised at the excellence 
of both the Hand-hook and the Journal." 

W. C. Bonham, Sidney, Ohio.— " Hand- 
book just received. Would not part with 
tor anything. It is perfectly splendid." 

The Penman's Gazette for April is just 
It, and is an unusually interesting number. 

Send for a copy to G. A. Gaekell, P. 0. 

Buz 1534, New York. 



8. What are the objed 
phy of movement t 

9. What are the obje^ 



10. In what do i. 
the most r 



:e tracing vc 
'e extended 
the philosophy of 
'e capital letters f 
e combinations — disconnected, 

e the objects gained in trac- 

>bjectB gained in ez- 

ained in philoso- 

gained in eom- 

penmen lack 

iperior form 



that enters in 
superior results pure 



11. Is good, excellet 
dependent upon speed t 

12. Is the 
good, excellent 
its nature t 

13. Are combinations practical t 

14. Are combinations a necessity t 

15. Are combinations more difficult than 
single capitals t 

16. What is movement as applied to pen- 
manship f 

17. Is the proper selection of capitals 



which 
execute than 



Which 

1 of the 



18. Is the development of taste a consid- 
eration in the execution of capitals of a high 

19. What movement enters into the 
second part of a small k f 

20. Why are extended 
contain capital letters eas 
single capitals? 

21. How is any one 
of 



tBis 



\ small letters t 

22. What 

23. What 

24. What 

25. What 

26. What 

27. What 



determine the 
different capi- 



figure t 
letter ? 
short letter t 
semi-extended letter t 
1 extended letter T 
the longest loop-letter f 



28. What kind of stroke 

29. What kind of stroke in main part of 
p and final t T 

.30. What are the exceptions in short let- 
ters, as to hight T 

31. H()w many letters begin with a right- 
curve? 

32. How many letters end with a right- 
curvet 

33. How many letters begin with a left- 
ourve T 

34. How many letters end with a left- 

uany principle 



continuous 



:35. How 
ombinatioi 

36. What are they? 

37. How are the lengths of loop-letters 
be made equal i 

38. What produces unilormily of stroke 
Q any class of work ? 

39. Who will answer these (|uestion8t 



Mr. Packard has inaugurated a practice, 
which, sooner or later, our progressive and 
comfortably situated business college men 
must mlopt— that of weekly social reception. 
For the past three years Mr. Packard has 
kept "open house" for his students and 
their friends, at his residence, Ii4 E. 73d 
Street, on Wednesday evenings, from Jan- 
uary to May. These weekly receptions 
have been very pleasant, and are very 
popular. 

A New Atlas. 

Attention is invitvd tu an adveriiBvineut in 
another column, of a new national Atlas, by 
John W. Lyon & Co. No library, echoolroom 
or buHineBR-otfice should be without a copy of 
this great and valuable work. We apeak Crom 
observation ( having had copies both in our 
bueiueHH-office and private study for tiome lime 
past), when we say that it is the moat complete 
and valuablt. Atlaa published. See advertise- 
menl in another oolmoji. 



Writing in Country Schools. 

By C. G. Porter. 
In the January Journal, " G. N. S./'io 
discussing our article under the above title, 
says that he " is dissatisfied with the present 
condition of our country schools as regards 
writing," but that he "agrees with the 
scholar who thinks that if he can writ© 
legibly, that is good enoi 
statement implies that, in fti. 
country at least, the average pupil of the 
common school, upon the completion of his 
schooldays, cannot write legibly. He also 
says—" I think the student may consider 
himself very fortunate if he can learn to 
write a rapid legible hand." 

In our former article we said that we did 
not agree with the student who thought if 
he could write so it coald be read it was 
good enough. There is a great difference 
between a schoolboy's writing- -which is 
barely legible enough to read— and a rapid 
legible hand. Does the pupil who is satiS' 
fied with a barely legible handwriting ever 
attain a rapid legible hand f As far as my 
observation goes, he does not. On the 
contrary, his writing is very slow, cramped, 
and laboriously performed. He always 
dreads to write, because it is such hard 
work ; and as the majority of people whose 
education is limited to the curriculum of the 
common country school seldom do very 
much writing, they naturally write a better ■ 
hand on leaving school than they do after 
being " out of practice " for a long time. As 
a person never exceeds his ideal, and seldom 
equals it, I claim that it is necessary for 
the pupil to strive for something more than 
mere legibility if be would ever attain any 
proficiency worthy the name in placing his 
thoughts upon paper. Again, a pupil will 
always write better when using his copy- 
book, under the direction of the teacher, 
than he will when writing his own thoughts 
upon paper, with no one present to criticise 
his faults and correct his errors as he makes 
them. It is only too true, as " G. W. S." 
says, that the desks in many of our school- 
houses are narrow and of improper bights. 
There are also, in country schools, many 
other drawbaclts to the proper teaching of 
writing ; some of which " G. N. S." men- 
tions, as, lack of time, frequent change of 
teachers, etc.; but the same argumente may 
be used, with equal force, against any other 
study in the school. 

"G. N. S." asks, if it is "possible to 
train the muscles of the wood-chopper or 
fence-builder to do anything more than plain 
writing, if that." What more do we vsant 
to teach in a country school I Yet there is 
no reason why these should not learn to 
write a good hand. It is not necessary to 
be a soft-fingered student or clerk to be able 
to do good, neat and rapid work with the 
pen. I have seen "horny-handed sous of 
toil " who could not only do good, plain 
writing, but could also execute quite credit- 
able ornamental work. But as the average 
country youth spends from two to four 
mouths in school each year, for from eight 
to ten years, there is no good reason why 
he should not, under proper instruction, 
learn to write a neat, rapid, legible and 
fairly symmetrical hand, which is good 
euough for all ordinary purposes. 

I do not agree with "G. N. S." in tht- 
statement that " the average teacher cau 
and does write it better hand than the aver- 
age business man." The teacher, in writing 
copies, of course imitates the standard 
forms of the letters more closely than the 
average business man dues in his corres- 
pondence. But an ordinary letter, written 
by the average business man, compared 
with one written by the average teacher, 
will show that the former, while exhibitiut; 
more of what is termed individuality in writ- 
ing, shows a neater page, is more easily, 
rapidly and smoothly written, and is fully as 
legible. That "writing is an art " is true, 
but that it is more difficult f.. learn than the 
other branches, with the same amount of 
time, study and labor bestowed uptju it as 
is given to the others, we do not believe. 
There ia one thing which, by the majority 



Jfc><ib.-f>> 'iVt2 ^, ^*- 4;^^J^JJM 



of teaclierB, fieems to be almost entirely over- 
looked, aoil wbitib shouli] always be taught 
ID connection wtib writing, and that is, the 
proper form of writing letters, and tbe more 
commiiD forms of btismess paper. We hope 
that Prof. Ames'*! series of articles on L(t- 
ter- Writing will prove a valuable leason to 
our teachers, and tbat we may see tbe ef- 
fecta ot it iu their teacliing- 



Mental Condition ; Or, The 
Spirit of the Room. 
By C. W. Cooper. 
If we carefully look over tbe pages of 
history we shall find tbat mental conditions 
have often not only modi6ed and directed 
tbe course of events, biit decided even tbe 
destiny of nations. If such is tbe fact, cau 
it be a matter of surprise if, in tbe labor of 
acquiring as bumble an art as writing, men- 
tal conditions may have more to do with de- 
feat or success than we may at first suspect 



Tbe oM maater is no stranger 
or intluence ot meutal coodit 
class, nor does be fail to give 
both weight aud importance to 
the spirit of tbe room. The 
writer of Ibis article has often 
found, when he least expected, 
the spirit and temper of tbe 
room favorable 
labor and succesB ; at other 
times, when every other cir- 
oumstanoe seemH favorable, be 
has been defeated by ao antag- 
onism that he could Dot under- 
stand, and a spirit which he 
rould neither 
control by any means within 
tbe grasp of hi$ 
reach. He has found ih'm con- 
dition ofteuer iu some locali- 



> tbe efiiect 
upon bis 



often m public assemblies as anywhere else, 
and writing-classes are do exceptions. The 
U^acher or speaker, liigbly impressible him- 
self, catches very often, at a glance, tbe 
true sense of tbe situation. Expecting a 
most happy reception, his soul goes back 
upon bimself, and, as (guick as thought, he 
mentally asks, what is tiret to be done ; and 
DOW all inventioD, all previous experiences, 
and all previous artiBces, are overhauled for 
the right expedient — meritorious, indeed, is 
bis eQbrt if he make the right hit. 

Sometimes tbe teacher, perhaps unex- 
pectedly, finds all in bis favor. With or 
without reason, he is the idol of his class. 
On such occasions, in all things he is au 
oracle, and his will is law. This condition 
he secretly hails with delight, aud, if ex- 
perienced, is not slow 10 turn ita advantages 
to account. If tbe master loose not his self- 
possession, if he is quick to discover ex- 
pedients, he will, by some felicitous bit, not 
unfrequently re-establish a working temper 
in bis class. Or it may happen tbat a 
judicous introduction or happy hit, by some 
friendly teacher, in a restorative speech, may 
pnt all things to rights, open the gates to 



thiug but stable, aud tbe temper, steady, 
and even in its legitimate work and place. 
Every face is a study, and every student a 
book — to he early read by a good master, 
and although iu iiiHttert> generally he is ^o 
treat all alike, there is an under e.-peciat 
treatment for a majority, and this side work 
must be not publicly but quietly, rapidly 
and secretly done. There is in the individ- 
ualism of each, a structure — spiritual aud 
mental as well as physical — to be studied 
up ; and if we consider that tbe work of the 
class takes the whole man, instead of a part, 
of course the whole are to be manipulated 
more or less. Indeed, there cau be no 
greater error than to teach a class as a unit. 
One pupil has a strong will ; another has 
none. One has faith ; the next, none. 
One has hope 



ultimately. 



To tbui 



the 1 



does not kno 
o your bands i 



mechanical eye : the i 
from A, etc. To tak^ 
hundred of these fello 
steadily by aids put and in character 
not one, but all, steadily up. This 
business of a good master, 
he would wish to 



One, the j 



tha 



othi 



fact, 






The 




certain kinds of teachers bad 
charge of tbe school tbe bal- 
ance of the time. 

We all know, or public 
speakers at least know very 
well, tbe tricky and vacillating 
temper of public assemblies: 



condition not un- 
in theatres them- 



nessed things more discredit- 
able still: conventions made 
up of men of ability, in which 
a spirit of inconsistent disor- 
ganization was rampant, with- 
out reason, and as thoroughly 
devilish as disobedient. 
He has seen things 
than this : Boards of Arbitn 
tors, and Associates on the Bench, wilfully 
warped and fully committed to false judg- 
ment unpaid, where innocence could have 
no hope, and fair dealing no expectation — 
all through the spirii, by some means, dom- j 



progress and 

teacher will, furthermore, find tbe 
of his class changing from lesson 
son, and from day to day, and often 
same lesson. He will often see it 



hateful enough, but enthroned, and pectedly seriously modified in the s 



for tbe time to force all parti 
cution of ita nefarious will. 

Probably, among orutors, no man in 
America so quickly reads and divines the 
spiritual status or temper of an audience as 
Mr. Beecher, or is so ingenious in shifting 
an untoward drift, or putting a favorable 
oonditiou to good account. 

Mr. Moody, above all men, understands 
spiritual conditions in great bodies of 
people — their use and their abuse, and 
how especially, with tbe aid of music, 
to eTorcise an anarchical devil, or attune 
many discordant temperi 
consistency, and obedi 
note. But not even the moat gifted can 
always subdue the spirit belligerent, or ex- 
orcise the devil fairly enthroned. Great 
orators have, upon tbe stump and else- 
where, suffered unaccountable defeats, from 
time to time; and great teachers, of theif 
best efforts bad to record only disasters and 
failures. Mental or spiritural conditions are 
eternally at work upon tbe bninu) mind as 



netimes it means, obedience ; and 
insubordination ; sometimes, 
trifling ; at others, careful work— and, very 
likely, unexpected aud remarkable progress, 
day all conditions will be favorable ; 



requires artifice to 
New perplexities 



the nest, every 
keep the room to 
will now multiply, 

an abrupt adjournment is the best thing tbe 
occasion will suggest. Tlie writer has, 
now and then, ou such occasions, suddenly 
ordered pens and paper laid aside, and 
fiaisbed the twitting with a pointed aud 
pitob of I befitting speech, 
flexible There are times when all difficulties are 

thrust apon teacher and class by some 
stealthy and bidden head. Quietly and 
handsomely to dispose of this class-room 
nuisance, is a good and handsome thing. 
Still, other matters are here properly con- 
sidered. Each pupil has a temper and spirit 
of his own, as well as his own budget of 
and perplexities to contend 
majority, the spirit is aoy- 



witb. With 



fully handle one hundred pu]>ilB, this man 
must be no laggard. He must quietly place 
HD obstinate pupil iu position ; be must, 
with a simple whisper and touch, arouse 
some sleepy clown to action and willing 
work ; and so on, reaching quickly, even in- 
stantly, the necessities of every sort of cod- 
dition and case. In short, be must be a 
silent but determined worker — everywhere, 
at once ; all eyes, all ears, all touch. Butif be 
carry not this spirit with him to the end — I 
am right, aud I will have my own way, aud 
I shall succeed — be will end, whatever the 
beginning, witli a dead class. 

Considering the immense labor piled ou 
the shoulders of good teachers of penman 
8hip,and the variety of (|ualitication esseolial 
to bear along these huge classes, I have been 
surprised tbat Boards of Education should 
often stick on half-pay, and that teachers in 
attendance should strive to thrust an extra 
load, in tbe way of government, on the 
shoulders of these men. I have a hundred 
times seen this thing done, where tbe im- 
provement was doubly remunerative, and 
the treasury loaded with the weight of sur- 
plus funds. Masters such as 
I have seen are too often far 
too much men of ambition 
and public spirit to temper 
labor to pay, aud so give a 
consideration for which not 
thank is returned. The 
pupils, scores in number, come 
into the hands of a master — 
a stranger — with all of their 
faults, incapacities and weak- 
The art to be learned 
sitive of all 
aria ; tools and materials are 
out of place, and unfit; there 
are all degrees of qualifica- 
tion; the spirit of the room 
is indifferent ; tbe time is cir- 
cumscribed, and the hall badly 
desked and eurumbered with 
books. Tbe scribe, orator, 
teacher, artist, disciplinarian, 
must work almost with the 
rapidity of Hehtning and the 
sleight-of-hand of a wizard, or 
possibly compass 
his work. If be does reach 
desired results, and make 
troopa of writers where others 
have left scarcely the impress 
of one good mark, he closes 
not seldom with a silent hall 
and a thankless Board. 

Still, if it happens, as it 
sometimes does, that in a ball, 
filled by that previous prep- 
which only good teach- 
ing furnishes, ushers him to 
the presence of a right spirit ; 
aider tbe above perplexities and difficulties i where all good and skillful labor, on bis 



with which teachers of writing have 
tend, we shall not be slow to understand 
tbat a professional teacher is better than a 
Tyro in this business ; we shall further be 
able to understand tbat a little experience 
may prove of great value to him who has 
charge of this department. Boards of Ed- 
ucatitm %vbo have of these matters the 
superintendence, and teachers in no way re- 
markable for endowments and heavily bur- 
dened with other labors and cares, may not 
be exactly the persons to make writers any- 
where, or manage writing-classes. In public 
schools, where the day is oppressed by both 
tea' her and pupils with many labors, a 
teacher of penmanship walks in ; tbe desks 
are cleared, and tbe host is at once handed 
over to his charge and his manipulation. 
He is at once (for time is precious) lo get 
and to hold attention, arouse the old en- 
thuaiaam for the pen ; see to it that every 
convenience is in its place, and call for a 
response to work. His authority is limited ; 
and for the rules of bis class teachers or 
pupils care but "ery little. How shall be 
succeed? He must bring a spirit strong 
euougb and determined enough to take the 
class — teachers and all — and carry them 
stoutly through tbe labors of bis hour, and 



part, calls forth a ready response, and all 
labor is crowned with hearty appreciation 
and abundant fruit; where faith, courage, 
hope and goodwill lighten and brighten 
every task ; llieu, in the glad fruition of 
th»*8e better days, all old sHcritices are made 
up, and with bimself and the people tbe 
master is content to be at peace — or even 
more, on terms of jolly good-fellowship. 



Now is tbe time to subscribe for the 
Journal, and begin with the year and new 

Send $1 Bills. 

We wish our patrons to bear in mind that 
in payment for subscriptions we do not de- 
sire postage -stamps, and that they should be 
sent only for fractional parts of a dollar. A 
t and safe 



t than tbe s 



cent stamps. ''. 


he actual risk of remitting 


money is slight 


-itpr 


operly directed, nol 


one miscarriage 


wiUocc 


ur in oue thousand. 


Inclose the hills 


and w 


ere ielleni conUun- 


mg money are 


Bealed 


m preMDO* of the 


postmauer we will sum 


me *U lh« riik. 



X*-Tni; I'i;\; 



^^T^'^tf-^S^'^!^ 






Penmanship in Public Schools. 

The quogtioD, "How sliall I teach pon- 
oianeliipf" is no dowbt asked by every 
teaclier. It is certiiinly Riie of great im- 
portance. Teachers are like the remaiDiler 
of huiuaoity, either radical or iaditlerout iu 
reference to certain dulius tliey liave to per- 
form. We Hud one makiug a hohby, of his 
penmanship to the exclusion of other im- 
portant euhjects; another, totally inditfwreut, 
thinks if ho can write so it can be read 
he is doing all that is required, no matter 
how slow and labored, or if rapid, how de- 
void of form and eynimetrical combination. 
The latter no doubt has obtained and holds 
the idea that penman, like poets, are " bora, 
not maJe." No idea could be more erron- 
eous. We hear peDpIo speak of " Natural 
penman." How consoling to him who has 
devoted years to the careful study an<l prac- 
tice of the art. TImt all are endowed with 
the same genius for acquiring penmanship 
we would not claim for a moment, any more 
than we would claim that all have the same 
aptitude for acquiring the other arts. 

We look upon it, however, as a mark of 
imbecility for a person to assert that he can- 
not learn to write the twenty-six script 
capitals and the twenty six small letters, 
with their proper arrangement in word and 
page, in a good businesslike style, neatly 
and rapidly. Henry A. Spencer, one of the 
authors of the jusily famous Speuceriau 
System of Peumanship, said, recently, ''Any 
person who has good common sense, one 
or two eyes, and five fiugers on either hand 
can, under proper instruction, learn to write 
well." Much has been done by busiaess 
colleges and special teachers to improve the 
penmanship of the people, and their efforts 
have been iu some degree, surcessfnl, yet a 
large per cent, of our population are not 
reached, and as they never get hijjhcr than 
the common school their business qual.i6ca- 
tious are therefore very meagre. They are 
taiight to write, or rather draw, a slow and 
cramped hand, sacrificing movement to 
form. It seems that wo should aim to teach 
writing as huaiDoss men are expected to u?e 
it. Form and movement should be taught 
at the same lime. Our long experience has 
convinced us that this can be done, and there 
is no reason why the young man in school 
should not write just as rapidily and busi- 
ness-like as the one iu business. We have 
heard teachers say, " When our young men 
go into business or hold positions in busi- 
ness houses they break up the hand we 
taught them and acquire a stylo of their 
own." This, in our opinion, is a confession 
of the inefiicient work of the teacher. The 
young man finds that he must intreaso his 
speed if he would meet the demands of tlie 
business world. To a great extent business 
writers put themselves into their writing, or 
in other words, exhibit their individuality. 
It is not ho who undertakes to put himself 
or his stylo into the work of his pupils, 
who does the best work, but he who, full of 
enthusiasm and love for the work, devolopes 
form and rapidity of execution, allowing 
the pupils to express their individuality in 
their work, is the successful teacher. It is 
difficult for teachers who are poor penmeu 
to inspire their pupils with much love for 
the work, and I may eay that a large num- 
ber of our public school teachers are quite 
indifferent writers. 

It is not to bo expected that all can be- 
come adepts, but certainly, most of them 
can, with little trouble, improve so as to do 
efficient work in teaching. In most schools 
we find tho writing-book with printed or 
engraved copies ; this is objected to by many, 
but wo believe it is almost a necessity at the 
present time. No teacher should use it ex- 
clusively, but should supplement the black- 
board and foolscap with movement and dic- 
tation exercises. Every teacher should bo 
able to writt: well on the blackboard, for 
that is one of the essentials of good teach- 
ing. The most successful teachers of jicn- 
manship are those who use the board most 
freely. It would surpriao some of our 
teachers to know what improvement they 
could make by writing one line a day on the 



blackboard, as a copy, for one term, trying 
to follow what is suggested by tlio six S's — 
size, slant, shape, space, shade and speed. 
Copies of one word at a time are not enough. 
Many persons can write words as they stand 
aluuo very well, but fail in the arrangement 
of words in tho page. Wliole lines, stanzas 
of poetry, business forms and letters should 
be given frequently with definite instruc- 
tions, as to spacing and arrangement. No 
careless practice should he allowed, for no 
amimnt of it will make good writers. Care- 
ful study, combined with practice, will pro- 
duce the desired effect. "Labor omnia 
vinciV — Minn. Journal of Education. 



Selected Wit and Wisdom. 



A bad sign — to sign another man's name 

Nothing is denied well-directed labor, 
and nothing is to be attained without it. 

A theory about the dead languages — 
that they were killed by being studied too 

"Well, xvife, you can't say I ever con- 
tracted bad habits." "No, sir; you gen- 
erally expand them." 

A minister once took for his morning 
test, " Ye are of your father, the devil," — 
and in the afternoon, " Children, obey your 
parents." 

A witness in court was asUod if a party 
to the suit was a truthful man. " No," ho 
answered, " he'd rather He at sixty days 
than tell the truth for cash." 

Towiff lady (caressing a spaniel) ; " I do 
love a nice dog." Dandy (near by) : "Ah ! 
would I were a dog ! " Yoiintj lady (sharp- 
ly) : " Never mind, you'll grow." 

Always add a line or two on the margin 
of a letter to a lady. You can't imagine 
tho satisfaction she will obtain iu turning it 
upside down to read tho postscript. 

Life is like a harness. There are traces 
of care, lines of trouble, bits of good for- 
tune, breaches of good manners, bridled 
tongues, and everybody has a lug to pull 
through. 

Parson, to boys playing on Sunday: 
" Boys, do you know what day tliis isf" 
" Heigho, Billy, here's a lark. Here's a 
cove as has been out all night, and don't 
know what day it is !" 

" Goods at half price," said the sign. 
" How much is that teapot?" asked an old 
lady. "Fifty cents, mum," was the re- 
sponse. " Guess ril take it," she said, 
throwing down a quarter. The sign was 
taken in. 

A lawyer once asked the late Judge Pick- 
ens, of Alabama, to charge the jury that 
"it is better that ninety and nine guilty men 
should escape than that one innocent man 
should be punished." " Yes," said tho witty 
judge, " I will give that charge ; but in the 
opiniou of the court the ninety and nine 
guilty men have already escaped in this 
country." 

Tom Marshall was using quite abusive 
language in a Kentucky court at one time, 
aud the judge, after one or two reprimands, 
fined him ten dollars for contempt. Mr. 
Marshall looked with a smile at the judge 
aud asked where he was to get the money, 
as he had not a red cent. " Borrow it of a 
friend," said the court. " Well, sir," an- 
swered Mr. Marshall, "you are tho best 
friend I have; will you lend methomoueyf" 
" Mr. Clerk," said the judge, " you may 
remit the fine. The State is better able to 
lose than I am." 

For $2 the Journal will be mailed one 
year J also, a copy each of the "Standard 
Practical Penmanship" and tho "Hand- 
hook of Artistic Penmanship" { iu paper 
covers; i>5 cents extra iu cloth). Price 
each, separate, $1. 



One of Brother Gardner's 
Lectures. 

" Am Brudder Stepofl' Johnson in do hall 
dis eavuin' t " asked the President as he 
arose and looked up and down tho aisles. 

" Yes, sah." 

" Den he will please step to do front." 

Brother Johnson sppcared to labor under 
the impression that a medal was about to be 
presented him for having the longest heels 
of any man in America, and his face wore a 
broad grin as he stook at the desk. 

" Stepoff Johnson ! " said Brother Gard- 
ner in his most solemn tones, "I was iu de 
back room of a grocery on Beaubien 
Street de odder night to bargain fur ten 
bushels of 'taters, au* I heard your voice as 
you cum in to order fo' pounds of buck- 
wheat flour, and to remark dat your ole 
woman was ravin' crazy wid do toofache." 

" Yes, sah, dat was me." 

" De ole man Climax soon drapped in, 
an' it wasn't five minutes hefo' you had a 
hot dispute 'bout do aige of de airth." 

" Ho doan' know nuffin, sah." 

" You called him a fool." 

" An' he called me a liar." 

" You said he was a bigot." 

"And he said I was a humbug." 

I beard it all, Brudder Johnson, aud now 
I want to talk to you a little. In the first 
place, what do you know 'bout do aige of 
de world f" 

"I — I — well, sah, what does de ole man 
Climax know 'bout itf" 

" Dat's it — what do either one of you 
know 'bout itf Nufliu' — nufEn"t all. Dat's 
whar do trnbblo cums in. Two men will 
dispute harder oher what, they dcan't know 
dan ober sulemu facks. De wor^t enomy I 
eher had was a man who got mad at me be- 
ka'e I wouldn't bel eve in ghosts. What 
we doan't know we often try to make up for 
in argyineut. What we lack in argyment 
we try to make up for in blab. It am easier 
to call a man a fo »1 dan to produce facks 
and figures to convince him dat he am iu do 

" What you believe in wid all yer heart 
may, arter all, be wrong. 

" De man who drops argyment fur epi- 
thet has no case. 

" It am only de fairost-minded men who 
abmit deir ignorance of what dey doan' 

"Abuse may silent a man, but it won't 



"It am only de bigot who prides bim- 

" It am only do fool who believes asser- 
ehuns am true bekase he asserts 'em. 

"Now, Brudder Johnson, you drap back 
to yer bench an' sot down an' stay sot, an' 
dor nex' time you h'ar somebody boldly an- 
nounce dat dis world am fifty millyon y'ars 
old pick up your buckwheat flour an' walk 
home wid de refleckshun dat it wouldn't 
estalilish de facks in der case if you an' him 
war' to gouge an' bite an' kick an' claw till 
deir wasn't a rod of sidewalk left in Gard- 
uerville."' — Detroit Free Press. 



The Hand-book (in paper) is now 
offered free as a premium to everv person 
remitting $1 for one year's subscription to 
the JouitNAL. Or, handsomely hound in 
cloth, for ^5 cents additional, 

LsTTo those subacribiog at club Tates, 
the book will be sent ( in paper ) for 25 
cents; ( in cloth ), 50 cents extra. Price of 
book, by mail (in paper covers ), 75 cents ; 
cloth, $1. Liberal discount to teachers and 



Not Responsible. 
It should be distinctly understood that 
the editors of the Journal ^re not to be 
held as indorsing anything outside of its 
editorial columns ; all communications not 
objectionable in their character, nor devoid 
of interest or merit, are received and pub- 
lished; if any person differs, the columns 
are equally open to him to say so and teli 



It i3 related of a certain clergyman who 
was noted for his long sermons with many 
divisions, that one day, when he was ad- 
vancing among tlie teens, he reached, at 
length, H kind of resting-place in his dis- 
course, when, pausing to take breath, and 
asking the questir>n, "And what shall I say 
more!" a voice from the congregation 
earnestly responded, " Say amen ! " 



SCHOOL TEACHERS' SUPPLIES. 

J. R. HOLCOMB ii CO., BuokaeUen ai 



eipt of eight U cent 



lignaliire nrUlen aad prepared lor pboto-engraTiDg. And 
cbciice packRge of a great TQriely of I'ractical and Onia- 



-Tlie QiiecD." This beantifiil piece (ioTaluabte alike 
of an iaflaite number of Unea (aimple natl cooipouod) in 
bring out the pun-«r ••( expri^MiuLi niUioiit makbg lb« 
testify to Ihe finality iiod cjiiaaiity of floe p«amaiubip 

civic flocielies, for college diaplay, and for pboio-engrav 




J. C. MILLER, 

IckMburg, Perry Co., 



Tun Latkst axd Bf.st American Atlas. 
TH E 

National Indexed Atlas. 

Erom Government & Special Surveys. 

Kadorsed by tbe Poat-ofQce Deparlcnent. 

Invaluable for the library, Ibe oouuliug-rooia. Kbool- 
' PUBLISHED BY 

JNO. W.LYON & CO., 

The Geographical and Stntigtical ioformaHon combined 



PRICE, $18. 
205 Broad-way, New York. 
<2)JU<i ihmugh A.lv(>rti.4emen(a iu 




» ponniBu in ataniug ouo in any desirable locality 
Has Kxperience aud Ca|iltiQ, 

AdiUcM D0.\ 1U3, MEDIA, PA. 



OOK HERE I fi Fine Wrilteii Card* and Bird Alpha- 
_ bel, eoinethiiig new and very Hoe. only 25o Sped 
lendot t'ourishiog. ISc. ObliqueHuId«r«,- beat," 13c 12 

lard wriling nod^ Circular, 10c. ' TmI Oniw, Canto, 

r uionoj lelunded. ii. b! Blakb, Saybiook, llij. 1 3t 







Mm mii^v ' 



4S2^Jp? 






m- 









if <- 

— GiQl^dtiiitat^ uu^^Tiitt* irpFchiunia fitrnu5%i» itji^rS|iu*st.^3B- 




The ahove cut reprticnln the title-page of Amei's Hand-book of Artiatic Penmanthip^a S2-page book, ffiving all tkf principUs and many designs for Jl 
and artistic alphabets. Mailed free until furtlier notice, in paper covers, {Sb cents extra tn cloth), to every person remitting fl for 
renewal for the "Journal." Price of tlie book, by matt, in fafier, 75 cents; in cloth, $1. 



\rishing, with i 



irl>) thirty standard 



Blackboards. 

LAPIUNUM (Stone-Cloth). 



The Packard Commercial Arithmetic. 

By S. S. PACKAKU, of Packard's Business Colleiie, 
BYRON HORTON, A.M. 
IN TWO SKPARATE EDITIONS. 

I. Complete. 320 pp.. large oetavn. o School, ■i?.^ pp.. rliiodecin] 

* piiMfd to iiM flftt) thouMnd. null lb«. Si.huol pditiou 




Black Diamond Slating, 

Thr Best Liquid Slatiiuj {icithout fxeention)ft/t 
IValUand IfooiUn lUarkhoardt. 



E,a 


S: 


Ss 


pital Medica 
and Produce 


CoUiB" 
i Exob 
Biebauj 


Brooklyu. 
ITorti Cotto 


i 




Hjitain 


Tk";-!^ 


y<^ •'•"""'■ 


.))•). Pa 


mm. N. J 




B 


i'li 


-m.'n 


•"j 


S 


ughkeop'we. 
nfonl.'ct 


N. 






ROLL BLACKBOARDS. 

PRICES. 

r ■ ■ . - ■■ ifxii •' . ' - 

CARD BLACKBOARDS. 



ORDERS PROMPTLY FILLED, 
PENMAN'S ART JOURNAL, 

I2-" ^ 205 B™.dw.,, N,w ■ 

A FREE GIFT ! 

ne EnerHving In Colorit, (size, 28x10 ii 
.rly ai r«. wiJe, «ad ..v« 3 f^l long), «p«* 



lliioK It li ipkndid. J AID muob ubllge.1 lor the Lautilu^ 
'^tuL i.^l'Mn'"""'**' '*"" """ "erealBr. nnd do you 



poilage, iMwkinK. and co*i ..f advenisiny ibt picture 

COLUMBUS BUGGY CO., 

Manufaelurofs of 

Strictly Fikst-Class Vehicles Only. 

COLUMBUS, OHIO- 

rOR SALE.— A pruipewu. a„d grvwiag BuBiiiew 
vol' WILL REGRET IT il you do not Mod 50 cts.. 



///jjft School, Brooklj-n. N. Y.": .9. /Cerr. St. Johni, N. 1 

S. S. P.'XCK.'XRD, Publisher, S05 Bkoai.uav. Nkw York 



S»!^v'\.\s>yv«\wi,\t,vm»mvv\\sv^^ 



ESTERBROOK'S 



n/ S'ERrES OiF 

bCHOnii PENS. 




knovvlH<lBe'i8 of rao«t wonl/? > 

^verv hoy aiidrs'f' "houldrstiidj'. 
pvprv teacher t>lioiihI study, 
will Vavp thoiieaiHls of do'lUre. 
will prepare pvery hoy for buaineso. 
-will avoid Iroiiblesoniv litigation. 
18 mnre important than "olonpea," 
will make this study teachable, 
branch has bflen too much neglectHd. 
nbould'be used in everr school. 
♦Tpry leaoher chonhl adopt at once. 






iipply 



•1, «l 



D. APPLETON 



ififty'law 

LESSONS. 



& CO, Publishers. 

York, Boston. Chicago. San Francisco. 



PEN3IE\*Sand ARTISTS* SUPPLIES. 

On rcwipt of till.- prices annexed, we wlU for 
ward tiy retnnt of mall, or by t-xpress us stilted, 
any tirtlclu named lii the following Uut. 

By ordering from ns, palrona cun rt-ly not only 
tipon le^eivlng asuperior article, but upon dolnii 
"B pronipUy. 



Anie^' Compendium ol Om'l PenmanBhlp. $4 M 

Ames' Uook of Alphabets I M 

Bryant'a Book- keep Ins, Counting House Ed 3 H 
Amea' Copy Slips, forlnstructlon and pmc- 
ttce in writing, per sheet, cont^dnlng 40 

eikereisos , le 

60 sheets, (.50 full aetfl of copies) 8 00 

100 •■ (lOOfnUeetaof eoptea) BOO 

Bristol Board, 3-eheet thick, J2X28 m. , pr sht 50 

French B. B.,24xu', " ' •* !! 7fl 



( Card Board. 22x28, for -v 



ulnk.. 



Black Cordii per _ . - _. 

Black Cards per thouaand, by express 2 00 

What's dflng-paper, bot-preea, 1Sx20,$ 15 |l w 

19x2i; M 2 20 

" „'* " 21x30. M 3 -S 

" " " »ex*0, M 7 (HI 

«lx.V2. 1 75 80 00 

BLEtnk BrlBtol Board Cards, per 100 ib 

1000 S 00 

" " ■* 1000, by ex. 1 M 

WinsorANewtOQ'asnprBQD.Ind. Liik.uUck 1 ot 

PiiurpackB, lOOcanls 60 

1000 " !!"!.!!!. !"!'!'..V.'.V.V.V.V.'.V.."!!'.! 490 

1000 " by erpre*» 4 00 



Tbe New Si>«nnerian Compendium, Fori 1, C, n, 4. 



Liquid SlatloK. Ihe \^X in ii 

board*, per pillon 

^" No KOoda sent by r 

rampanied by caith to oue-h 



niLS MANUAL- 



THE 

Tenth Annual Meeting 
Business Educators' Assoc'tion 

OF AMERICA 

Will be Jield in Iht Ciiij u/ Washmgtm,D, C, 

Beginning Tuesday, July 10th, 

AND CONTINUING FOUR DAYS. 



PENMANSHIP. 



■ (utility will be giveii niomb«™ for vlsiUuK 1 



SPECIMENS. 
n KpMimeni of fiourijibing (differenl designs).' 



WRITTEN CARDS. 
' T — 'J'I'-edKe. round or square oomei 

tra hiuivy (best in tbe 




/^. 



'g7fm/./. 



PENMAN. 

r Rapidi Btuineu College, Cedar Rapid 
(Xr<r«(drt frit. 



PARKERS 

FAHGi COLORED INKS. 

Assorted expressly for the use of Ponr 

wrlte«.-Brillian' " ~ " 



Penmanship and Art Department 

WESTERN NORMAL COLLEGE, 

BushneU. lU. 

Scil.ulawbip in penmuMhlp depart ■ «Dt, wilb ill- 

!■_' W-t.n, {,1 .irniijiieutal poninanabip. by niali i.i^oo 

Liii.|>.'ii,iti,iii, tr"Mti irodi tbe pen, wilb iDltniOlIoDB. 1.00 
ii.-iK .It ,.i,iirj HTiii .imamental penmaoBbip, freab 



Durable, 



Light 



1.01. Hint giuta boitlcii (exoepi yold. J-tw.) ; 
a box. .Sent ou receipt of *U Oiiciilnr. i 
re. aeot f^oe PARKJJfR M'F'G CO., I 



WRITTEN CARDS. 



HD pluiD cardB. will 






C. N. CRANDLE. Manager. 

^la BusuNKi.L, III. 

III r. ,'°'°'^'P' '^"'^"x'y bound, for as cnl.' 
IJ-W *<"«• /*«»r*i'« ihi«„M, ctoU^*. K«okttk. lowm. 



DISPl»y CUTS FOR ADVERTISme. 



PHOTO-LITHOGRAP 






WELLS W. SWIFT, 

Marlonvllle, OuondoKw County, Now To: 



klndi; Blue. 

YoUow, Brown, Violet. 

kind*; Sytnpalbetic. 6 



(50 Reoipeal ComenU 






FRED. D. ALLING'S 

Superior Writing Inks. 



« «dUi« satiifkction realUed by their 
e opinion* of expert! ai to tbaee uotiv- 



DamIbl SawVEB, Editor UnUtrial Penman. 
IIIA COUMEUOAL COLLECK. Portland, Oreguu. 



TlmoN Pacific Railway Compaky. 

BuBton, Uau.. Nm. 15. ISSO. 
P;<EU. D. ALLCte, E«q., Rooheiter, N. Y. 
Dtar Sir .- Id reply lo your inquiry, I tuku plea«ure i 






C HcPari.jU(D. Treu. 
»,Cal.. July?. 1881. 



ofhiginkB. Verj' tntly, J H. Magoffry, Peoman. 
Office of Erie School Boakd, 

Pred. D Allinr, of Rwhester, N. Y., in our Mhoota, I can 
My thai it 11 afl the mamilaoturer recommend! it to b«. 

U. Ij. JON&e, Snpt. 

Vo^'uui'y, "^^ JA«E8 VRK. 
ALLING'S JAPAN INK affori. a finer line, a bUcker 

ALLINGS GOLD, SILVER AND WHITE INKS 0"^ 

rreely, r.-ii.l.rii,K i1im |it;j,i,^i .irokea jwrieclly legible and 

lounohiiiK, \'i.niiii;, I'riw or Stiow Card Writing. 

ALLING'S ASSORTED COLORED INKS — Scarlet, 
•olo™ are all IjnlJiani. di-oided, and of perfect uniformity. 

ALLING'S DEEP BUCK INK.-T«iClieni of Penmau- 

If ft^r""""' " "'"' ~'^''*'' *"** '""^ "•'*" ""* '""""' 
PRICES. 

lapan luX, per piul bottle, by espreM $1 ,00 

A'hite Ink, J-oz. bottle, by express 25 

iold or Sliver Ink, J-u/ bottle, by eaproM 50 

DEEP BLACK INK FOR SCHOOLS. 
5-gaI. ke(i», uaoh, net 16 25 

»• " ■■ ;■ ;; 9.00 

'2-ia. oooe boltlea, per groM (peoked in t-gro. wood 

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;an, ,M Contrast Carmliie%M^°'. 

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routitioi ibr following lukK: J-oi. bodle eaob of Jctpan, 
;armiiie, BIdo, Violet, Qrveii, Conlraal Carmine, Scarlet, 

SPECIAL NOTICE TO ACENTS. 
Ji?1'MVli°eCo"lor»'ofVn\'^^CaIirj«^^ ^^"^ ' 

FRED. 0. ALLING, Ink Manufacturer. 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. I 

N. H—Xo tiiUiUion givtn to poitdl-eard r*qti4iU /«r 



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with comparatively little labor on the part of the teacher. 



Better than the Best of its Predecessors. 

Th* work has received the higliest eiidoryemem of many of the tiioBt emiiie.ut commercial 
teachera, who have pronouuced it "better than the beet of ite predeceeeore." 
The completed book appeared September lOlh, 1882, and has been already 

Adopted by Leading Business Colleges and Commercial Schools 

Throughout the couutrv- Circulara contHiuing a largv nutuher of riaguig tvstiiuonialB. aud 
giving a rtetcriplioi. of tli» hook, in nifllio.li, ooncmc. prior. He. will be mailml ro aiiv 
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■ A Reference-Book and Key Free of Charge 

Will be furDiebed to 8cboul» adopliiig the work (aud lo echool? only), by the iihp of which the 
book can be introduced at any lime withont inconvenience. Aildrei>tt, 

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Rochester Business University, 
i-fi, ROCHESTER, N. Y. 

THE LARGEST AUD FINEST WORK OF THE KIND IN THE WORLD! 



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on receipt of »1.7.-,. 

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nppluation. 

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penmanship publications and Btationers' specialties. 

It is recognized everywhere as a guaranty of the superiority of anything which bears 
that well-known and standard designation. 

SPENCERIAN STEEL PENS 

Are used by all the beat penmen in the country. They combine a degree ot elasticity and a 
smoothness of point not found in any other peua. 

Samples of tlie FixE-roiNT pens sent on receipt of 3-ceul stamp. 

SPENCERIAN WRITING-INKS. 

Complaints are constantly made of difEcultyin getting good hik ; and as novelties are 
continually being brought out, they are tried in the hope tliat they may prove free fioiu llie 
usual defects. The original receipts from which the Spencerian Black Ink is made have been in 
use in England for over one hundrtd yearn. The proprietors have devoted tlie greatest care 
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lor trial, by mail, on receipt of 40 cents. 

SPENCERIAN SCRIPT RULER. 

Piesents not only Standard Alphabets and Figures, but a test sentence, embracing the entire 

mall alphabet. The mastery of this sentence gives, in praci 

""le various scales of writing ret 
I published on this Ruler, makei 
and teachers. 
SAMPLE WILL BE SENT, BY MAIL, ON RECEIPT OF 30 CENTS. 

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This new and improved penholder enables one to write on the points of the pen, instead 
of across Uieni, ae with the ordinary straight penholder. The result is at once apparent in a 
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AND TEACHERS' GUIDE. 



NEW YORK, JULY, 1883. 



Vol. VII.— No. 7. 



Lessons Omitted. 
Owine lo the litrge araouut of other mat- 
ler we (Ictiircii to present in thia numher, 
and the fact that hoth Pr.if. S|>eooer and 
ourselves have been an occupied with affaira 
pertaining to the B'ipiness Educators' Con- 
vention, and the f {F.rt for a short vacation, 
as to iulprfere with the preparation of copy 
and illustrations, lM)th the Writing-Lesson 
and the article on Correspondence have 
heon deferred. One or both will appear in 
the AugMst is8.te^ ^^ 

Report of the Fifth Annual Con- 
vention of the Business Edu- 
cators and Penmen of America. 

In view of the fact that a fcrftad'tn re- 
port, in pamphlet form, of the proceedings 
of the Convention is to be immediately 
published, we shall attempt little more than 
an outline of the pniceedings, giving pre- 
emiueDce to that portion which relates more 
specially to iieuinauship. 

The Convention convened on July lOth, 
in the hall of the Speureriau Business 
C.dlege ( Lincoln H.ill ),Washini!ton, D. C, 
and was called to order by lion. A. D. 
Wilt, of D.iyton, Ohio, President. 

The f dlowing members and attendants 
were present : 

lion. A. D. Wir.r. Dayton, Ohio. 

C E. C.M>Y, NVw Y.irk city. 

ti. S. PACliAKD, New York cily. 

Mies Lol-riK K. Hli.l,, New York cily. 

I). T. Amks. New York city. 

Mrs. D. T. Ami.:s. New York city. 

Hon. H. A. SfKNCKli. New York city. 

II. 0. Sm'.nckh 

Mr.. H. C. SfH 

LvMA.v P. Sriv 



»hing1on, D. C. 

t. Washington, D. C. 

, Washington. D. C. 
Luil.VAllH Sl'H.NCKU, Waebinglciii, D. C. 
Mi«e .MAdiilK SfK.vcKli. Wai.hin]jl..i,. D. C. 
(Jk<i. K l.rni.i;. WaMiinglon, D. C. 
K. C. Tow.v.sKxii. Wa-hinuton, B. C. 
(ieii. li. I) .Ml SSKY, Ws.hiogtuii, D. C. 
J. W. .Swank. Washington, D. C. 
J. O. T. Mi-C'AliTliy, Washi.igton, D. 0. 
D. A. BUMW.v, Washington. D. C. 
M, U. Caskv. of the U. S, Trea.ury,Wa»li- 
ingiun. I). C. 

K. C. .SfKXCKIl, Milwaukee, Wis. 
C. II. I'l-uiriK. Keokuk. Iowa. 
Jti,,W. HlO.WN, .laek.oiiville. HI. 
Hon. I.;v Mmih «, IIHroii.Mich. 



U»: 



Oliii 



G. K Mh 




nl, 


ill-i. Oliio. 




A. II. Ill^ 


IA.\ 


. \V,.i 


H,-ier, Mass. 


Mr,, A. 11 


111 


NMAN. 


Worcester 


Mass. 


W. II. Sai 


i.M 


. Ball 


more. Md. 




Mr.. W. K 


.•>. 


i)i.Kn 


Baltimore 


Md. 


W. H. I'A- 


nil 


(. Bui 


irnuie, Md 




P. K. H.iii 


•.It.s 


Hoch 


.ler, N. Y 




A S. Osli, 


n\ 


, R.,cl 


ester, N. i 




c. r. Mka 


>.<, 


Sviac. 


Be. N. Y. 




W. N, Vi 1 


■:\ 


l.„o.l. 


11. Cnuadu 




Ml.. «■ .\ 


V 


l;i:\. 


j.ndoi,. Cn 


Tiads. 


Hon. A .1. 


I'll 


Kii. -r 


enton, N. . 




.1. M. PlIA 


III-: 


I. Wheeling, W. 


Va. 


Mrs. J, M. 


Pit 


tsllKlt 


Wheeling 


W. V 


Mis. KiiAS 




Whe 


ling, W. Va. 


Mi.S PllAS 




. Whe 


ling, W. \ 


a. 


Master Pi 




Kll. Wheeling, W 


Va. 


C. N. Uhasdi 


:, Uu. 


Mlell, ill. 




Mi». U. N. 


i;ii 


\N1U.K 


Bushnell, 


111. 


K. S. Ciit.r 


l\a 


King 


s Monmaii 


N. C. 


CJ. M. S.Mii 


lib 


lAL, 


■eeusboro. 


N. C. 



Prof. C. £. CaJy was appoiDted to report 






the pro' eeditjgs of the meeting 
inteud their puWicHiion. 
• A letter was read fn>m Mahlon J. Wood- 
ruff, MaDaeer of llie Kiissell Erwiu Maiiu- 
lacHiriag Co., New York, favoring the es- 
tnblii-hiHent of the Plitt R. Spencer Memo- 
rial Lihrary at Geneva, O The letter con- 
tained an ehifinem trihote to Mr. Spenrer's 
ilevotiim lo the cause of biisine'3 education. 
Communications on the same suhject were 
received from Jay P. Treat, Eaq., and Mr. 
P. W. Tuttle, of Geneva, 0. 

Messrs. Packard, Sadler, and Mayhew 
were appointed a comitiiilee to draft suita- 
ble reaohiti.ma relating tn the establish- 
ment of the Piatt R. Spencer Meuiorial 
Hall and Library Association at Geneva, 0. 

Mr. Packard, of New York, spoke for an 
hour on the sul-ject of the management o'. 
business schools. He first gave a rapid 
sketch of the history of busineoH education 
during the past thirty five years, most of 
which he has seen and much of which he 
has helped to make, and then took up the 
sul-ject ol buildinc up and couductiog busi- 
ness colleges. He believed tn vigoruoa but 
appropriate advertising. Business education 
is in iteelf a wbolesume ilea, and what is 
wholesome canuot he too strongly or per- 
sistently placed before the public. He 
drew the contrast between the schocfls of 
thirty- five years ago, when the proprietors 
of competing institutions were implacable 
enemies, and the educators of to-day, who 
were In the best sense co-workers, and who 
meet year after year in convention and ex- 
change views on all the vital questions 
which enter into the doiuain ot teaching. 
Then (litre were not iu all the country over 
500 students in the business schixds. Now 
there are more than 40,U00,aud the Comri.is- 
sioiier of Education is forced to give them a 
large amount of space iu his annual reports. 
The buMDCss colleees had, in fact, cume t.> 
be regarded as in an important sense repre- 
senting American education. Ho entered at 
length upon the liberal method of encour- 
aging the young men and women by fully 
recognizing the best there was iu them, and 
holding them to account only as men and 
women should be held to account ; and he 
laid great stress upon the benificent eflVcr 
of educating the sexes together. He had 
bad grave doubts at first as to the feasibility 
nt this plan; but all doubts had long sinct- 
vanished into thin air, and he could see n.> 
reason why a largo Ecliool should not be 
substantially a large family. Men and 
women have to meet in all the relations of 
life, and the more they learn to measure 
each others' intellectual worth the better 
for both and for all. He extolled the 
teacher's profession, and claimed that there 
WHS not a nobler or more dignified title in 
all the world than that of schoolmaster; 
that the man who showed himself to bo a 
born teacher was just as divinely calhd to 
h'8 work as any minister — in fact more so 
than many of them. He drew attention to 
the fact that among the representatives 
present fifteen p rsons at least had (ulloivtd 
the profestitm for twenty-tive years on an 
average, and their robust health and exctl- 
appearance must he accepted as prima 
facie evidence that they were finding io 



thei 



cork : 



npens. 



rial way. but a satisfaction i|uilo hf-yond that 
which rests on the accumulaiion of money. 

He alluded to the emiuent men through- 
out the land who had shown great zeal in 
the work before them, and especially of 
ex-Pre.''. Gaifi. Id, whose glowing enb)gium 
dfliverf r| before the graduating classes of the 
Spenceriau Cullege in Washington, in J8(i7, 
had become classical. 

Iu c<mclusiiin, he besought the members 
of the Convention to be true to their good 
work, and not to f.irget that, as no man 
can live to himself alone, it is a noble thine 
to live tor others in the way of building 
them up iu all g->ud thiugs. The leacher's 
pay, however ample, is not his best nor bis 
chief reward. His reward is in the happy 
consciousness ot implanting sentimen's iu 
the hearts of his pupils which will domi- 
nate their lives, and which will bear fruit 
long after he has gone to bis rest. 

When the Association assembled at the 
afternoon session President A. D. Wilt, of 
the Dayton (Ohio) Business College, de- 
livered an able and interesting Address, in 
which he reviewed the rise and progress of 
business colleges, dwelling at length on the 
benefits to l»e derived from a thorough train- 
ing in the theory and I'ractico of business. 

A. S. Osborne, of the Rochester (N. Y.) 
Business University, led in a discussion of 
the Method of Marking, as employed in his 
writing classes. Discussion followed, in 
which Messrs. R. C. Spencer, Michael, 
Peirce, Ilinman, Rogers, Goodman, Meads, 
Brown, and Mrs. H. C. Spencer, of Wash- 
ington, participated. 

The exercise and discussion related to the 
effect of various methods of marking for 
advancing pupils in writing. The prevail- 
ing sentiment seemed favorable to some 
method of marking writing in all written 
exercises as tending to induce greater care 
and excellence than otherwise. The fol- 
lowing we give substantially in the words 
.,f The Washif^glon Daily Pont: 

Upon the conclusion of this discussion, 
Professor D. T. Arn^-s, Editor of the Pen- 
man's AUT JiiURNAL, and a well-known 
expert, proceed«-d to give a general talk 
upon tho principle employed by him and 
his profosfiou iu detcctiug forgei' 
began by referring to the general 
ment of experts in trials, 
he Paid, in answer to a question, 
easy to di:«tiugiiish forgeries ; soi 



jmploy- 



iibl... No 



perj 






exactly aliki 

own name tnice exactly alike." 

Though differing, the differences are in 
the aliglit variations of tho same forms and 
personalities: as between two kernels of 
the same kind of grain, which may vary 
widely in form and size, and yet leave no 
ground to doubt their identity; while kernels 
uf different kinds of grain may closely ro 
semble each other in forui and size, yet 
will eacti lack the characteristic features of 
the other— as. for instance, two kernels of 
corn may differ widely in form and size, yet 
neither could be mistaken for a pea or »tlier 
grain however close might he its resem- 
blance in size and outline. There are 
multitudinous habits In writing formed and 
practiced uuconsciuusly, aud, being so, no 
writer can entirely divest himself of them 



that confronts the forger < 



a greHt<iifficutty 
r a person seek- 



Of J 



t propo 






elf 






iuitial and termiual lines, forms of letters, 
their ' relative proportions, ccmnectious, 
turns, angles, spaciug, slope, shading { iu 
place and degree), crosses, dots, orthogra- 
phy, punctuation, etc. These peculiarities 
being habitual, and mainly unknown, can- 
not be successfully avoided through any ex- 
tended piece of writing. No writer can 
avoid that of which be is not conscious, nor 
can any copyist take cognizance of and 
SLiccHSsfully reproduce the.<e mutlitudinoua 
habitual peculiariiies, and at the .same time 
avoid his own hal)it. A writer may with 
the utmost ease entirely change the general 
appearance of his writing; this may be done 
by a change of slope, sizf. or by using a 
widely different pen; yet in spite of all effort 
his unconscious writing hal>it will remain 
and he perceptible iu all the details of his 
writing. Sui'h an effort to disguise one's 
writing could be scarcely more successful 
than would be a disguise of a person to 

" Forgeries," he continued, "are generally 
confined to autographs. The methods em- 
ployed to forge them are various. Oue way 
is by tracing the autograph on thin paper 
and then re-tracing it. Another method is, 
by practicing upon the autograph to be 
fi»rged until a more or less ixact copy can 
lie written off on the customary movement. 
Iu the first case, on examining the forgery 
there is generally noticed a hesitancy in the 
line — a drawing movement — aud it is not 
practical to impart the customary shade of 
the genuine, while first carefully tracing the 
liufs; these must bft shaded, or, as it often 
called, paioted-in; subsequently, these sec- 
ondary linps, however skillfully done, are 
plainly visible when examined uuder a 
iriicroscope. Siguatures made this way are 
well calculated to deceive those who jiidge 
from ordinary appearance and do not study 
them closely. The other method— that of 
practice and free-hand— is usually detected 
liy the presence of some personal character- 
istic of the forger and the absence of the 
true habitual cbaracteri8tic.s of the genuine 
autograph, aud qui'e frequently by this 
method the forger will deem it necessary to 
retouch shades, in order to bring the for- 
gery to a suHiciently close resemblance tn 
the genuine, which is always fatal to a 
forgery when skillfully examined. There 
will also, in this kind of forgery, bo more 
or loss hesitancy in the writing aotioeablo 
uuder the glass— an indication of thought. 
No one can write as freely when he is 
thinking how he is forming bin letters as he 
can otherwise. Let any one of you write 
your own signature, and then try to copy it, 
aud you will Bud that lh« secoml signature 
has not the freedom of the first." 

The prof.ssor here illustratc<l forcibly 
upon tho blackboard by requesting one of 
iho audience to write his own autograph, 
naturally, twice upon the board, when he 
called upon one uf the skillful writers pres- 
ent to copy one of the autographs as nearly 



.1 ,...,>il,lp. TiK. ,.'■•'•■>'"' 'lion g»v(., „ 
vory iiiliTlvtMli; HTl.l skillful nu«ly,.i.., fli.ilv- 
iui! llii. vrrj dillVTi-ut .liBrHcKT l..l«-rcu iIip 
iiHturnI vnrinlhxia iif linlnl ns l.riveru '.lie 
gciiuino ililto^ritttlis Hnil tlie iliflVmicP nn 
Wtn-cpii tlio gi*miiiio «inl cdpii-d eigimtnre. 

■■M«ny f.,rtcric3 «ro rxocuK-a «iil, ™„. 
eumiriH'e ikill, imd smno well u in h ilify 
dercni.m. In S'.tne casra iu wliuh I Ii»vc 
ttcii coli&ultpj 1 have ileuliocil tn oxiirpFs 
an npmuiD.ouioe to lack ofi'osilivo iutiica- 
tiuuB, or llio liiniteil poinpoi-iiioQ rallrd iu 
queslion. The must ililliL-ult chsgs for an 
OXfiert are when ol.ly a A-w wonl?, contain- 
ing, |icrliap°, nut mi.ro than a d.izeu ililler- 
ent lelltrs Mfre nt hand. From these few 
letter.", and the liaudwriting of, perhaps, a 
dt.zeii persons, the guilty party had Iu be 
discovcied." 

At the conclusion of his talk a genenil 
discussion of an interesting character fol- 
lowed, iu which much iuforuialiou concern- 
ing forgerU-.", pcculiaiities cf peomanship 
and difliculties of c.fi)ert-woik were evolved. 

In the evening, the memlicrs and invited 
guests— ainuug uhom were many if the 
]jromincnt citizens and ilB.ials ol Wnsh- 
ingtou— assenil.lid in the commodiuus 
parlors of the Spincetian Business C.lligi', 
nheto tliey«eie miin hiis)iiiablj riceivtd 
and entertained by Pn.fcsfor ami llrs. II. 
C. Spencer, by whom brief and fitlicg 
remarks of welcome were made, which 
were respotded to, on behalf of the guests. 
by the Pre.-iJeut, A. D. 'Wilt. Most charm- 
ing voeal music was rendered by Miss 
Scott, of the laheriaclc Choir, and Mr. E. 
J. Whipi.le, while E. C. TownseuJ, Pro- 
fessor ol Elocution in the Spenceriau Bus- 
iness College, rrnilcrrd several highly 



JlUg 1 



The 



jug was pasted iu a m'St social and 
pleasant manner. Towaid the close of the 
evening tlio whole party sat down to an 
elegant supper. 

The exercises of Wednesday commenrrd 
«l 8 A ^t. by the Penman's Section, which 
was led lor twenty-live minutes in a dis- 
cuEsiou on muhoHs of teaching writing by 
C. II. I'eirce. He advocated tl e practice 
of (jgiires as a hajia for nuiik and acciinile 
moveiiieuts in the use of tlie pen. Pupils 
win. cuiihl make figures rapid and »-vll 
ci.uld write correspoDilinely «eU. His 
order of drill was to devch.p— 

1. F.iim. 

2. Arrangement. 
S. Speed, Mugly. 

4. Speed, promiscunnsly. 

5 Kn.lmauce. 

fi. lUl.ii e...Ial,Iished. 

7. ('..iiil,iualiut.s. 

8 Style. 

!l. Individuality. 
He would never i.raetieo so rapi.lly as to 
saeriHce font,. Hi, plan «as fnv. rably re- 
ceived. As a result of il.i.^ drill, pii|..|s 
acquired the power to make e-iid ligiires 
with sut|.iisiig rapiJiiy. He thomd l,i» 
own avi raire speed to 1 e IGO ciphers to the 
minute. 1 12 site,., I.O lours, Mil eialits. Sill 
flvis. 81) threes, 1118 uiiies, Ull twos, anil 811 
sevens. He also illiistrated the ability „f 
the tiaii.ed mind to write duwu tignres 
accurately ubile thinking or talking ou 

Pr.f.S S P.ickaril had adopted and eotn- 
meniled me plan, and said thaldurii g his ex- 
perience lo- had never known a person to iiiako 
good liuures wli.i was nut a g.n.d wiiler. 

An intetefliiig discustiun followed, tar- 
licipateil iu by Ca.l.v, II A. S|.encer, Good- 
man. Mi,-hael, Brown. Frasher, and Wilt. 
Messrs. Mayhew and Hininan had tried Mr. 
Pciree's plau and secured good results. 

G. W. Urowti led in a'talk ou buMness 
wri.ieg. He said ho had almost come to 
believe that p< od writing was not necessary 
f.r good teaching ; he did not believe in the 
superlative niceties ..f the wiiting-master. 
These st.alements led to a shar|. discussion, 
participated iu by .Messrs. 0.-b..rue, U..g- 

teulimeut seeming alverso to Sir. Brown's 
plan. 
The regular seasiou of the day was 



opened at 111. A M, by I!..bert C. Spencer, 
»iih a v|.ryabl« and valuable Paper upon 
'■Prof.erty and ProgrLss." His Paper 
elicited more than ordinary interest. 

W. II. Sadler delivered an interesting 
lecture on arithmetic, evolving some new 
ideas eoneerniug the science and ready use 

An important feature of the day's proeeed- 
iiies was the reading by Mr. II. C. Spencer 
of a I'jper, eniitleJ, "The Fiindaiiicn'al 
The.iry of Accmints," by Charles E. 
Sprague, Secretary of the Union Dime 
Savings Institutb.n, New York, and co- 
edit-.r of American Counting room. Mr. 
Spragne's article was a clear and compre- 
hensive discussion of the terms "debit" 
and "credit"; their true siguilicauco and 
use iu business; also, an explanation of 
the uses and forms of the balance-sheet. 
At the close of the reading a unanimo'is 
vote of thanks was tendered to Mr. 
Sprague for his very able and instructive 
eoiniiiuuication. Ou the opening of the 
afier'noon session Mr. William s' Auchin- 
ch.ss, of Philadelphia, produced his noted 
"Averaging Machine,'' and explained it 
to the Convention. The machine was 
designed to lessen the labor of calculation. 

increased the mathematican's work that it 
is no lunger possible for a busy man to 
spend the lime required for iierforming the 
long series of similar ciilcnlalionB which fre- 
quently become necessary. The machine 
is designed to perform inliicato mathemat- 
ical problems without mental labor, and 
the illustration of the methods by which it 
is operated was greeted with enthusiasm by 
the Convention. A committee appointed to 
test it thoroughly subsequently reported 
that llie averagiug machine accomplishes 
all that is claimed for il. 

Mrs. Sara A Spencer delivered a practical 
lesson ou the use of words and the forma- 
tion of phrases, clauses, ami sentences, with 
blackboard illustrations, which elicited the 
warmest praise and coinmen.lation of the 
Associaiion. A rising vote of thanks was 
ten.lercd the lady. 

Mr. E C.Town=eml, Professor of Elecu- 
tion in the Spenceriau College, delivered an 
address on t^e practical uses of elucutiun in 
the business affairs of the world. 

Prof. Packard did not favor elocution as 
a branch fur business colleges to make a 
siK'ciality of. He taught reading and elo- 
cution through daily reading of ucws and 
market reports ab.ud by his students. 
What was necessary was. first, ideas; then 
the ability to talk on one's feet. 

II. C. Sp»ucer objected to Prof. Pack- 
ard's method of treating the subject under 
eousideraliou. His c.dkge had been in the 
habit ofempb.iing .■> teacher of el.,euliou 
f..r many years, and had found it a goo.1 
thing. Prof. Packard had also emphiyed 
iu his iustituti.m elocutionists who had 
been trained in other schools. Elocution is 
the development of the voice iu order that 
it may pro|ietly express the einulione of the 
soul. Prof. Townsend, during his services 
iu the college, bad wrought a work whose 
value money could n..t fairly defiue. 
'i'oiing men should be educated for citizen- 
ship, and iu this country the art of i.ublic 
speaking iiiiBlit be correctly classed amimg 
the duiies of a ciiizen. Instead of decr)ing 

for nil it is worth. The effort of Prof. 
Spencer elicited applause. 

Mr. Ilrown, of Adams Express Com- 
pany, aid instructor iu phonography in the 
Washington S|ienceriau College, spoke on 
phonography and its remarkable growth 
in the last few years. The lime had 
come when it should be introduced into 
the system of general ediicaliou. The 
proof of this is the great demand for short- 
hand writers and for shorthand periodicals 

and 1 ks. In all largo cities th..u8ands of 

phonogtaphers arc employed, and the num- 
ber is .•onstanlly increasing. Phonogiaphy 
slo.iild at once bo iucorp.. rated iu the curri- 
culum of business colleges. The speaker 
espkineil by a blackboard diagram a 



sh..rtliau.l innchine, reccnily put on the 
market by a St. Louis lirm, for taking 
down p'iplic speeches and dictatii.ns. 

G. W. Michael, of Oberliu, Ohbi, led' a 
discussi..u on teaching wiiiieg. He did 
not claim to have originated any styles of 
letters, but said ho bad developed a new 
plan for teaching pupils to write rapidly 
from the begiouiug. Mr. Jlichael's plan 
did not appear to commend itself to other 
teachers, as tho prevailing opinion and 
pract'ce was to adopt a more deliberate 
movement at tho outset, and, after forms 
are made with reasonable accuracy, work f.r 
speed. Mr. Michael has the courage of bis 
convictions, and abounds with eutbusiasm 
in his work, which seems to have produced 
commendable results. 

Sirs. Bjiley, of Virginia, exhibited and 
explained specimens of Uecd's chart of in- 
struction in penmanship. By means of 
small covers, hung on hinges, difl'ercnt 
portions of letters were concealed or opened 
to view, so as to show the various relations 
tho several groups of letters sustained to 
each other. As an example, tho capital 
letter li is completed upon the chart, and, 
by means of covers is changed to a B, and 
then to a P. This method is ingenious, 
and is com-ncndablo as a means of illuslrat- 
iug the relative conslruoliou of letters. 
This same method was developed some 
years since by II. W. Ellsworth, of New 
York. 

Mr. 11. C. Spencer delivereil an interest- 
ing Address on the art of instruction in 
penmanship that was listened to with pro- 
found attention. He illustrated tho plan of 
spacing and joining letters, and discussed 
abbreviated forms. 

The night proceedings were opened by 
Hon. Ira Majhow, in a comprobensivo and 
interesting discussion of the decimal system. 

Jit.lgo Lawrence, First Comptroller of 
tho U. S. Treasury, delivereil an admirable 
A.lilress upera tho " Slission of Business 
Colleges." He testified to the great utility 
of busioess colleges, and of tho good that 
had been accomplished by them in giving 
the present generation a practictil training. 
The Judge was given a unanimous vote of 
thanks. 

Tlie evening programme was closed by 
P.-ol. Packard, in an elaborate and practical 
illustration of the classification of accounts, 
which elicited warm commendation. 

On Thursday, at 8 30, I'onmcn'a Section, 
C. 11. Prirco discussed inovomeut and trac- 
ing exercises as an ai.t to speed and ac- 
curacy in wriliog; bis examples were placed 
upon the board with great accuracy. Dis- 
cussion followed by Messrs. II C, II. C. 
and 11. A. Speuco-, Michael and Ames. At 
10 A M , the Convention adjourned for an 
excursion, tendered to the Association by 
ibo Executive C.unmltlee, upon the 
steamer Corcoran, to Slouut Vcrmra — the 
homo and tomb of \Va>hiiigt..n. Its sight 
is upon the "Virginia shore of tho Poto- 
mac, about tiftcen miles below tho city. 
Tbrougbout the entire distance the scenery 
was beautiful, tho .lay was pleasant, and all 
things conspired to render the trip a most 
delightful one. 

Slount Vernon is in Itself picturesque 
and grand, which, united with its historical 
associations as the homo aud last restiiig- 
|.lace of the Father of his country, renders 
it a hallowed and interesting place to every 
American. The obi mansion of Washing- 
ton has been care fully preserved, as nearly 

when occupied by him. In the rooms re- 
inalu tho snine quaint old furniture which 
he used, presenting to the visitor a striking 
aud truthful contrast between the tneugcr 

and a century ago. Arriving at the man- 
sion the party were most courteously re- 
ceived aud escorted through tho buildings 
and grounds by tho genial and urbane Sii- 
pcrintendimt. Cob J. Mellenry IloUiugs- 
worth, whoso many anec.b.tes and reiiiin- 
isceuces of the place acd its former occu- 
pants, were alike interesting aud instructive. 
In a krgo hall erected aud furnished with 



abbs, chai 
iccommoda 



:.d ..the 
of ei 



I r.,rtlic 



spread a BUio|ituoii3 Te|»ast f-.r tho entire 
party, provl.le.l by Sir. au.l Sirs. II. 0. 
Spencer, of tho Spenceriau lliisiuess Col- 
lege. The p;irly returned to tho city at 
A o'clock, aud all were enthnslastle in their 
expressions of satisfaction and delight tilth 
tho trip. 

At G :in p.Bi , A. If. Ilinman presented to 
tho Penmen's Secibm his method of leach- 
ing writing. He advocates the omission of 
initial and tertiiinal Hues; also the shortening 
of capital letters nnil loojis, as tending to 
make writing more legible by glvlug more 
open spacing and clearer margins. Dis- 
cussion followed by Messrs. Pclrce, II, C, 
H. A , and It. C. S|.encer, Michael, M.ads, 
Brown, Packard and Ames. A'tcr which 
D. T. Ames addressed the Association upon 
the application of artistiu penmanship to 
commercial jinrposes, in which he explained 
the method of iiiakiug drawings f.ir repro- 
duction by photo-engraving aud photo- 
lithography. Ho said that through the aid 
of these processes the penman's art iiad as- 
sumed a new liiiportaDce Iu the commercial 
world, and opened t.i the real pen artist a 
broad and fruitful liel.l. B; the abl of these 
processes the skillful penman became prao- 
ticallyau engraver; all drawings inaibiwiih 
clear, black linos, however Sue, could bo 
perfectly reproduced upon relief plates and 
printed upon a coinmou press the siine as 
wood engravings and type, or transferred to 
stone and printed as liihograj.lis. India Ink, 
freshly ground in water in a slo|.eing tray 
until it is entirely blicli, shoul.l be used. 
Drawings should be made upon Hue brislol- 
board, and twice the size of tho desired 

Geo. n. D. Mitssey, of tho Wa.blngton 
bar, delivered an intereslicg Address on 
"Business Law." Tho speaker advo- 
cated tho adding of a law tlepartment to 
the business colleges, and illustrated the 
importance of business iiici. hecoiiiing femil- 
iar with tho practical knoulcilite ol the 
laws of the country. The gentleman was 
Hslened to with prof.iund attention, and 
was thanked by the Convention. 

Prof. F. E. "H.gers, Secretary of tho 
Rochester Bu.siuess University, delivered a 
lengthy technical Address on ■' A.tual Busi- 
ness Practice for Busiuess Co'leges," illns- 
tratiughis system by ilrawings on the l.Nck- 
hoaid. Tho Address was received with 
marked tnauifeslatlona of approval by the 
Convention. 

Slcssrs. Packard, Sadler, and Miyhew, of 
the Commiltoe appointed to draft suitable 
res.du.luus relating to Iho establishment of 
the Plait R. S|iencer Sloinorial Hill and 
Library Association at Geneva, Ohio, re- 
ported iu f.iv.ir ..r tho early founding of such 
an iuslitutlou as follows: 

Tho C'lnmittee to wh.im was rcf,.rre.l 
the matter ..f iheSp-uceriaii .Meiio.ri.l Hall 
Hall ami Library repurlvd tlio following, 
which were a.b.ptc.l : 

prialo anil bjfii't'lug that. X' A"L"i,','ib?,l 
should ally itself i.i the selinmo ..I per|i.'lu- 
iiliug the loeiiiory as il u alrea.lv ti.rpi-tuat- 
log tho w.irk of the author eif Spencetlan; 
au.l that this Is Iho oiTasion win, h should 
be s i/"d upon for canyiug that purpose 

2. That the steps \' 
been taken bv ilo' I'l.i 
■ .rial Hall aiolLil.t.,, , 
ii.g a biiil.lii.c ill ih.' 
Uhn., n.r a public ball 



,1, lia 



thing to be done, and that what wo do 
shoul.l bo to aid directly iu the work. 

a. That we propo e that this assncia- 
liou shall causo to bo |.repare.l, or shall 
a.b.pt what may hare beou prepared, and 
what may bo prepare.l. a b.^aiitiliilly en- 
graved document, which shall servo as a 
receipt for cutriliuibins to the fund f,.r this 
purpose. Tills document f conlain a por- 
trait ol P. R Spencer, a.id be iu all respects 
abeautitul ami ae...,.i V.I,. =„■:,,., or 

4. That throoi;!, .i,- ,- •■■.■■. . , ,.|,, ,.,.|,t,.d 

inthis A.s.ician..., I, . ,l,,,i..J 

i" »ll parts ..f II I' ,,, Lo 

makotop..pul,ui.: .:o,-,. , ,| lo 



thj be 



Iltl.l 



1.1.1- 1.1 f,,...i.l Ilie I'Uu It. Sp. 
.1 11.11 aT..lLl.r<ryufGiiU.-va.C 
1... ..iiprrtle with till. jiMreiit iiss. 
chHrtcr, to that cuil. 



L. I.. Willkina, Prwi.lent of tho Bum 
n(!<3 Uiiii-crjity iif Kinlieslcr, N. Y., ms 
clu'lcl trcasurfr «n.l tioan.i il meal for tho 
Pl.ilt )(. Speaccr Meinorljil Fu.ia. 

A letter «-<9 received from the Exccnlire 
Miii<i..n inviting llie meinl.erj of tho body 
to eall lip in Presi.Ient Arthur. 

A resolution wjis adopted tendering tbo 
thanks of tho Cinvoniioo to the press of 
the cily ol Washington an.l conntry.lor Iho 
liberal and accurate report of its projeed- 

Tlie f.illnwlng lesolnlions of thanks to 
Jlr. an.l Sirs. 11. C. Spencer, offered by 
S. S. P.ickar.l. irere unauiinnu-ly adopted, 
an.l were gracefully responded to by both 
Mr. and Mrs. Spencer: 

Jtemlreil, That llio thanlrs of thi« Con- 
venii.,u be len.lered to Mr. an.l J[ s. II. C. 
Spenci-r f.ir tlieir very great apprecialiun of 
our need', indivi.lually an.l cdli'dively. and 
for llieir iiioro than courteous attcniioD to 
the-e uee.l-. 

Ittsohcil. That as words have liinilalion!, 
n.itni.hstau.liuK the eeneral impression thai 
our EuKlish v.icabnlary c.litaius sulBiient 
to express the greatest depths and the finest 
shail."S ..f iiieaniue, wo feel iho jiauciiy of 
lannuage to gi.e v..ico to our .leep senso of 
graiiH|.ali..u for all that we have received at 
their han.ls. 

Ittsoheil, That in view of lho>o limita- 
tion", we carry in our hearts the unullcred 
thanks wo feel for .11 that wo have re- 
ceived, an.l express our hopes that our 
hosts imiy live forever and receive in this 
life and the next all that they deserve. 



Rochester, N. Y., i 
place for holding the 



selected 
It National C 



the 



The election of officers for the ensuing 
year was next proceeded with. Prof. Sadler 
noioiuaiid Ml. U. C. Spencer for Prc.-iJeut, 
a suggestion that was received with ap- 
pUuse. 

Mr. Spencer decIlDed, and nominated 
Mr. Charles E Cady, of New York ; Mr. 
Cady was eleoteil. Tho folluwiug ad.litional 
olli -ers were elected : Vicc-presiilents — 
W. II. S.ollcr, n.liimore, M.I.; C. II IVirce, 
Keokuk, I.ova; W. N. Yercx, L.indon, 
Out; Frank Goodman, Nashville, Tenn. 
Secretary and Treasurer — A. J. Kidcr, 
Treni.in, N J. liiecMive CommiUte-\.^ 
h. Williams, Iloches'er, N. Y. ; G. W. 
Ilrown, Jacksonville, III.; A. II. Ilioinan, 
A\'..rcesler, .Masa. Exccutice Committee, 
Penmen s Srcdon - D juiel T. Ames, New 
Y.irk eily; A. S. Ojborne, Itochesler, N. 
Y.; 0. II. Peirce, Keokuk, Iowa. 

At ID ,\ M members took cariiages to visit 
points of interest in tho city. Afler view- 
inir the Capitol, Treasury, an.l other dcpart- 
menis, ihe members were driveu to the Ex- 
eciiiivo M lusi.in at I I' Ji. to pay their re- 
spects to the President. Tho ladies and 
fenllemen, about forty in number, were in- 
Ini.luce.l to tho Piosideiit l,j Prof. II. C. 
Silencer, principal of the Washington Busi- 
ness Colhge, wiih remarks as follows: 

".Mu Puksiiiext: Tholadiosand gen- 
tle.iion presoul aro members of tho Ilusineas 
Elucators' Association of Americi, and 
have been holdiug a Cuveutiou in this 
ciiy. They are represcntalives of tho liu?i- 
uess c.ilh'ges establi.-.hed iu the eiiies of our 
country, llai iug I'omplpted tho sessima of 
their C-ihveutiou, they desire, before leaving 
tho nali.inal capital, to pay their respects to 
the Chief Mngistralo of tlioir country. 

'■ Y.iur honoreil predece»s.ir,Jaines A Gar- 
iiel.l, was H lifelong friend of business edu- 
calh.n and a warm personal fiieod of many 
of th.'so ladies and gentlemen present. As 
tho representative of tho business cnllego 
of Washington, it is my ,ileasant duly to 
inlr.idu.o them to your E«cflleDcy." 

Tho members were then oath introduced 
to tho Pre.i.lent, who received them with 
much c.irilialily, afler which ho addressed 
them iu the f.dhiwing words: 

" I.Au.Ks AND Gentleme-j : The Presi- 
dent is ideased to see you hero. Ho is 
alvrajs glad to meet the teacLera of the I 



country. The creat interests of the country 

ligence ..f the pe..ple. It is very litliog that 
these shoul.l be c.inbiue.l ; y.,ii represent 
them both. The Pr«,sidenlsh..iild befrbiidly 
to these interests, and is therefore glad to 
meet you, and wishes for you the greatest 

An inf.irmal meeting waa held at the busi- 
ness college at :i f m to listen to a Ic.-tiire 
and to witness an exhibiii.m of chalk and 
charcoal ilraning by Pr.if. George E Liille, 
who rapidly executed, in Iho prescneo of iho 
delighted a'idieuce, iiictures of fruiis, ani- 
mals, and disliugiiished persons, making 
striking and lifelike portraits in the amaz- 
ingly shoit time of thirty seconds to two 

At tho close of the exhibilion, D. T. 
Ames moved "that a vole of ihanks bo ten- 
dered to Prof Liitle for his most successful 
and remarkable exbihiib.u of skill iu free- 
hand drawing." and said ; " It excels any- 
thing that il has ever been my pleasure an.l 

enthusiastically carried. 

Mr. S. S. Packar.l read the following, 
which was unanimously adopted as the sense 
of the meeting : 



in fac 
faiheri 



laut sense been iis 
HS his hand and heart 
irk ol our specially. 



are ahvaye in thi 

always ready to d.i good w.iik for e.lii( 
and morality, we, the members of that As- 
so. iaiion iu conveiilion assembled at Wash- 
ington, feel it to bo no less a duty than a 
l.leasiiro to commend Mr. Ames and his 
JmniXAL to public f»vor. 

E-peeially do we commend him and it to 
the faviirsble regard ot ihe liiisiues.s e.liiea- 
tors of the counlry, an.l to the young men 
an.) women who aro entering upou a buei- 
ness educalio-i or a biisiuess lif... 

Tho Pk.sjians AliT J.ii;u\At, is an 
organ of no uuci-rlaiu s.>iiud. Its utter- 
ances are bold, decided, and iu the .lirecii.in 
of all good achievemeuta. We look uii.m 
it as thn most valiiahlo of all iho ageiicie.« 
r.ir promoting s.iuu.l i.leas of the great work 
Ml which we aro engaged, an.l we hereby 
jil. dgn to it our heurty co-operation anil 
support. 

Kes.dntions of thanks to all tho retiring 
olTicers were passed, when tho C.invenliou 
a.ljourncd to iniet at Il.ichester, N. Y., at 
such time as the Executive Committee shall 

It was tho universal expression of all 
who attended the C.invenlion iliat this was 
tho most interesting, profitable, and enlhu- 
siasiic Convention over held by tho Associa- 
tion, which was largely owing to the kin.l 
attention shown tho members by Iho ciii- 
zoiis of Washington, and the very liberal 
and hospitable alteuli.m bestowc.l upon 
them by Mr. an.l Mrs. Spenoor, who 
sparrd neither labor nor expense in their 
well chosen (iforls for Iho social ouler- 
tainment of their gnosis, whom they seemed 
to consider all tho attendants to bo. We 
are fully conscious that our share in such 
hospitality cannot bo suitably requited in 
thanks; wo can, therefore, only h..|.o that 
our hosts will at some future limo place us 
iu a posiiion to return a moio substantial 
reciprocation. 

The Road to Success. 
Bv Paul Past.nor. 



No . 



, as he 



h bnwed 

head in tho liiilo diugy attic room, which 
was at tho same time his study, bedroom 
and kitchen. It was a brown, boyish head 
that was bowpj so pathetically— tho long 
curling l.i.ks falling down over tho slight 
hands folded on ihe table, aud the white, 
blue-veined forehea.! peeping out between, 
fresh and fair as any girl's. His arms were 
crossed at the wri»ls, and under them lay 
an open book; while the shortcuing candle, 
so long nnanuired, burned dimly, tilling 
the room with an unpleasant sii:ell. 

"Oh, well,' ho sighed, "I shall have to 
give it up. It is a harder struggle than I 
thought. The term is only half over, and 



my l.st cent is g.me. I will stay the week 
out, live as I may, an.l ihen if nothing 
turns up to give me a lift, why back I mual 
go to ihe id.l humdrum, hopeless lifu on 
tho farm— ilig and delve, ilig an.l ilelve. 

any happier, ami in tho en.l, perhaps, hav- 
ing just enough to lay tno decently awiiy in 
the ground!" 

Tho boyish face was raised from the 
table, and bent weaiily above tho b i.ik 
again. It was a handsome, ojion, winning, 
face, but alas! so careworn, so prcmat.irely 
wasie.i and sa.l. It showed Jraces of har I, 
close w.irk— of sleepless nights and early 
morning vigils — of disappoinlment, too, 
an.l a weary lougiig for something hotter, 
higher, yet still far out of reach. 

Henry Deering was a young law student. 
By diut of hard scrimping, hard wmk, and 
ail occa-i.inal small loan from some less 
hardly circumstanced friend he had res.dii- 
lely w.u'ke.I his way through college, an.l 
was now endeavoring, with all his might, 
to complete the two years' course of legal 
study necessary to prepare him for admis- 
sion to tho bar. He ha.l chosen a famous 
law school in New York City, not so much 
b.cause of its supeiior a.lvantaees as 
because in the great mo'ropolis ho was more 
likely to pick up odd jobs bore an.l there, 
upon tho scanty returns of which ho was 
resolved to pay his way. But it was, indeed, 
a hard struggle. Eiiiployment was to be 
had but occasionally, an.l that ol the most 
menial and poorly paid sort ; rent — even of 
his littlo attic room— was high; it cost 
something to buy food, though the resolute 
young fellow actually lived on almost 
nothing; and, lastly, to inept the terui 
bills took about all ho could scrape to- 
gether, to do his best. So it is no wonder 
that ho was dsc.iu raged that April night, 
as ho sat next to tho roof of the old leue- 
ment building an I heard tho driary rain 
paltering on the shinghs. It was Iruo thai 
his last cent was gone. A cheap twonly- 

eCLt meal at a neigl.b iring restauraul 

iho only meal he had had that day — took 
all ihat was left of the priccely sum of live 
.lollars, earned by two day's liar.l wor'i at 
tho docks. " I Bill stay tho week out," he 
repealed to himself, as ho Hung bi-iiself 
d. wii on his bare mattress that night, 
"aud then, if nothing turns up, I must g.. 
home." 

Tho week passed. Henry lived from 
hand to mouth, often having to absent hiiii- 
sell from lectures to earn enough to pay for 
his frugal meal at nijhl an.l keep his land- 
lady from turning him out of his diiigv 
room. Ou Satunlay morning he ftrollc.'l 
'Icspairingly out up.ia the crow.le.l streets. 
It was Ihe busy day of tho week ill the 
great metropolis, nu.l throngs of soiious- 
faccd people were Uowiig iu s'tea.ly streams 
past each other on the broad pivomcnls. 
"I must get s.une sirn.ly eiuploymeut 
9.. luewhere," thought II.-nry DeeriuL', ''an.l 
pursue my law stu.lies wh< never orportu- 
nity oir.rs. I cannot live like a d.ig any 
longer.' This resoluiion gave him new li.ipe, 
and he s'ro.le stilr.lily nl.mg, now and then 
>t0|iping into soma ]iarlicularly iuviiiug- 
1 ...king SI. ire, to ask if they didn't waul a 
willing liilper, an.l taking every repulsi? 
wiih a cheery " A 1 right, sir," that iii.i.le 
tho proprietor half mrry ho lia.ln't en- 
gagid him, even at the necossily of mak- 
ing a place for the haiiilsouie young fcll.iw. 
But when noon came, an.l uoihiug ha I 
been pained, hungry, tired, Ihor.iughly 
disappoinled aud half angry with himsilf 
for his heu.lstroug ambition, Henry Den- 
ing was abi.nl ready to give tho whol.. 
mailer U]) Ho had just five cenis in his 
pocket, whi.h ho ha.l earned by helping a 
drayman lift a pinuo-bo.v; and wiih this 
ho slippi'd into a d riy little restaurant and 
purcliase.1 a cup of muddy coffee an.l a 
biscuit. Poor as tl.ie fa.o was, it served to 
take away the sharp edge of bit ravenous 
appetite, and gave l.i.n a tense of sire gih 
and warmlh from ivilhili which was al u. si 
refreshing. Ho delerii.iiied to go back to 
his lodgings and study for an hour or two, 



and then set o.il np.in lis quest again iu the 
latter ]i in .f the afteiiioin. 

ILinlly, liowev.r, ha.l he lolled np Iho 
li-ikcly s-ai-s aid te.ted biiuself at his 
table to study, when iu inarched his l.ind- 
la.ly, and di'inaiided rent for lllat week and 
for Ihe 01 suing week in advance. "I 



iLSiilenily. " My motto is, pay and stay, 
or quit an.l git. Y' u have boon mighty 
slow about roinin' around with iho rent 
this week, and so I know thai aom. thiu's 
the lualter of ye. Y.in must pay now, and 
k'-ep the rooin, or else pack up your duds 
and git." 

In v:iin did poor Henry retnoaslr.ite; the 
vixen was obdurate. Tho money she 
would liavo, or the room. Pinally she 
r.msenied to let him remain until over 
Sunday, aud then if ihc rnil was not forlh- 
c.uning ho unist find bidgings eliewhrre. 
The y.inng loan again sallied out upon ihe 
slreet wiih fei lings which cannot easily bo 
imagined by Ihose who have never been in 
.irriiinstances somewhat of Iho same k'ud. 
To say that ho was d.sp.mileiit and well- 
nigh hopel.ss would bo hardly strong 
enough. Ho « as clean discoiiiaac.l, and in 
llio despair of tho ini.ment — Icrrih'c as it 
may seem — thoughts even of s.-lf destruc- 
tion (loalcd through the young man's iniud. 
Iu this f ame, he was pilrsiiiug hi- way 
down one of the l riii. ipal ih.iroughfarcs, 
when, sud.lenly looking u]i, he saw a well- 
.Ire.ssed genllcmau with ono eo.it-sleevo — 
his right— tucked into his pocket, standing 
at the open door of ono of the stores, aud 
gaziog anxiously up an.l down the slreet. 
[ndc-.l. B.1 almost iiiil> irtunato was bis look 
Ihat Henry stoppe.l, htsiiatod, aud finally 
stepped forward with bis han.l to his cap 
and asked if ho couM bo of any service. 
The eenllemin looked earn. slly .b.wn upon 
tho sympalhelie, frank fare of iho youug 
man beloro him, an.l suddenly asked — 
■■Can y..uwrilot" Henry was somewhat 
su-prise.l at such a .lemand fr.iiii ono who 
seemid to be rather l.mk iug f.r sumo mes- 
senger to run an errand of l,f„ and death; 
b-it he answere.l, promptly and respectfully, 
—'■lean, sir." 

"Step this way." sail the gnLleman, 
quickly leading II..ni-y down the I ,ng 
.-alesr.auu of ibc sb.ro t.i iho csy . (lice be- 
y.md. '■ Here, take ihis pen, an.l show mo 
what you c^in do. Write y.,ur liaiiip, nod 
some senlencef.dlon lug." Henry sat d .wn 
and wrote in smooth riinuiiig business hand, 
"Hnry Bering. Perseverance is the 
road to success." 

" Good ! " said tho one-armed gentleman, 
as ho pi.'ked up the slip and s.-anucd llio 
fair ohirography. Jly srcrelary has f.iil.d 
m'o to day-his irregular habits, as usual 
—and I have a largo amount of important 
corrcspouibiico to dictite. Therefore, if 
you aro williiie, I propose to use you as 
■ Secretary pro tern ' for Iho rist of Ihc day, 
at a liberal salary." Henry's ejes sli.ino 
wiih gratitude; but he simply said. I v. ill 
.1.1 my I CI, sir, aud thank you." 0:i, how 
many limes ho ihankod his lotlunalo slars, 
as ho sal there wriiiug smoothly aud lap- 
i.lly, ihat ho had made a study of |.euiiian- 
ship iu his college d.iys. and ae.|.,ired the 
graceful baud of a roa.ly wril.r! V.si.ius 
of .steady eiuploymnil and g.iod wages iu 
his favorite exercise were before him. Ho 
now vculurc.l to Iiiipo that j^erhiips tho 
"irregular bahils" of the present secretary 
of the kind geulloman who liil ompb.j.d 
l.im wmihl result iu a change iu that . Ili.e, 
lav..r,il.le to himself. Al seven ..'.d.^-k 'tho 
g.nlleman ordered in a delighlf.il liltio 
lunch f r both, aud at niuo o'ch.ck bo closed 
his .lesk and informe.l his faithful aman- 
uensis that tho labors of Iho .lay were ov. r 
—aud, iu.lee.1, never so siitisfictorily per- 
f.irmed before; with which, bo hand.d 
Henry aciisp five d.dlar b II, viiih tho re- 
quest that he should drop iu again ou Mon- 
day afternoon, if ho had no other engage- 
m.nt. Hinry came, of course, an.l his 
kiud empl.iyer, being at leisure, era.lually 
drew from him his slory. Al its close, ho 
put his hand kindly on Henry's shoulder. 



aud said—" Yoncg man. I bnlicve you liave 
Iciimed llie brst les'on of life, aud practiced 

and you Imvc trsvdi-d it Dr>bly. N-w, if 
you are nillme t» take a holping hand, I 
am OLly too glad t<. lend it I have dia- 
ohargpd iny ei-cretary. H« came into the 
office, ihia morning, druuk and insolent, 
and I told him his services were uo htnger 
oceded. The posiliuu is not an onerous 
one, and you will have all the morning for 
your studies — will you accent itf" 

That night Ilmry wrote home, "I am 
all right iiLn-, nuilhrr Perseverauce is the 

Agnosticism in China. 

Every true Coufucian, says the North 
China Herald, is an agnostic. He helieves 
only in the seen ; the unseen be regards as 
unknown a-d unkuowahle. When asked 
how we shiiul.l serve the spirits, Ct>ufucius 
replied, " Uutildo to serve men, how can 
we serve spirits t" Conlioe your thoughts 
to human duty. To serve meu well is the 
best way to serve the gods. To the ques- 
tion which iniinediatcly fallowed regarding 
death, his answer was, " Not knowing life, 
how can we kuow death f" Attend to the 
present: why trouble yourself with insolu- 
ble riddles about the future? Life and 
death are one. Live well and you will die 
well. Confui-ius was a thorough-going ag- 
nostic. Uu did not deny the existence of 
gods and spirits, nor the possibility of a 
future life, lie simply regarded such sub- 
jects a9 beyond liumau knowledge, and re- 
fused to disi'usa them. He was sure of his 
five senses, and declined to move a step 
furihr-r. As an iignostic the Confucianist 
is tolerant of other creeds. He goes even 
further, aud will admit that for the ignorant 
miiltitudp, aud especially fur women, an 
apparatus of gods and demons is necessary. 
He does not car*', therefore, to proclaim 
his scepticism, B'ill le^s to actively propa- 
gate it. His creed is only for tlie wise : the 
masses are better as they are. He will 
subscribe to' the temples and take part in 
idolatrous cert^mouii'S. To the common 
people, Confucian agnoslioism has never 
been very satishu'tory. But the agnostic 
philosophy has not been without its influ- 
ence on the masses. There is but little 
religious fervor, and scarcely any deep faith. 
The people will ridicule their own goda, 
laugh at their own worship, and freely 
criticize all the creeds. Speak to any 
Chinese — no matter what hia rank — about 
tlie future life, and his reply is almost cer- 
tain to be: "Who knows auylliing about 
it? "and is likely eutmgh to add, "Eating 
and drinking are realiiies," iuiplying that 
all else is doubtful. Ilcfer to the subject of 
future rewards iiud puuishinents, aud his 
sarcastic remark will probably be, "I have 
seen the living suffer, but never seen the 
dead in eangui-s." The present is certain ; 
the future is all unknown. He therefore 
keeps a sharp eye to the present chance. It 
must be now or never; there may be no to- 
morrow. Intense worldliness aud general 
animalism are the natural results The con- 
clusion of the M'hcde matter shows how far 
superior morally the original and orthodox 
Byeiems of Buddism and Taoism are to the 
agnostic attituio. 



Not Responsible. 

It should be distinctly understood that 
the editors of the Journal are not to he 
held as indorsing anything outside of its 
editorial columns; all communications not 
obj( cLioL.able in their character, nor devoid 
of interest or merit, are received and pub- 
lished; if any jieraoa differs, the columns 
are equally open to him to say ao aud tell 
why. 



Whenever a new and starlliug fac*. is 
brought to liuht in science, people tirst say, 
" It is not true " ; then that '* it is contrary 
to religion": aud, lastly, "that everybody 
knew it before." 



Henry William Ellsworth. 
The subject of this sketch, author of the 
" Ellsworth System of Penmanship and 
Book-keeping," was born in 1836 on one 
of the highest hills of Chautauqua County, 
State of New York, overlooking the United 
States and Canada, and in full view of the 
white Clips of Lake Erie, which gave pri- 
mary writing lessons to the ancient P, R. 
The early life of Henry William Ellsworth 
was spent on a farm and in attendance at 
the district school until the age of sixteen, 
when he went to the Fredonia Academy to 
"complete" his education. While in attend- 
ance there, one Corydon L. Gray (now 
bead book-keeper for Messrs. A. A. Low 
Sc Son, of New York ) organized classes in 
penmanship, aud young Ellsworth began a 
course of lessons under hitn, but Mr. Gray 
liaving left before Ellsworth had obtained 
more than an inkling of the art, the acad- 
emy was without a writing teacher. Soon 
after, ^ traveling professor of the period 
came into town and advertised to teach to 
perfection "in twelve easy lessons of one 
hour each," hut his writing was so inferior 
to the standard set up by Mr. Gray that it 
only excited ridicule among the students 
At this juncture, young Ellsworth feeling 
that, if the perforinauco of the "professor" 



stu.leut, whither he next went as teacher. 
I From Buffalo Ellsworth was sent to the 
Detroit College, and assisted J. H. Gold- 
smith till 18G0, when he was "moved on" 
by Stratton to New York city to fill a po- 
j sition in the public schools, and assist 
I Lusk and Packard ( then preparing the B. 
and S. book-keeping series) at the N. Y. 
College, located in Cooper Institute. Dur- 
ing all this period Ellsworth was uncon- 
sciously acquiring the knowledge and 
experience which, in 1801, convinced him 
that there was still great room for improve- 
ment in both BUSINESS penmanship as 
adapted to the masses, and the method to 
be pursued in teaching it in the public 
scluools wherein the masses are to be edu- 
cated ; and he at once entered ujton his 
life work of founding a system of business 

PENMANSHIP and PRACTICAL METHOD of 

teaching it by teachers of every grade. 

In 18fil bis first series of copy-books 
was published, mainly for his own classes, 
which then numbered some 3,000 pupils 
per week in the public schools alone. The 
chief improvements in this series were a 
reduction in the number of books from 
tii^lve to six, and the bight of loops and 
capitals to a scale of thirds instead of 
fourths, and also the introduction of 




entitled him to that cognomen, he might 
himself assume to teach plain toriting, and 
timidly ventured to make the suggestion to 
the principal of the academy, then Daniel 
J. Pratt. A. M. ( now the eflicieut secretary 
<if the Board of Regents at Albany). The 
aspiration was promptly encouraged, and 
young Ellsworth was at once installed as 
teacher of penmanship in the academy, 
although the "professor" still held forth 
with all his attractions at both day aud 
evening performances. 

Once in the breach, it was " sink or 
swim" with Ellsworth, and his determina- 
tion to stoim, aided by the stimulating con- 
fidence of the worthy principal, soon 
developed the ambition to ex'cel in the art, 
aud, like the ancient cobbler, 



He continued his studies, and taught pen- 
manship and hook-keeping in the academy 
till 18ri7, when he graduated and entered 
the offices of the Erie Railway at Dunkirk. 
But his am1>itiun as a teacher soon caused 
him to accept a position in the Lockport 
Union School, in 1858, where he trod in 
the footsteps of the illustrious Packard, 
who was then forging the Bryant and 
Stratton chain of colleges. At Lockport 
one of his most enthusiastic pupils was 
young W. H. Sadler ( now President of the 
Baltimore Business College) whom he en- 
couraged to enter the Buffalo College as a 



abbreviated capitals, not heretoftire recog- 
nized in copy-books. Perceiving the ne- 
cessity of some standard compilation of the 
commonly received rules aud ]n'inciples of 
penmanship in text-booh form, for the 
guidance of toHchei-s, he, in 1862, i)uhli-hed 
bis "Text-book on Penmanship and Let- 
ter-writing" — the first modern work of the 
kind, and forerunner of the various hand- 
books by other authors, who saw at onco 
the advautiigo of such a work in extending 
their systems. In this text book were first 
introduced black cuts with white letters, to 
illustrate blackboard writing. This was 
followed by a series of (2) charts on the 
same principle, in 1863, and suggested a 
new departure in the chart business, which 
was at once followed hy the " leading " ( ? ) 
authors. 

From 18t>6 to 1872 Ellsworth published 
The Writing Teacher, the pioneer paper 
devoted to penmanship. This, too, was 
appreciated, and found imitating competi- 
tor in the shape of " Bulletins," " Teachers 
(»f Penmanship," etc., and paved the way 
for the great and permanent success of the 
Penman's Art Journal. 

From 181)3 to 1871 Ellsworth managed 
the Ellsworth Business College, of Broad- 
way, New York, as an auxiliary to his 
teaching, publishing, and authorship work, 
associating with him Prof. D. T. Ames, 
during the last year or two prior to its 
transfer to other parties. During this 



period the " Ellsworth Book-keeping and 
Business Manual" was prepared and piib- 
lished by him in Ihfii), and his "Steps of 
Book-keeping " in 1876 — seven years later 
— with the hope of bringing this important 
subject into more intelligent shape for tin? 
average pupil and teacher in the public 
school, where its study is so universally 
neglected. But the publieathm of his Tra- 
cing Books, in 1867, opened the way for 
a competing series by every autlior, upon 
the subject, and sidves the problem of ele- 
mentary effort in penmanshi|i by using the 
hand to convey the writing idea to the 
head, as well as.rt'ce versa. In 1871 the 
copy-books of 1861 were revised, to incor- 
porate his neM-ly-discovercd scale of slant 
and proportion based on the Trijuiyle 3: 
4 : 5, which at once placed the Ell^^^■.^■th 
System upon a eciontific footing by n'u'ulat- 
ing ■ absolutely the width ot letters aud 
spaces, and securing perfect uniformity in 
all these respects, not only in the copies, 
hut the ruling of the page in both direc- 
tions to regulate the writing. In his 
crowning work, the " Itcvcrsihie Series of 
Writing-books," 1877 (patented 1879), 
another and new departure was made, in 
which not only an entirely new set of 
copies of faultless style and grading, hut a 
NEW FORM OF DOCK was introduced, 
constructed to overcome the well-known 
objections to the old copy-book wherein 
the sheets are uudeifulded at the back, 
producing a curved aud springy surface, 
which will not He flat, and ihe leaves of 
which cauuot he removed without destroy- 
ing the book. Moreover, twice the surface 
is exposed, aud twice the desk- room is re- 
quired that is actually needed. The 
Reversible Writing book overcomes all 
these obstacles and more, and opens the 
way to greater freedom in practice, aud, 
by means of blank practice ftheeta inter- 
leaved, overcomes the arbiinniness of the 
.d<i book by supplying the u.eans of over- 
coming the inequality of pnietice essential 
to perfect the work td" the copies, thus af- 
fording the combined advantages of loose 
paper and a book. 

This brief sketch shows how Ellsworth 
has improved his time for the past twenty 
years or more, and, whatever posterity may 
say about it, he will doubtlc'^s be credited 
with an honest and independent effort to 
make his mark iu the writing jtrofession. 



Use The Pen. 



abe Itoin Le«TDin(j'B luujfui 

tbejMemliiring 

aina thHt H»uer sung. 



Back Numbers of the "Journal." 
Plkasi: Note. 
Every mail brings inquiries respecting 
back numbers. The f.dlowiog we can send, 
and no others: All numbers of Hi7S; all 
for 187i), except May and November; for 

1880, copies for months of January, Feb- 
ruary, April, May, June, August and 
December only remain; all numbers for 

1881, and all for 1882, except June. It 
will he noted that wliilo Spencer's wriling 
lessons began with May, the second lesson 
was iu the July uinnber, so that the scries 
of lessons is unbroken by the absence of 
the June number. Only a lew copies of 
several of the numbers meulioued above 
remain, so that persons desiring all tir any ••» 
part of them should order quirkly. All the '•"*. 
51 numbers, back of IricCJ. will bo mailed 

for $4.00, or any of the numbers at 10 ceuta 



Educational Notes. 

niinitAih.i.H for lliiK I 

i.se.1 lo It. R Kki.lky 

Kew York. Brief educational ileme aolicited.] 

TKe Yale Alumni Association of New 
York lias a iii«iiiberahip uf over 400. 

Ja; Gonid has contril-uted $5,000 to the 
Rutgers Collegfi endowment fond. — Ex. 

The boll nsed at Wfllpsley College, 
Maps., is from an ancient Buddhist temple 
in Japan. — Ex. 

Brown University has just received 
$100,000 for the endowment of a chair in 
Natural Science. — Argonaut. 

College theatricala are not allowed at 
English univcrsitieB, beine fi.rbidden by 
the Faculty.— JS'ofrtf Dame Scholastic. 

The Faculty of Amherst College, Mass., 
has forbidden its students to take part here- 
alter in intercollegiate athletic contests. 

The total gifts and bequests of the late 
John G. Green to Princeton College foot 
up nearly a million and a. half. — School 
Journal. 

Princeton has received upward of $2,- 
fiOO.OOO since Dr. Mt;Cosh took ch-arge. 
Dr. Musgrave recently gave $80,000. — 
Concordiensis. 

There are in the United States over 3,- 
200,000 colored person?, over 2,200,000 
native while, and over 7,000,000 foreign 
born whites who cannot write. 

In Portugal, according to official statis- 
tics, 825 out of every 1,000 can neither read 
Dor write. In Sivitz-rland but one in a 
thousand lack these acrjuirements. 

Four thousand dollars has been collected 
for the ejctfusion of the workshops of llic 
Indinn Traioing School at Carlisle, Penn. 
The acb.'ol is doing better work in civiliz- 
ing the Indians than the army on the fron- 
tier.— TAe Age. 

The following is the list of the oldest 
colleges in this country : Harvard, founded 
in l(i;J9; Yale in 1701 ; the Col>ge of New 
Jersey (Piincetnu), 1741); University of 
Pennsylvania, 17-10; Brown, 1740; and 
Dartmouth, 17U9; Rutgers, J770.— 2ar- 

Phillips Exetbr Academy.— Prof. 
Alpbeus S. Packard, of Bowdoin College, 
was a classmate and roommate of Georee 
Bancroft while a student here. Three 
great historians of America studied at this 
school, boarded in the same house, and paid 
their board out of the same charitable fund. 

The Michigan Legislature, by an almost 
unanimous vote, has passed a bill requiring, 
among its otlier provisions, instruction with 
special reference to the effects of alcoholic 
drinks, stimulant):, and narcotics generally 
upon the human system. After September 
Ist, 18U4, no certificate will be granted to 
any teacher who does not pass a satisfac- 
tory examination in reference to these sub- 

A St. Louis judge has decided that a 
teacher stands in loco parentis, and has 
therefore the right to flog an unruly 
scholar. As to when he should whip and 
when he should not, the teacher is the 
judge. " Whipping," the court eays, 
"hurts bad boys only » short while. The 
sentence against it is produrtive of positive 
injury. Four years' experience in adminis- 
tering criminal law convinces me that the 
boys who become criminals are boys who 
don't get whipped."— Jf inn. Jour, of Ed. 



A teacher in 


London, on being asked 


what moral edu 


cation or training he gave 


to his schnlars- 


-what he did, for instance, 


when he detect 


d a child in a He — an- 


swered as f-lU, 


ws: "I consider all moral 


education to be 


% humbug. Nature teaches 


obildreo to He. 


If one of my boys lies, I 


Bet him to writ 


some 8i;ch copy as this: 



' Lyiug is a base and infamous offence.' 
I make him wiiie a quire of paper over 
with this copy, and he knows very well 
that if he dues not bring it to me in good 



condition he will get a flogging." — Populat 
Science. 



Educational Fanoies. 

[ In every inetance where the source of any 
item used in this department is known, the 
proper credit ie given. A like courtesy from 
others will be appreciated.] 

It does rather stir up the bile of a col- 
lege president to speak of him as running a 
dude factory,- -i^tVeman's Herald. 

A Kentucky schoolmaster got a verdict 
of seventeen dollars the other day in a suit 
brought against the trustees for damages 
from a cold caught running after them to 
get his pay. 

Logical Se«ubnce — A comfortable re- 
flection for the indisposed. A lazy boy is het- 
ter than nothing. Nothing is better than a 
fitudioua boy. Therefore a lazy hoy is bat- 
ter than a studious boy. 

A lady complains that she is not getting 
educational value for her money. To 
show that she was mistaken her husband 
asked their little boy on his' last return 
from school six questions. To five he re- 
plied correctly. The answer was, " I don't 



"You write a beautiful hand. I wish 
that I had such a hand," said Mr. Flasher 
to a lady clerk at the hotel. "Am I to 
consider this as a proposal t " asked the 
bright lady. " Well— er — yes — if my 
wife is wiUing to let me off," replied the 
accomplished Flasher. — Detroit Post. 

" What Will the Harvest Be f '' was the 
subj-'ct of an essay at the Commencement 
exercises of a B-iaton female seminary, last 
week. As there were nine in the graduat- 
ing class it is probable that the harvest will 
be four divorce suits, one elopement, and 
four woman's suflrage advocates. — Fire- 
man's Herald. 

Here is an authentic instance of true and 
faithful love: A Pittsfield, Mass., school- 
girl, in order to convince a jealous boy that 
she Hked him better than some other 
urchin, exclaimed : " Of course I like you 
better than I do Bill, for don't I miss words 
in my spelling lesson on purpose so as to 
be down at the foot of the class where you 
aref" 

Enthusiastic Professor of Physics, dis- 
cussing the organic and inorganic kingdoms : 
"Now, if I should shut my eyes — so — and 
drop my head — so — and should not move, 
you would say I was a clod! But I move, 
I leap, I run ; then what do you call 
met" Voice from the r«*ar: "A clod- 
hopper." Class is dismissed. — Vassar 
Miscellany, 

Teacher: "What is a kingdom t" 

Pupil : " A country governed by a King.'' 

T.: "What is an Empire t" 

P.: "A country governed by an Em- 
peror." 

2.: " Very good. Now, coming to our 
country, what is a Republic t" 

P. (confidently); "A country governed 
by a republican ! " 

Said a teacher to one of his highest pu- 
pils : " If your father gave you a basket of 
peaches to divide between yourself and 
your little brother, and there were forty 
peaches in the basket, after you bad taken 
your share, what would be left?" "My 
little brother would be left, for I'd take all 
the peaihes. That's the kind of a Con- 
gressman I'm going to be when I grow 
up." — Ex. 

Astronomical.—" Agathe," said he, 
pointing with the half-evaporated end of 
h\% taffy stick toward the bespangled Occi- 
dent, " what star is that blazing out over 
yonderT" "That, Miletus,' said she, 
scratching her nigh ear on the capstone of 
his shiiulder-pad, "that is Mercury, my 
cherished one." "You don't sayf" wds 
his answer. "You don't say?" Well, I said 
when ii got up to ninety-three this aTter- 
noon that I believed it would skip out the 
top of the flue, and, sure enough, it has." 



M. Lefebure de Fourcy was examining a 
student in physics once upon a time, and 
the young man, being nervous, failed utterly 
on the first question put to him — a very 
simple one. " Bring this gentleman a 
bundle of hay for his breakfast," remarked 
the disgusted examiner lo one of the attend- 
ants. "Bring two — the professor and I 
will breakfast together!" added the stu- 
dent, who thus suddenly regained and 
asserted his self-poaessiim. 

A teacher in a suburban school was giv- 
ing her class an object-lesson a few days 
ago, and drew a cat upon the blackboard 
fur its inspection. She then asked what 
there was on the cat, and the unanimous 
reply was. " Hair." " What else ? " 
she queried. There was a long pause of 
consideration, but finally the hand of a 
bright-eyed little dve-year-old shot up, and 
almost simultaneously came her triumphant 
answer: " Fleas!" — Boston Post. 

" Gertie," said an ancient maiden lady 
employed in teaching the " young idea how 
to shoot," you should not make faces in that 
manner, for it will make you awfully ugly 
looking when you grow up." 

Genie looked one moment at the 
"schuolmarm," who had never, even in her 
" sweet sixteen " days, been accused of be- 
ing pretty, and hoped to trace effect back 
to cause by askiug her: "What did you 
use to make faces for when you were little T" 



"When My Ship Comes In," 

By Mary E. Martin. 

" Who can tell what passenger our ship 
is blinking to us as she is sailing across 
the seat" These were the words that 
floated out to Fred Devol, from a room ad- 
joining the one in which be bad been 
dning Eome carpenter's work. Whether it 
was because he had been so busy that he 
had only heard those words, he could not 
tell; but just as he laid down his hammer 
the words floated to him. The person 
who was reading had stopped so suddenly 
that it almost appeared tu Fred as if it had 
been spoken in answer to his thouehts. 
lu alter years Fred found out that Dick- 
ens, who knew so well the feelings of the 
poorer classes, wrote those words; but if 
Dickens wrote them, as Fred remembered 
having heard them that day, he never 
could tell. Stick in his memory they 
would, )ust as he bad first heard them. 
Life had seemed harder to bear than ever 
that day, aud the thought had just oorne 
into his mind, will wi// ship ever come in? 
when through the open door there floated 
out to him, in a soft sweet voice, " Who 
can tell what passenger our ship is bringing 
to us as she is sailing across the sea?" 
He picked up his hammer and saw, aud 
went back to the shop with a lighter heart ; 
for it seemed almost a promise that a bet- 
ter day would sometime come to him. 

"Old Savage has just been filing his 
saw," called out some of the men to Fred 
as he opened the door of the shop. "Oh, 
you needn't look as if you were frightened 
to death, but you'll catch it! you staid the 
thirtieth part of a second over your time ;" 
and Old Savage filed away. Fred was an 
apprentice to Savage, and hoknewwellwhat 
the man meant. Old Savage, as the men 
called him, had a falsetto voice, and when he 
got into one of his frequent rasres the men 
said ho could pipe his voice shriller than a 
file drawn across an old saw. It was the 
delight of 



of th( 



Savage's back, and, with i 
the paotomine. Wi',h e 



len, when their 
> stand behind 
nail, go through 
■ry elevation of 
Savage's voice this man would dumbly 
run a nail higher and higher up the saw — 
much to the amusement of every one in the 
shop. Upon poor Fred's head fell these 
scoldings more than upon any one else. 
Tliey had long been the terror of his life. 
Fred was a creole, but what were the ex- 
act circumstnnce^ that had drifted him into 
Savage's hands Fred himself did not quite 
know. Evidently he waa of good parent- 



age, as his finely -formed features and 
pure accent clearly showed. When Old 
Savage was closely prts-e.l for an answer, 
he would say that ho got him frmn one of 
the y*llow fever nurpes. This nurse bad 
been sent down to New Orleans during an 
epidemic, and had brought the boy back. 
The nurse had said that he had seen all the 
boy's friends die, one by oue; and he 
couldn't have the heart to leave him there 
alone. The nurse had alterwards died, and 
poor Fred had falleu into Old Savage's 
clutches. Fred remembered nothing ot 
any other life than this one he was leading 
with Savage. As he stood now, looking 
so frightened at the words of the workman, 
you could see that he was not very tall for 
his eighteen years. lie was remarkably 
slender and girlish in his figure. His 
hands were of exquisite mold — the fingers 
tapering; his hair black ; complexion dark, 
but clear; his eyes large and brown, and 
usually gave you a pleading glance. Now 
they carried in them a hunted, startled lo(»k, 
for almost before the workman had finiebed 
spfaking Savage came in. He began on 
Fred in such shrill torrents of abuse that 
one of the workmen blew the words to 
another from behind his hand: "It's an 
8ra." Fr 'd, after the first shock to his sen- 
sitive nerves, bnre it better, and quietly 
went on to his work ; for back to him came 
the promise that some day his ship would 
come in. As it would take the men from 
the shop, aud Fred, being handy with his 
tools, was often sent, as he had been to- 
day, to do some little job: at one time it 
would be a door that needed a weather 
strip; at another, a shelf to put up. In 
this way Fred saw that there was a differ- 
ent way of liviug from that in Savage's 
house— that there were diff.-rrut people iu 
the world from the rough, but kind-hearted, 
men in the shop. 

Oue day Savage sent him up-town to 
dr. some work on some shelves in a store. 
Fred knew the owuer of the store, as 
many others did, as Barney. Mr. Bernard 
was his correct name, but few thought to 
call him so. The store he kept was called 
a second-hand book-store; but it was a 
perfect museum of ixld things in that line. 
Everything could be found there, from a 
well-thumbed school geognpliy to the rare 
old volumes, so dear to a book- lover's heart, 
but impossible lo be foumi iu any other 
place but Barney's store. While Fred was 
at work, he couldn't keep bis eyes from oc- 
casionally wandering from one shelf of 
hooks to another. Never had he been in a 
more inviting place. The storo had noth- 
ing of the dingy, dusty air, thnt its name 
would suggest. It was a large, light, airy 
room; with a home look aliout it that was 
not lessened by the cozy sitting-room be- 
yond that Mr. Bernard had pariitioned off 
for Madame Bernard It was as quaint 
and as pretty as the madame herself. 
Here she sat, or, as some customer would 
come in, she would briskly step out aud 
help in the sale, or the hunt for some de- 
sired booh. As Fred went on with his 
work, Barney approached him and said ; 
" I want to get a young man in my store 
so that madame does not have to jump up so 
many times. Do you like your work so 
well that you cannot come and live with 
usf " Barney knew as well as others the 
kind of a life Fred had to live. 

" Like it, B irney t I would change it for 
almost anything if I could; you %vould not 
take ire, would you, Barney?" 

" Yes,'' siiid Mr. Bernard, in his broken 
English ( Fred never found out what his 
nationality was), come right away, I will 
pay you a small salary each week, and you 
can live with me aud madame." 

Fred was delighted; he fek several 
inches taller when he went back and tuid 
Savage he was going to- leave. Savage 
raved, but it did no got.d. Fred took his 
place in the store, aud siton won the love 
of the two old people. It was only a few 
weeks after enltrii.g ujum Kis new duties 
that Fred, while jtiling some books on a 
shelf, stopped short iu hid work. He had 



roiiie acrws one timt ilroply intrrotl'il l.itn 

-FO .l.fi.ly tl,„l lio fl.io.l lllMlii.l.lPSS, ODP 

kol rt'siitpg (in llifl ciniKtcr, llio otiier upon 
a l,i»or sli.lf. Dropprnucl ilpcper ilij the 
iulrrpet pn.w, until lie j-iinp<tl dii\rn Hn<) 
sratp.1 liilnsplf i.D n (t.iul. Ilij rn.rk «-«s 
;ill furgi.ttcn; »iij it vris hvII r..r liiiii that 
li« was m.t Mill at vvurk r,.r SavaeP. As 
an iM.iir pa-sp.l hi- cc.ulil lianllj- il.on trar 
Ii insplf anay. Tin. was a I.ck.Ic ou writ- 
ing— a giiiHo ti) l.iisiDPsa-wriliue nnd orna- 
111' lilal jicuiniujship. Nulline tipw tr» 
inai,y, l.ni ilio lir..t thai Fip.l liail nff 
Eocii, Of eTcii hcar.l ahiiiil. Fiually. Frp.l 
pill llio b..,.k a«ay in a fomre plaro aij.l 
fiui>liFd l.ia ivuik. Wh»ii Mr. llpruarJ 
caii.o iu, Frul a.'lic.l him In fell him the 
1.... li. •■ V„ii may Imvs it r,.r ii..thiiic, my 
W," taiJ Mr. )ipitia..l. "I hciiirht it 
Willi a l.it of hooks." Prom that ,lay Frpil 
(IptPrii.incd to ipake of hiiiifplf jiisl as fiup 
a iipoinaii as tho aiilhur of that hook. 
Duiiiig all the limo ho was knocking .hnili 
ho had Jtick- il ii)> a vpry good fotiuda ion 

acgtihr hand. Kow lio HCnt to work iu 
Piimcst. D.iy aFlpr Jay ho copipd during 
evpry inoniout that Im li.nd to fparo. Toi; 
Iho first tiiiio iu his life ho had an ohject tu 
pain, and an pud lo acl.ipvo. Jirforp, hq 
had always workpil til the bidding of otherf, 
Ho did uot iniiko tho iirogress that hn 
wiil.ed to mnko in wriiinc, ypt he dptPr- 
miupd not lo give up. Oje il»,v, whpu Jlr. 
IJernard was out, madrtino very busy within, 
and tho store outirely frpc from cuftolnpr.a, 
Fred went to work ou l.ij wriling. ]Ip 
w.nUcd wiih a will onlindy forgetful of the 
sloro and all his surroundings. lie did not' 
noiii'o a tall and very suhohirly looking 
gpiitlpmau whpn ho ramo in. Ho stood 
qi.ito pIoso to Frpd; stood and walclipil 
hi.n f .r a long time. F.uallj, the fppling 
that smno one was near him pauspd Frpd 
to look up. " Yon will upvpr a.-conijili..K 
it in that way," sai 1 tho iipntlelnau, quiplly 
and with a sihilp, as Fred's pycs nipt hi.-.' 
" What ir.ade you liy to wiilo all that in 
sn.li a short timet It won't do; hnl tho 
iinprovpinpul you iiiado from tho first is as- 

Fipil di.l not. rpalizc f.ir the moment that 
ho bad uerer sppo this man before, but 
listened attentively. The gemlemau went 

"Don't let your eagerness to improve in 
writing make y.iu lose all of your jndg-' 
mpul in striving." 

" lint I did not know, fir,'" said Fred,' 
"llmt I was Irjiug so bard until you 

That is just what I mean. You aban- 
don yourself to your dp.iro to Iparn to 
wiiip, and, const ipieutly, do not make tho 
progrPSS that yot wonhl if yon wpro oool- 
hpad, d. You hiivp, in all iirohaliliiy, said 
lo yoursplf: ■! will ucvpr ppaso siriving 
until I pan wri'e copii-s in this book.' It 
will I.P jnst as like as not that jo.t are aim- 

'°S »' s '■tiling that i< iinpossihlp. Tho 

rpsidt wi.l he that you will ..how, in every 
bltpr y.n f,.rm, that over.lieated blood ij 
gall..|iins thronah jonr veins. Curb this 
hot f|iiril; aim not q lito so higli at first; 
have .'nil command of yoursilf; then with 
a ihorough knowledge of the lulps for wri-' 
tiuir, yon can bid y..nr will Ipad your hand 
iu tho dpfirp.l nay." 

"Why, tir," said Fred, "I thought it 
was right to itrivo and work in learning to 

"It i<, if yon do it as t Iiavo told yon. 
Now follow out my dirprlions, and see if 
you ,lo not acpoi„pl„h i'..' 

Just then .Mr. IJprnard raino in; Iho 
gpntlenian eppilrid tho bimk ho was sepk- 
inp. Ai tho genlhnian ]ia.se.l out if 
eight, Mr. Uirnard sai.l : "That is the 
gnat scholar, Mr. I'onlson : bo is a pnh- 
lis'ipr I f H grpat iiiaL-azinp." 

Frpd pr.ioicpd hit writing after that, 
imJ.-r the instriiclioLS Mr. l"..ulsou bad 
given him. He was aMoii.liid to spo the 
pro^rpss ho nude. A lilllo was accoin- 
;lidiod each day, until he b.vpd the art to 
such a degree that bo lost all oonsciousoeis 



of self in bis practice, licforo ho realized 
it he had rea.-licd such pprfe.tion in wriling 
that if ho had not quite coiiio up to the 
author, at which bo aimed, he bad very 
nearly rpacbpd that point. Ouo morning 
tho knowledge of what ho had allaiopd 
caino lo him all at cm.o. His impulsive 
nature gave the sbonl. long and loud: *' Mr/ 
sliip-t erne in!" Madame rnsheil from 
the inner room, wrineiug her bauds, and 
exclaiming: " J!/on 7;icu.' What yon cry 
out so for t No ship could come into this 

Fred laughed at hpr and at liis own im- 
pulsive nature. Ypt well hp knew that for 
thu first time iu his |.nor life bin ship had 
made a tri|i across the sea, wpll laden with 
material that would give hiin cvrry success 
in life. Mr. It.rnard was a ripe spholar, 
and Fred could not have fallpu into hpllpr 
hands. Now that bo saw wdiat woudciful 



and to tho sides rose up like great ratnpa'ts. 
The front open and closo down to tho 
river, from where the coi 1 sca-breezo was 
wafted and stirred tho trees lo low music 
above your head. To lio there beneath 
those trees, with open air, open sky and 
open sea.— with tho harrbills, the dainty 
ferns, and many bright llowers springing 
uji from the green moss at your fett, this of 
itself was enough to make one happy, and 
to be grateful for pxislence. It was beie 
that Fred Ucvol used to pomp, away from 
the smoke and the dust of the pity, and lio 
down bcneaih the trees. It was here lie 
dreamctl his first dream of greatness. 
Here lie fir.«t know that tho poetic genius 
was within him. Fred Dev.d kept the 
secret of his first poem a biug limo — fearing 
he had nv.reslimalpd hi. own power. Oue 
day Mr. licrnaid found hi. poems, and was 
impaiient until one was iu Mr. Ponlsou' 




slander on the fair sex. You may take any 
large city and go thro ,gh its schools, and 
where will you Sod one boy who writes 
well you will liud five girls who wrilo brt- 
tpr. It is so in families. It is only wheu 
men are compelled to use wri ing in husinps?, 
or make writing a spopialily, that it is diff.^r- 
eut. Fred Deiol did not attempt lo enter 



■K] 



orif/innt ftn-(/rownf/ rrtfiitld by ilr. Gr!ffit(s, 
CiliJ BmintBI CMtge, Q.Umy, III. 



snccpsB Fred had made in writing, and 
that ho wishid to improve in every wav, ho 
helped him. No one knew more people 
who pould help Fred's wriling. bringine. 
Mm iu a pecuniary 1 enpfil, and soon ho 
bail no need to accept the salary that was 
due him in the store. 

Ouo of Fred's creatost pleasures, when 
he first went to Mr. Dernarl. was that Im 
could go into the open air when ho wished, 
without tho fear of a spolding. As the 
years went on, it still continued his great 
pleasure. Many a day he would start for a 
walk to Happy Hollow. Tho way to it 
was across a covered bridge, then a mm to 
the side led yon into a road that lay si.le by 
side and wound its way with the river you 
had just prossed. Thi. road went winding 
its way by livpr and liillsi.le until it 
brought you lo Hapi^y Hollow. U was 
wpII named Happy. It was a hollow made 
by sveral hills standing together fronting 
Ihe river. 1 d.m'l think y..u coiihl find a 
more lovely spot than llaiipy Hollow, on a 
blight May day. The hllli to the baok 



hands, so great was bis appreciation of 
what Fred had d. ne. i 

The poem was submitted to Mr. PoulsntI 
for publication, written in Fred Dcvid's 
hand that was far more beautiful than tho 
one that made I'oe's first poem nrceplable. 
It was accppleJ and pnldi.hed in Mr. Ponl- 
son's magazine, where Fred Devol placed 

Fred Devol succeeded so well in all that 
he undertook that, when thirty five years 
of age, ,M'. Poulson offered liiin the editor- 
ship of hi. magazine. Fre.l. Devol was 
not only willing to take it but abundantly 
able to manage the magazine. 

It was only a few mornings after he had 
begun his duties as editor that Mr. Poulson, 
holding a letter out to him, said : "That is 
a lieantirnl hand-writing ; I never see a 
lady's litter written ns bpaulifnily as that 
but I think of an item I saw iu a penman's 
paper." Tho editor commended a liily 
wriling- teacher in these words: "She 
writes wiih great uniformity for a woman." 

Nofr Fred, my dear boy, that "was a | 



teresled him more was tliat he had to reply 
to this letter. It was an opporinnily ho 
had eageily longed for. This letter was 
from Mary D-iane, a contiilmlor lo tho 
magaziup, and Fred Devol had long been 
iulorested iu her. Although a universal 
favorilo with ladies, he bail never had a 
passing fancy for any ouo. This one wo- 
man, spooking throngb her contribulions, 
had stirred Fre.l Devol's whole nature as 
no other woman had been able to do. Ho 
was ghtd now to come this much nearer to 
her, altlioueh ho ii.iiht never see her face 
to face. Frid answprpd this Ipttpr, au.l a 
constant exchauuo of business Istiers drew 
them nearer. Fred thought in her every 
article she poured out her heart to him and 
no ono else. He knew that in everything 
that he wrote he bad long since ceased to 
speak to any one but her. 

A'ter bo had liion on the maeazino 
about a year Fied Devol rcsolutply ii ac'o 
up his mind to ask Mary Diane tu marry 
hiiii, aid, if she ronspnlpd, to go over iho 
long distance aid many at or.ee. Piu- 
deuce whispered to him : " It might be a 
case of Maij.ricDaw"; Pride whisper. d : 
" You are tho man who never pickid up a 
paper in which there was a case of two per- 
sons marrying on first siitlit lint yon threw 
the paper down and said; "Can there bo 
two such idiots in the woihl t" Fred De- 
vol lislentd to niither; tho strong heart- 
yearning that he felt f,.r Mary Doaup, nnd 
ho believed she felt for him, coriinered. 

When iilary Doano recpivul his letter 
she was seated in hpr own prplty cottago 
that was neslled iu among the trees. 
After reading it sho neither !Al shocked, 
indignant, m.r surpiisid. She had all along 
felt this heart- jparniug f.ir Fied Devol, 
but did not drcaui that he felt it. His | ic- 
tiire she bad seen in the magflzine, and his 
writings had found au answering chord in 
lier own heart. AV'hy should sho not marry 
him t This was tho niiy sho reasoned: 
Why should a person he compelled to seo 
each other face to faro H hen they had so 
long road pach the secret ihonght of tho 
other I Why should sho not trust hiiiif 

She wrole him that she wonhl marry 
him, and over the long distance he vicnt. 
Ho reached the pretty cottago among the 
trees and entered. It was no case of 
"Maij.irie Daw," for, lo: his ship is sail- 
ing iu. and from her deck has stepped tho 
passi ngpr she is bringing : it is sweet and 
lovely Mary Doano. A woman not tall, 
jet of grand and noblo liiipu. licantiful 
she is with her fair Eugli.h faio and her 
blue eyes that look si steadily into yours. 
She is near Fred Devol's own age. Tho 
beauty of her face, you can see, comes not 
from features alone, but from the soul 
within. Does this heart-jearning for each 
other ceaso when they meet iu the llesh, 
face to facet No! they know that they 
were made for each tnher as surely as 
while Adam slept his ship sailed to him 
from ovpr ihe spa, at:d left to liim Eve, 
tho one lair passenger. 

The tog ms)- bo ilii k. Iih l.rlla ti.lliii,r and nngiag 



The " Hand-book" as a Premium. 

We have decided to continue lo mail, 
until further notice, the " Iland-hook " (in 
paper) free to every jierson reiiiitiing $1 for 
a subscription or renewal to the JiiUilN'AL 
for one year, or, for $i:i:>, the book hand- 
somely bound iu cloth. Price of the book, 
by mail, iu cloth, $1; in paper, 75 cents. 
Liberal diacotint to teachers and agents. 



Itinerant Professors. 

AiiT.cr.K II. 

Bv dixym.T.it II. I'jmikk. K™kuV, Iow«. 
Yc!i, we a'l I'lt'ad guilry to having been 
ODce a travclititf lecher of peuiimusiiip, 
aod B-e are prond ..f it. This ■» ibe tiiet »tep- 
piDg-eloar, aod lie who would rlimli must 
not iKQ'.re the as3i?lance gained in this 
field of iisrruleess. ^Vo have do regrets; 
but, on Iho contrary, are proud of ImviuK 
done inuchgoodaudgHiuedaelaEis ofhuiiw* 
ledge that id iuvaluablo for ihe 8H|ier9truc 
ture of a eurcessful lareer. Wo lo.ik bark 
Willi pleasure over a conquered Ht-ld, ilnd 
believe tlmt the inomentuiii gaiued is our 
constant support in the.-e d.i)s when others 
are hailing between two opinions. The 
itiiieraiil professor is a neepssity, and is sure 
to ihrive if he possess ahiliij'aurl the re- 
quisites of miuhood, with force and energy 
euouyli to create an elceiiic current. 

We must not deiiia'd too inueh at first, 
however, as we have adinitled that the he- 
fliuniug is hero, and wo caiinot, consist- 
enlly, bo loo crilieal. 

Young inau, laiinell your tiny bark upon 
the sea .,f strife and world of waters, trust- 
ing to forlune an I a strong arm f.r a safe 
arrival in the golden harbor. lie just, be 
true to your own inlorests, and jon will 
never want lor encouragement. 
KKMK.MDEn: 

N'dhing great is lightly won, 

Nothing won is lost, 

l-very good deed nobly done, 

Will repay Ihe cost. 

I'laee in Heaven your utmost trust 

All yon will to do, 

Anil if yon sueceed 

Von must paddle your own ranoo. 

Why do you he-italef 

I don't know just what to do. 

Dili you must iiioui il you ever hope to 
fu.-ceed. 

I have no confidenro in my ability. 

Arc jou positive you know your busi- 

IIow can I know it without having taught, 
and how can I tiach imtil I know howt 

Wlialapredeament. 

What aldlit; have yout Do you know 
anylliing more than how to wiito and draw 
a few birds and beasts of prey f 

What do you mean by " II„w to write t" 

writing, with ihat degree of skill that will 
demand reeogniiion by those with whom 
yon come in contact. 

Yes, I am not wantine in that. 

Can you inlrodnee a litile speed in yonr 
copy-hand, and produce what is always of 
the greatest interest to a business cum- 

Nn, I B.'arcply think I can. I didn't think 
lhal»a5es..enlial. 

Ill your proViision everything is ensential 
that will help you to Utli> others to Jri/i 
themselves. If by your power you can 
lead others to aeq-iiro what yon p.issess, 
your services must bo in demand, and will, 
of necessity, oominan.l liberal returns. To 
say the least, you sliouhl make this an ob- 
ject and improve yourself as soon as pos- 
sible. It surely will beneht you in many 

I have made a good start in drawing and 
can show fair results. 

What is the object of drawing! 

II serves an esrellent purpose to show 
executive ability. The drill gained in reach- 
ing any degree of proBeieuey in drawing 
gives superior increased power in the field 
of writing. It lends a certain cnchanlinenl 

the result with greater ease. The orna- 
mental bears llie sune relation to the prac- 
tical that algebra does to arithmolic. 

Do you deem ornamental iienmansliip a 
lucasili/l Diamond cuts diamond. Yan- 
kees answer one question by asking an 
other. There are many things deemed a 
necMsifi/ that were once conshleredaluiury. 
If we consider bow litile will serve our pur- 
pose, we surely must conclude that both 
ornamental penmanship and algcbr& mux.t 
liill to the ground. 



A knowledge ol algebra n ill benefit any- 
one, not so milell in dollars and ceuts, lint 
in the satisfaction of knowing something 
beyond orilinary. Ornamental Penmanship 
is well enough in its way, and like algebra, 
serves a purpose that must not, and cannot, 
he ignored. An itnoraut cry of a majority 
against it does not prove anything. If 
algebra assists one materially to understand 
ariihinetie, and ornamental assists in the 
practical, I surely am safe iu cincludiug 
that each should be taken in its time in 
Older to get a more than ordinary develop- 
ment. A thorough understanding in the 
lower miisr be gained through the higher. 
Is this conclusion satisfactory f 
So far I am safe. I can write fairly well. 
I Ihiuk I iindersliind the development of a 
bnsines* handwriting, and I will try and 
profit by what you say as to drawing, that 
tlipugh it I may reach what others have 



ling. 



But if you expect to bo a teacher you have 
only half begun. 

Yea, 1 told yon I didn't kiow what to do, 
and that I have no conUdeiice in my ability. 

What ability did you refer to f I liaro 
bull ho one. 

Hut yon must know that if you would 
teach well, you must possess teaching- 
power or teaching-ability, in addition to 
executive abiliiy. Conlidence comes from 
the possession of bolh, and you cannot 



not what he shonl.l he, then he should 
■ek to solve this o.NE " Phoulem or -nir. 



A Train for Dudes. 
There is talk of putting rra a regular 
F-nelish train between Roston and New 
Y'ork. Everythiug in the way of luxury, 
conf.irt, speed and safety has already been 
perfected. There are no such cars and 
engines in the world as the Consolidated 
road runs, yet, wishing always to supply 
an unsalistied public, tlio experiment of 
running ti Ir.iiu of English co-iches has 
been agitated. English engines, with no 
cabs an,l one pair of 11 -foot drivers, will 
be imported ; als", tirst-elass compartment 
coaches, seating eight persons iu each part, 
or twenty-four persons in each car. The 
high rate of speed accoinplished in Eug- 

hero but four of these cars will be used on 



On 



Icuv. 



York and one Boston simultaneously each 
day, and inako the run in about five hours. 
The train may possibly carry the mail, 
jiajiog Bre dollars a minute to the Govern- 
ment for each anil every minute's delay — 
jnst'as they do in England. The "guard" 
will pass along on the outside ol the train 
and collect the lickela through the win- 
dows. There will bo no venlilalion, and 




A Hard Witness, 

"Doyrra know the prisoner wellfasked 



thes 

"Never know him sick," replied the 
witness. 

"No Icviry,'' said the lawyer, sternly, 
" Now, sir, did you over see the prisoner at 
the barf" 

"Took many a drink with him at the 
bar." 

"Answer my question, sir," yelled the 
liwyer. "Hiwloug have you known Iho 
prisoner t" 

" Prom two feet up to five feet ten 

" Will the court make llir ■ 

" I have, Jedge," said the wiiuess, anti- 
cipating the lawyer: "I have ansivered 
the queslion. I knowed the piiioner when 
boy two feet long and a man five 



feet t 



• Uoi 



" It's fief, Jedge, I'm under oath," per- 
sisted the witness. 

The lawyer anise, placed both lianils on 
the lable in front of him, spread his legs 
apart, leaned his body over the table and 
said: 

" Will yon tell tho Court what you know 
about this ease t" 

"That aiu't his name,'' replied tho wit- 

" What ain't his name?" 
"Case," 



lid it t 



st" 



n> preient the ahnve al/kihet f>f pltiin capitals fur whilearm or comMned movl7af»t practU 
photo-enr/raved from pen-and-ink copy extruUd at the pjflce of the "Journal." 



know yonr business and be Bucoessful in it 
wilhiiut a knowledge of both. 

If this be true, I am only half a man and 
must look to my laurels. II the demands 
of any business are known, I mnsl meet 
those demands if I meet .uceess. If I shut 
my eyes against truth, or iu ignorance grope 
in the dark, it will avail mo nothing to cry 
aloud when lost. 

^'ou must prepare for the contest. To 
say that I will try is not enough. You 
must deinnnd that preparation of yourself 
that belongs to this day and generalion. 
When you were a child, chihiish things 
were becoming to you; but now that you 
prelend to act for yourself, it becomes you 
to act the man ,ind prove your act by all 
knowledge essenlial to a lull and complete 
exposilion of your claims. But how am I 
to gain a knowledge of tcaehingt Hi.w 
do medical students get practice in their 
professiout Are they not required to pur- 
sue a certain course of study, lectures, etc. 
etc., prior to going out to practice! Can- 
not you do the sauiof Have you done this t 
I thought any one who could wri'.o and 
draw a little could teach. Y'onng man, yon 
were never more mistaken in yonr life. 
If the iiineraut professors from early times 
down to the present have not been received 
with open arms it is easily accounted for 
by rtUex action. Oilier callings arc snf- 
(ering from indiscretions, but this does not 
nuMdy this cMe. If the iUnerant professor 



not much confort to speak of, but then " it 
will be English." There will bo no water, 
no toilet-room, and the passengers will he 
locked in and unlocked only at their desti- 
nation-all so English: Tho lare will bo 
about $-M or " f.iiir pun, me lud," and the 
porlmanteans will be "pasted" and not 
checked. The full fares aid poslal service 
will net something over *2,0UU each trip. 
There are so many Ihat go everything En- 
glish that it is expected that coaching- 
clubs, Engli.-h pug-d.ig owners, polo play- 
ers, foxhimlers, and dudes will patronize 
and roll up the reciipis of the new train. 
It will not bo necessary to uso any of the 
new 8.'),OU0 0(10 loan, as it is a known f»ct 
ihat auylhing brought over here that is 
English always pays and pays well. One 
of the trains should be called the " Flying 
Wilde," and tho other " Lightning Lang- 
try." 



When to Subscribe, 
For several reasons it is desirable, tha*, 
so far as is practicable, subscriptions should 
begin with the year, yet it is entirely op- 
tional with the subscriber as to when his 
Bubscriplion shall commence. Those who 
may be specially interested in the very prac- 
tical and valuable course of lessons com- 
menced by Prof. H. C. Spencer may have 
their subscriptions begin with the May 
number, in which is the first lesson of the 



" You di-1. Y'ou wanted to know what 
I know about this ease. Ilij uaiiic's 
I SmUh," 

"Y'onr Honor," howled tho attorney, 
plucking bin beard out by llie roots, " will 
you make this man ansivert ' 

"Witness," said the Judge, "you must 
answer the q'lesiions put to yiu." 

"Laud o' Goshen, Je.ige, hain't I been 
d.iin' itf Let tlio blamed cuss fire aw.iy. 
I'm all ready." 

"Then," said the lawyer, "don't heat 
about tho bush any more. You and llie 
prisoner have been friends f" 

"Never,' promptly responded the wit- 

" What I Wasn't you summoned hero 
as a friend t" 

"No sir; I was summoned hero as a 
Presbyterian. Narry one of us was ever 
Friends. He's an ohl-lino B.iptiat, wiHiout 
a drop of Quaker in him " 

"Sland down," yelled tho lawyer iu dis- 
gust. 

"IleyT" 

" Sland down." 

" Can't do it. I'll sit down or stand 



np- 



' Sherilf, I 



tho 1 



1 from the box " 
:; "Well, if ho 



ain't the thii-k heidcdei 
eyes on." — Utica Obsen 



"I has been axed several lines o' late," 
remarli.-d Brother G.ir.lner as he opened 

we war' to hive any now mottoes or prov- 
erbs or inaxiuH fur do summer sezun. Do 
Commilteo on Saylu's has hunihd iu tho 
follerin' bill o' faro fur hot wealhcr: • Ho 
who sleeps by day will hiinger by night.' 
'Industry am do peg on which Plenty 
hangs 'her hat.' 'Argyinent makes three 
enemies to one friend.' ' .Men who go to 
law inns' expect to eat dcir 'lalers widout 
salt.' 'Da bigeest balloon kin bo packed 
iu a har'l when do gas am out.' Do ratllo 
of do empty wagon kin be heard furder dan 
'le rumble of do loaded one.' "— Detroit Ftee 
Press. 



The Common-sense Binder. 

This convenient receptacle for holding 
and preserving the JoijUNAt, should he in 
possession of every subscrilier. It is to all 
iiilents and pnqioscs a coinpleto binder, and 
will contain nil tho uumbers. iof-fyur years 
.Moiled Tor-$1,50. 



■f**^STf| 



t AKT •JOlilJ MAlJ 



And TEACHERS' GUIDE. 



ADVERTISING RATES. 

glugls iniertion. .Tf) c»nt« per Une nonpareil. 
iDmn r«l^ Ie3.00' 1120,110 llVvO 






LIBERAL INDUCEMENTS. 



PREMIUMS: 

To all who remit «1. we will mail the JorilXAl. imp 
ear. and a mjiy I buiuiJ In paiwr) of'AmM'a UmikI- 
<>«k of Arti»tie Penm«...bil.'-: or. for »1 25. a .-..pv 
ound In cloth F,.r »i the - Haml h,M.k." In cl,.th. bmA 
He "Staniliirci Prmjiiriil Prnniandhip " will both be 



■t'ftlll. tor is. 
TO CLUBS: 



« Ofdflf or by Hegi»- 



PENMAN'S ART JOITINAL 



ErrJi'" 



Teaching Business-writing. 

Tlio CuUege Mecord for Jime, and tin; 
Collegt Quarterly f..r July, of Jitcltsnnvilli', 
111 , contain Pomcwliat extended articlps by 
G- W. Brown, pnnirictor of the Jaclfson- 
TiUo Business Collfge, combating the ideas 
advanced through recpnt nunibfirs of the 
Journal that busiuess writing cannot be 
taught. We do not propose to enter fm-iher 
into the discussion of tliis matter. From a 
personal interview and discussion «-itb Mr. 
Brown at the lato Ctmvenii.m in Washing- 
ton wo are convinced that the chief diHer- 
enoe between h's and our tiows consisia in 
the differcnre of construction pi. cod upon 
tho tenii ■' business- wriiiug" — ho using ii 
in tho sense of practical writing, or that 
which is best adjtjjied to busiuess purposes. 
In that sense we Bgree with Mi. Brown 
that it can be and is suc-ess fully taught. 
In our discusaiini we have used tho term as 
applied to the best style uf pnictiral wilt- 
ing as tiiuglit ill scliouls and colleijcs, re- 
molded iiiid tixed. as it is sure to be. by the 
exigencies uf busiuess Life and the personal 



clinracteristics of the writer, into, as it were, 
a dislini-t personality, which stands for and 
represents its author and nobody else. Such 
writing can be no more appropriated by 
rtuotlior person than can the physique of its 
author, nn.l is, wo iiffirm unieaHinhle. 



Exhibits at the Convention. 

One of the iiitorosling features of the late 
Convention was the numerous specimens 
of penmanship there exhibited — some of 
whieti exhibits were of professional work, 
wliile many others were arranged for ex- 
hibiting the result of school -work. Among 
tlie foniior were numerous specimens of 
floiirisliiug and drawing by U S. Cidlins. 
of Kings Mountain, N. C. ; an engrossed 
testimonial to Cliarles Stewart Paruell, by 
John 0. T. McCarthy, of War Department, 
Washington, D. C ; specimens of flourish- 
ing writiue and drawing, by C N Craiidle, 
Penman at the Western Normal College 
iiud Coininercial Institute, Bushnell, 111.; 
a finely executed specimen of illumination, 
in gilt and ctdors, was exhibited by James 
n. Philp, of Washington. From the oiBce 
of the Penman's Art Journal were ex- 
hibited a scrap-book containing specimens 
froiii various penmen of the United States 
and Canada, another containing sjiec-imens 
of tho (H'ig'nal pen-and-ink designs, with 
copies of the same, reproduced by photo- 
engraving and photo-lithography, in fonns 
of diplomas, certificates, testimonials, com- 
tnereial forms, etc. 

Hanging upon the walls, in the college- 
rooms aud lialls, were a large number of 
exquisitely executed specimens of practical 
and ornamcDtal penmanship from the pens 
of H. C and L. P. Spencer. 

G. W. Brown, of the Jacksonville ( 111 ) 
Bu.«iness College, exhibited uuirierous spe- 
cimens of good practical writing, executed 
by teachers and pupils of his institution. 
Similar and very crcditajile specimens were 
exhibited by A. S Osborne, penman at the 
Rochester ( N. Y.) Business University. 
There were also on exhibition a large 
number of specimens collected from the 
writing departments of the public schools of 
Washington, which were of exceptional 



A Trap that Catches. 

Any visitor to Washington wlio fails to 
visit the Secret Service Bureau in the 
Treasury Department will miss one of the 
most interesting sights of tha* city of 
wtmders. There are exhibited all the 
various kiuJs and styles of counterfeit 
money, paper and coin, which, from time 
to time, have been captured by the United 
Slates iletpctives, logetlier with tho photo- 
graplis of all the persons wlio have been 
ariesteil for making or passing such money. 
There will be seen counterfeits of all grades 
(.f excellence, and by every conceivable 
method known — notes so finely engraved 
as tt> deceive tho very elect, and others so 
poorly made as to excite wonder that 
any one dare offer it, or that any one 
could receive it as genuine. There are 
several notes exquisitely executed with a 
pen and brush, which have passed many 
times as current money; even the sikeu 
fibre which is now introduced into the 
paper upon which all government notes 
and bonds aro printed was finely imitated 
with a pen. 

At the head of this Bureau is Mr. James 
J. Brooks, a gentleman whoso markedly 
courteous ami pleasant mien is scarcely sug 
gestivo of a chief of roguo-ratchers, but the 
spoils of his craft bear evidence that he is a 
terrible snare iu the way of the usurper of 
Uncle Sam's money-making prerogative. 



Notice. 

The stuvk of Ames's Compendiums is c 
hMisled ; no more can he mailed, A revis 
and greatly imj>roved edition is now 
course of preparation, and will be a 
nonncfcd when ready. 



New Versus Old and Tried Ideas 
and Methods. 

RoBolutions transmitted to the Conven- 
tion by Prof. W. P. Cooper, of Kiugsvillo, 
Ohio, pre-ented to the Association by a 
resolution offer d by R. C. Spenccc, of Mil- 
wjuikeo, Wi-»., with remarks coinplimeutry 
to Mr. Cooper. 

Remarks of Mr, Spencer upon tub 
Rksolutions Offered ny Him. 

Mr. President : I desire to present to 
tho Association a series of restdutinna by 
Prof. William P. Cooper, Kingsville, Ohio, 
who was for some yeare actively engaged 
in business colleges. Mr Cooper not only 
attained high rank a^i a teacher of penman- 
ship, but becime known as a eentleman of 
liberal attainmeuts, rare intclb ctnal en- 
dowments, and social qualities. His retire- 
ment from college work, on account of im- 
paired health, was cau-e of general regret. 
Mr. Cooper's interest iu the profession is 
manifest by the restdutions which I have 
the hon.ir to present, prepared by him. I 
ask that the resolutions be published in 
tho Proceedings. 

Resolutions Offered by 
B. C. Spencer. 

Whereas Prof. Willimn P Cooper, of 
Kingsville. Ohio an accomplished teacher ftf 
p-nmanship. for many ye rs identiried with 
imsiufss colleges has, by reastm of impaired 
health, been obliged to rebnquish regular 
professional labor; Therefore 

Renolctd, That we extend to Prof. Cooper 
assuranc" s of our appreciation of his faith- 
ful and efficient services to the cau»e in 
which ho still retains the deepest interest. 
Kingsville. Ohio, July, 1883. 

Resolved, That while we favor free dis- 
cu«siou in everything legitimately belong- 
ing to the sci--nce or art of penmanship, 
also the meth'-ds of tpa«*hing accounts, we 
CJinnot help urging the many and able 
authors iu our day placing tti«-ir views iu 
tvpo, to consider well the soundness of 
thr-ir (ipiiiio s, and wlicher they are loally 
defeuMblenrnot, bi-f.-re tmikiog them pub- 
lic. That ..nee ma.lc public, they arc . x- 
pected to defend them, aud ouce fjiiily 
proved unsound they should cease to advo- 
cate them. 

Resolved, That we cannot believe all 
things mutable and changeable in the mat- 
ters of Art and Education, tu- that the b^an- 
tiful is simply what wi» aro pleased tt> im- 
agine it. Certain ideas, certain methodn. 
anil certain principles wil be sound for. ver; 
others ad'i.it of change or improvement. 
Oui-o having discovered the truth and the 
best way in any or to any degree, we ask the 
people to stick to it, and to discriminate 
carefully in reeard to points of departure 
in any direction. There mav be s.-hools of 
art. i'l the matter of penmanship, each hav- 
ing some merit, though a widely varying 
deg'ce. Careful dis.-nssiim is a good thing; 
reckl S8 discission will do Utile less than 
bbnd fools ai d puzzle the best. 

Reaolmd, That we have aud do appre- 
ciate and respect, defend and h.n<u' tlie 
])ioneers of modes, moi)'ods and systems in 

judge liberally of new lir.i^ ii.i . ,\ n. 

Resolved. That in ..n. t ih- 

erto wo have, throiigli . : . . i. J 

ing, perhaps or friemilim" -ii mi ,1 i.. lu!- 
erate impracticable nielluxls, bolli new aud 
old. 

Rfsoh'td, That wo absolutely and un- 
qualifiedly ignore the itb'H i.f ini's]ii.iisibili- 
tiea. irresponsible agents cul-.i- iliiMi^i;, 
or lear-hers. The men ■' ■ > :-\,i- 

lion have not shoul <'■■'■ i- i in- 

sibilities, «ndmetthehaM:-li,i.-..r pi>.h.',.|s, 
who have thus vindicated IlieJr inettm.ls. 

Resolceri. That while they cheerfully un- 
dertake the tutorship of the young, they 
hope to ro.ei vein cluir'.-i' tin- ln.pe and prom- 
ise of Ih^eumin,--,,, .,■. ih ,i,M-i, lined, in 
allthings.f.ii ;i. , ■ uning Homo 

and pub ic s' |j _ I l^e expec od 

to have d -ne ti- n i .ui \\ h.tt we under- 
take is on tho hypothesis that this is true. 

Resolved, That, innsmuoh as the Ameri- 
can pennle have reaehed a development and ; 



The King Club 

For this month numbers />//;/ eiyht. and 
comes from the " banner-town," and is sent 
by E. K. Isaacs, priueipal of the pemiian- 
ship department of the Northern ludiHua 
Normal School and Businesa Institute, Val- 
paraiso, Ind. We d.i not know thf popu- 
lation of Valparaiso, but over 2.110(5 sub- 
scriptions have been received from there 
during a period of a liitle more thau two 
years. We imagine, however, ihat if pub- 
scriptions were received pro rata thnmgh- 
outthe United Sraies, we should be mail- 
ing about 1,(100.(100 Journals mouihly. 
And why nott We believe the Journal 
to he a good investment to, every lea 
and teacher of writing iu the land, and i 
believe that the chief difference betwi 
large proportionate number sent Inn 
paraiso is duo to the manner in which the 
merits of the Journal have been pre- 
sented, and that with like iufluenre at work, 
proportionately large clubs might 
cured in every sihool and town 
United States and Canada. We a 
lieve that the teacher whi> induce" a pupil 
or acquaintance to subscribe is a benefactor , 
to that pupil; the teicher puts in 
pupil's hand, at nominal cost, an : 
that will lend largely to interest ai 
courage the pupil, thereby suppleiii 
to a powerful degree the teacher's 
Teachers, try it ! 

The second club in size numbers thirteen, 
and comes from C E Baird, AB., 
ager of the business department of tho E. I. 
Normal Sch.Kd, Portland, Me. 

Clubs of ten each cune from P R, Cleary, 
Fowlervill*', Mich., and L. B. Lawaon, 
Haywards, Cal. 

While this is not the time for large i 
numerous clubs, yet they have bi-et 
than usually active for the vacati-.n s 



Our Thanks and Sympathy. 
To Mr. M. D. Casey, of tlie Treasury 
Department, Washington, we tender our 
most sincere thauks for his kind aud gener- 
ous hospitality whilo in Washington, and 
also express our most profound sympathy 
and condolence with him in the very sudden 
and unlooked-for bereavement with which 
he was stricken during the period of the 
Convention, in the death of his dearly be- 
loved wife. We bog to tender liim our 
kindest wishes, aud to express to him a 
hope that we may yet have an oppuriunit 
to reciprocate liis hospitality. 



Delay of the "Journal." 
Owing to a couibiiiation of several ad- 
verse cireuinstaiices. the issue of the jiresent 
number of the Journal has been delayed 
considerably beyond its usual time of issuQ^ 
We shall endeavor to mail the Augui 
number on or before the 15th of th^ 
mouth. 

More Delegates. 
The Business Educators' Association, 
which recently held a Convention at the 
National Capital, has, under difl'ereiit names 
aud auspices, been in csisteueo fiirtho last 
fifteen yeuVs, and shows an enrollment dur- 
ing that time of several hut dred meiubera. 
It is important that tho edueaticmal buiii-a 
ness houses, located at commercial 
not represented in the last Convention^ 
should send delegates to the next ( 
tion, which is to assemble at Kochesteri 
N. Y. New Orleans, St. Louis, AtalautaJ 
Louisville, San Francisco. Buffalo, Bi-ooW 
lyn, Philadelphia, and quite a nu: 
other principal cities, should not fail to I 
fully represented iu tho Couvention of 1881 



Sample copies of tho JuuRN^xx, 10 couta, 



I The Hand -book (in pa pet ) ii 
tiftVred free as a preinium to every 
remitting $1 for oue year's siihseripi 
the Journal. Or, hamlsomely bound i 

I olotb, fur 1^5 cents additional. 



Striking Resemblance. 
Mmy of nnr mnl-r-* are iiu.I.ml.Mly 
aware thai 11. C aiul II. A. Spearer are 
twio brothers, and sn closply re^eriil)Iiag 
each other as to often he mi-»t>ikea one for 
the other by even their intimate nr'^imiut- 
anoes. Of them the WaAhingt/)n Republi- 
can published, ia oonnPdtiftn with ira report 
of the Convention, the following anecdote : 



A New College Building. 

Cards of iiivitiitiou :irt' issued to llie 
ceremony of laying a corner-atouo of a 
ucw building fur the Eastman Busiuess 
College at Poiiglikeepsio, N. Y. 



ipmblHi 



««fl' 



the Couvenlion has havu the oioaeitm nt ludi- 
oroufi coafu4>ion more llian once during lh»! 
preBent DHfetiiig. Tli« two KfnilfniHn ar« Jlr. 
H. C Speucer, prfsident of tlm Spenoi-riau 



Buxiiii-^a collHgfl in tliid city, an 


Mr 


HA. 


Speuoer of N«w York. They «i-e 


twni 


broth- 


era of exactly the name etalure .an 


d build, the 


same hair, complexion, eve*, and 


exp 


eauion. 


When one gets op to epeak the Cor 


vent 


on lias 


to be informed wliicli it i«. Th 


vol 


ea are 


also the same. A delegate angg 


ated 


that a 


blue ribbon ehould be tied armind 


the 


arm of 


one to dietingnieh biin from llie 


01 lie 


The 


morning H. A. Spencer arrived 


Ijer 


from 


New York he went to the Holly Tree 


restau- 


rant to take breakfaat. The eo 


ored 


waiter 


looked on in blank woudermeiil 


am 


while 


Mr. Spencer was paying hie bill WH 


«..v« 


rbeard 


to Bay to a brother waiter. ■' Dit ii 


an'e 


got de 


moat rav'noiie appetite I ever eee 


in n 


V life. 


Why, look here, he wa. in here 


t 11 


o'clock 


'zactlv. and had beefsteak, ham an 


lepg 


.. fried 


polatoea, and coffee. Now il'a a q 


arte 


to ten 


■zactly, and he's joe' had mutton 


choj 


a, ham 



From the comments on the personnel of 
the Convention by the Washington Repub- 
lican we abstract the foUowiog : 

Among the detpgatps attending tiie meeting 
of tliB AsBocifttioti iberi" are a number of noted 
bunniess educators. Prof, S. S. Packard, ot 
Pttckard'a New York City Business college, is 
a famed teacher. His iuglitution trains over 
1. 000 students per annum. He is 57 yeare of 
age, but looks younger, as he is slender and 
erect, and his tace clearly shaven. He has 
been in the business thirty years. He is the 
anibor of tlie well known Bryant and Slrat- 
ton's Book-keepings. He has also bad a va- 
ried literary and newspaper experience. ?Ie 
first published the famous article of Oliver 
Dyer on John Allen —" The Wickedest Man 
in New York.' He edited Bryant and Strat- 
t^ui'a Magazine from 11-57 10 '60; eubsequenlly 
he WHS editor of Packard'! Monthly, a credita- 
ble literary venture. 

A prominent figure in tbe Association is the 
Hon. Ira Mabew, of Detroit. He was form- 
erly state Biiperiuteudent of instruction in the 
state of Michigan, and while holding this 
position saw the necessity of a more practical 
business education than that afforded by the 



Obituary. 

Wf rtrc deeply pain.-d to leani of the 
very sudden death frnin lieinorrhago, of 
C. W. Rice, which occurred on the 4th 
iiist., at Ecstes Park, Colorado, where he 
had just gone to pass his vacation, and ap- 
parently in the full enjoyment of health. 
Mr. R. was a young penman of rare skill 
and promise, having tiught io several of 
the leading business colleges of the West, 
and was engaged as teacher of writing in 
tlie Denver (Col.) Business College at the 
time of his decoaso. He was highly 
esteemed by all who knew him, alike for 
his fine social qualities and professional at- 
tainments: At a meeting of the Faculty 
and students of tlie Denver Business Col- 
lege, the following resolutions of respert to 
his worth and memory were unanimously 
adopted ; 

Whereas, I bo Divine Ruler of the uni- 



Answered. 






Rice; tlh'H'i ■ ■- I.- ■■-I'l luid 

the loss -1.-: i !■ ■ ■ ;. iM.-iids 

ihroughoul th'. L-uU-.i .'i.i.i' - ;iii.l (.'iniiuta. 
and bowing with hiiinbk> Milmii^siou to the 
will of the Almighty, 

Reaolved, That in his life an-l character, 
as exemplified by his every word and act, 
we recognize a young gentleman of excel- 
lent moral character and many talents. 

Resolved, By the death of the deceased 
the community sustiiins the loss of a good 



J. B. D., Mnrning Sun. Iowa.— Please 
answer the following questions through the 
Jnvjtvxi.. 1st. Is pr.ifessional poninan- 
ship injurious to one with weak lungs t 2d. 
Can I learn to teach penmanship (by read- 
ing) without going to school f 3d. Why 
are there so many failures n teaching pen- 
manship.^ 4th. Why do so many abandon, 
early, the profession? 5th. What does 
the Day Shading T Square cistt 6th. 
How do I write for a boy who never took a 
lesson in penmanship T Ans. Ist. Not 
necessarily, if one while sitting and leaning 
forward to write will have a care to bend 
from the hips and not bend the body so as 
to cramp the chest and interfere with res- 
piration j also be sure to exercise much in 
the open air, and frequent y distend ihe 
lungs by long and full inhalatio. s. 2d. 
No. We say No, because no one should 
attempt to teach who has not informed 
himself in methods of instructions which 
have been approved and vindicated by their 
successful application in the class-room ; 
this can best ho done by re civing the in- 




aud eggs, stewed potatoes and tea. Dat ap 
petite is wuf a fortune to any resiaurant." It 
bappen-d thai H. C. Spencer bad hreakfaated 
at the same vestau'ant jmt b>-furu his brother 
got ia from New York. The bnnhers are 44 
years old, but have liv^.l t.n<eilier only a small 
pari of tbMii- lileliniH. H. C. Spencer baa sev- 
eral children, ami hi-t broiher is now a visitor 
at the house. The little fellows were at Hrst 
astonished lo see their futbei-'s double walking 
around, and could not tell the two apart until 
they diiicovered a bald spot the size of a quar- 
ter on top of the uncles head. The other day 
a man stopped H. A. Spenrer on the street an-l 
paid a debt due H. C. Spencer. Last spring 
H. A. Spencer came bere on a visit and went 
to bis brother's college. The brother came 



I the 



jppnc 



He 



/here tifiy bn^s were 
assembled, to liniah the explanation ot an ex- 
ample that had been drawn on the blackboard. 
Not a boy .iiseovered ibe ebanee, though one 
was beard to say, *' Why I didn't notice that 
Mr. Spencer's bair was cut." 



Extra Copies of the "Journal" 
Will be sent free to teachers and others who 
deure to make an effort to secure a club of 
Bubsoribera. 

A little fellow of five, going alr)ug the 
street with a dinner-pail, is stopped by a 
kind-hearted obi g^-ntloiuau, who says; 
"Where ate y^m going, my little mant" 
" To si'ho'd." " Aud what du you do at 
school t Do you le^iro 



*To^ 



e?» "N-. 



■ T.. 



" What do yon dw f " 

to let out." 



tt""No." 
fur school 



public Bchuuli 



Mabew'a book-keepings are 
widfly used. 

The Hon. A. D. Wilt, of Ohio, is principal 
of the Miami Commercial college at Dayton, 
Ohio, and also postmaster of that city. He 
is about 45 y>'ar& of age, sharp featured, tall, 
and alert in expression. He is a member of 
the board of education at Dayton, and for 
many years has exhibited a deep aud lively in- 
terest in the cause of education. 

Prof, Dauial T. Ames ia the editor of tbe 
Pkn.mas's AltT JouiiNAL, a publication that 
has a large circulation among buciness col- 
leges, teachers of penmanship, and others in 
terested in the art. For many years be was at 
the bead of a prospwroua college in Syracuse, 
N. Y. He is one of tbe most famous expert 
judges of handwriting in the country. The 
celebrated Morey letter was submitted to him, 
AS were the letters forged by the colored oadel, 
Whitaker. 

Prof. Robert C. Spencer is the oldest of tbe 
renowned Spencer brothers, being now 51 
years of age. He is president of an old and 
Buccest-ful commercial college in Milwaukee. 

It will be remembeied that about a year ago 
a great seuBatiuQ was caused by tbe disap- 
pearance of one of bis children, whose body 
was subsequently found io Lake Michigan. 
He is one ot the ablest men in tbe Aeaotiation, 



Remetnber, yon can get the Journal 
one year, and a 75-cent book free, for $1 ; 
or a $1 hook and the Journal for $1.25. 
Do your Iriends a favor by telling them. 



Sample copies of the Journal : 
eofijpt uf price, LU cents. 



citizen, an educated aud talented penman, 
and superior instructor. 

Remloed. By his sorrowing pupils and 
friends and President aird Faculty of the 
Denver Business College, that we personally 
mourn the loss of a true friend and teacher. 
Resolved, That a copy of these resolu- 
tions bo sent to the brother and friends of 
the deceased. W. C. Collins, 

J. W. Andkrson, 
F. W. Ireland. 

Committee. 



Notice. 

Subscribers requesting a change of ad- 
drees should give the old address as well a<t 
the new, to enable us to find their name 
upon our subscription-books, where suh- 
aoribera are arranged by towns, and not by 



Rev 



The 



Robert Collyer argi 
Cri(ie of June lfitb,in favor of a closer sym- 
pathy between Church and Suge than has 
existed for several renturies. "The mutual 
goodwill we would fain sfo established 
between Church and Stage, when you find 
your way to the heart of it," he writes, "ia 
juet goodwill between the mother and 
the daughter, .tnd the desire on ynur part 
and mine, that after this h)ng estrangement 
they should kiss and be friends." 



For $2 the Journal will -be mailed one 
year; also, a copy each of the "Standard 
Praclii-al Penmanship" aud the "Hand- 
book of Artistic Peumanebip" (in paper 
covers; 25 cents extra in cloth). Price 
each, separate, $1. 



etruction and criticism, together with the 
example, of a live aud experienced teacher. 
By 11 means, if you aspire to teach, avail 
yourself of at least one course of instruc- 
tion froi« a teacher of acknowledged merit 
and experience. -M and 4th. First. Be- 
cause many young men, apparently with 
the presumption that to he able to write a 
good ov showy hand is the only necessary 
qualifii-ation to tench writing, make the 
effort wh n, through their igtiorauco of the 
proper U'Cthods for snecessful instruction 
and, perha])3, ignorance in other directions, 
they fail, just as they would in any otler 
pursuit for which they wero not qualified. 
Second. Because tnany skillful and suc- 
cessful teacliers, because of" their com- 
petoucy, arc sought and employed at large 
remuno'ation as accountants and corres- 
pondents in our great commercial houses, 
corporations and bureatis of finance. 5th. 
$7.50 to $8 00. Gth. Your writing is very 
creditable, but it has many faults which a 
good teacher would at once point out and 
assist you to correct— chief among which 
are lack of uniformity and precision in con- 
structing the letters. Your writii g has a 
very prevalent fault of being very irregular 
upon the bise-line, some letters projecting 
far below, while others arn far above the 
line; this fault alone is surticient to greatly 
mar yotir writing. 

E. H. L , Lake Hill, N. Y.— I am on tbe 
second year ns a subscriber to your paper, 
am well suited and much pleased with its 
contents, from month to month, and be- 
lieve it to he doing a g"od and lasting H-ork 

mental penmanship. I have been trying for 



aevcml years to so iinpr'-vemyAvriliugthnt I 
inUbt l)c t\h]c to put it to svich use ns woiilil 
benifit ino, fucIi ns tpucliing \rritiug scliool, 
etc., but somehow I liave not been able so 
fnr to tnnster tbe pen. Sometimes I ulinost 
seem to biivc giiiicd the victory, but very 
soon I find my liand .ind fingers get stiff, 
and sort of Jerk on tlio down stroke, so tbat 
the movement becomes irregular, whii-h 
discoiiniges ino very inut-h. and yet I feci 
biiund to not g'vo it up. Eacb succeeding 
number of your paper inspires mo to re- 
newed effort. I enunot bear to think of 
giving it up, because I am an ardnit ad- 
mirer of fine penmanship. I would take 
lessons of .1 fir-t-class penman, but I am 
not able. Will you please auswer n few 
questions tbrongb the JoubnalT 1st. I 
am f..rty-fight years of nge-docs llmt, ns 
arulo, disqualify one from becoming expert 
in ttio use of the pen t 2d. Does my writ- 
ing indicate that my efforts will be suc- 
cessful, or not! 3d. How far from the 
point of the pen phould the end of the 
fing.rbof 4lh. Shoidd the ppnlioldor cross 
the second finger at the lower corner, or at 
the upper corner of the nail where it enters 
the flesh f 6. I use a Siiencerian bank 
pen— do you think another make would be 
better to learn with f Please answt-r as 
many of these questions as you mny judsje 
proper. Wo auswer the above qu-stioTs 
for two roasonn. First. They nre proper. 
Second. They nre such as are often asked 
by persons of middle ago. Ans. 1st. Your 
ago does not disqualify yon from becoming 
a good writer. It does, however, impose 
two ditficiilties, viz., your present writing 
habit, comfi'incd by many years of prnctico, 
so far as it is not good, has to be overcome, 
wliilo at your present ago it is much more 
difEcilt to ignore your customary occupa- 
tinn and ei^'e yonrst-If up to the necessary 
study nud practice to thoroughly master 
penmanship; but <heFc are not dilliculties 
that canniit bo overcome by a determined 
effort, ild. The indications of your present 
writing are favorable. Your chief lack is 
freedom of movement, which is also the 
cause of "the stiff, jerky, irregular move- 
ment," which you sny sometimes troubles 
you. It would he economy for you to take 
at least a few lessons of some good teacher 
in movements. Your writing is now con- 
fined loo much to the fingers, while it 
should be more on the forearm. 3J. About 
one inch, or sufficieutly distant to not 
iulc tho lingers, lib. If you write with 
tho finger movemeot, the holder shou'd 
cross at the lower corner of tho second 
nail, as it gives a freer motion lo tho fiu- 
gers; but where tho forearm or,couibined 
miivement is used, the holder should cri-ss 
at, or ab >ut. ttio upper end of the second 



fiiuer-uail, 



> thai 



I the ( 



of hobliug tho pen, while it does not iuicr- 
fere with tho movement. 5th. While wiit- 
ij)g, the body should bo in Euch a position 
as to relieve the liglit-arm from any sup- 
port of the b'idy, aud whether or not it is 
necfssiiry t.> lean to tho left will depend 
uuftli upou the hitiht of the t^ble at which 
one writes. Cih. The pen you mention will 
do well, but wo wuuld Jather ci'miueud a 
pen as fine at Spcucerian No. 1, nr our 
Penman's Favorite, No. 1. 

M. H. R., Chcsley, Out.— Can one be- 
come a good wiitcr while doiug heavy 
workt 4ms.— Yes; if it is not so heavy 
as to ovcrstraiu his muscles. A consider- 
able d'^gree of heavy work will not iiiloifcre 
materially with the a-quisition of a good 
handwriting; of course, for delicate pro- 
fessional poo-work, it is necessary for one 
to devote so much time to practice as to 
preclude another regular business, and in 
its practice much heavy work would also 
ii jure thii hand for a delicate manipulation 
of the pdn. 






M. II,, Sharpsburg, Ill.-lst. Is it no 
aary io off band Uonrishiug tbat the li 
rest on tho littU* finger-nail or may it ^^-oi, 
.at the R*-"..!..! joint f .2d. Jf the wholcirm 
is ne?'' is -iird-writing, why not in other 
-wuU^g* Jd. Oao -anyone, booonio a good 



teacher of HTitiog without niuleratandiug 
grammar! Ans. 1st. Wliilo it may mil 
be fatal to good flou'ishingto rest the baud 
at the second joint uf the finger, it is mueh 
better lo rest on the nail, ns it presents a 
much Mnoothor and better gliding surface 
to the paper, and will render flnuristiing 
more rasy and graceful tlmn otherwise. 2d. 
The difl'crenco b'-tween using tho «holearm 
for cards and other writing is, that upon 
cards a greater license as to forms of letters 
and in tho use of flourished Hues is per- 
missible than in practical wriiir-g. Card- 
writing is really artistic ra'her than prac- 
tical writing, and since tho wholcarm is a 
sort of a long lever movomput which gives 
grace at tho expense of arcuracy, it imy bo 
permitted in card and professional writing 
and not in practical wriiing. 31. While iho 
use of bad grammar m»y not be fatal to 
good teaching of wri ing, it is vei'y likely to 
diminish tho dignity of a teacher bef-»Te 
his class, and impair their respect for him, 
even as a teacher of writing, were lio to 
betray igoorauee of grammar or other com- 
mon branches of education. A teacher, to 
command a high position as an instructor 
in writing, must have good qualifications, 
and resources that extend beyond >iuiply 
a knoM'ledgc of wriiing. It is duo to a 
numerous class of pretentious writing- 
masters, weak and igooniut in nil depart- 
ments of education except writing, aud 
often fo in that, that has g.oatly lowered 
the dignity of the profession. 

Geo. U. B, Caron, Nov., requests that 
wo give through the Journai^ some pprci- 
ments of good, phiin, practical, legal en- 
grossing. Wo entertain the suggestion 
lion favorably, and that means that it will 
be done. 




Prof. H. "W". Flickinger is passing bia i 
tion at Newport, Pa. 

J. E. Sonle 
spending the «t 

E. G. Folsom, of the Albany (N. Y.) Busi- 
ness College, is passing his vacation at Pen- 
yan, N. Y. 

Wm. Allen Miller, of Packard's New York 
Buaineea College, and his wife, are spendiiig 
their vacation in Europe. 

Frank Goodman, of ihe Knoxville and Na)>Ii 
ville (Tenu) Busine.'B Colleges, has iHlHy 
been appniuted a menilier of the Board uf Ee- 
genta for the State of Tenneesefl. 

J. W. llarkins, who has heen teaching writ- 
ing during ihe pant year al Lillle Rock (Aik.) 
BuBineBB College, engages with A. II. llhi- 
nian'B CoH**ge, Worcester, Masc, oii September 
let. Mr. II. is one of our uioet promising 
young wrilerB. 

J. R. Long, late a pupil at tbe Spencerian 
BiieineBB College, Cleveland. O., has been en- 
gaged to teat-h penmaiiBhip the ensuing year at 
Ihe Normal School, Danville, Ind. Mr. Long 
is A good writer, and will, undoubtedly, do 
good work in his new position. 

A. J. Scarborough, of Knoxville, Tenn., has 
commenced work as a teacher in GaRkfli's 
Business College. Mr. S. is a Bkillful wilier, 
and has been al Coodman's BuBinees College, 
Knoxville, and on leaving was presented with 
a handsome cane by the Btudenis. 

A. B. Sleadman, whose card appears in an- 
other column under ihe liead of "Busineaa 
CAlleges," Ib a akillful penman, and is highly 
commended ns a tencher by the Hon. Ira Mny- 
hew, of tbe Detroit ( Micb.) Business College, 
in whose employ Mr. S. baa been for some 

R. S. Collins, who for Bome time past has 
been teaching wriiing al King's Mountain Higb 
School, N. C, has been engaged to tnke charge 
of the Peomansbip Department lu Gondmun's 
Naehvllle (Tenn.) BuBioesB College. Mr. C. is 
a skillful penman, and will, undoabtedly, win 
favor in bia n«n position. 



S. C. Willismp, ppecial teacher of wriiing in 
Ihe public Hclniols <if Lu.kp..n, N. Y.. is not 
only deservedly popular as a lescher, but (juile 
ekilled as a pen-ariisl. A diploma, lately de- 
Bigited by him fur the several grades of ihe 
Schools under his supervision, is ppoken of by 
the Lockport Daify Journal as "a miracle of 
beauty and art." 

D. P. Lindsley, editor and pnbliaher of the 
Shorthand- U'riUr,\it^» removed f.om bis for- 
mer piiblitalioii oIKcB in New York to Plaiu- 
fi-Id. N. J., where be aUo conducts a school of 
lakigrapby — a syplem of hborlhand of which 
he is the amhor and publisher. All persons 
intereBled iu bhortbuud will find his publication 




Lett 



id oilier ppecimi 
lid able degree i 



W. A. Frasiep, Mansfield, O., a letter. 
A. ir. Sleadman, Freeport, O., a letter. 
D. A. Griffin a, Waxahacbie, Tex., a letter. 
A. E. Deigler, penman, Ada, O., a flourished 
bird. 



L. A. Barron, Rockland (Me.) Business Col- 
lege, a letter. 

E. D. "Weslbrook, Mansfield (Pa.) Busiaess 
College, a letter. 

E, G. Evans, Kindeihook, N. Y., a letter 
and lluurished biid. 



J.*a. ITarmison, Carlltnge, Mo., a letter and 
bird det!i>;n, quite credituble. 

W. A. "Wright, Bahimore. Md., several spe- 
cimens of good practical willing. 

L. B. Lawson. Tlnyward^, Cah, a letter and 
a C:ub of ten subi^ciibers to tbe Journ'ai,. 

S. S. McCriim, Thorp Springs (Tex.) Com- 
mercial College, a letter and llourished quill 
and scroll. 

II. S. Shaver, Cave Spring, Va., a letter and 
several well-executed ep^cimens of plaiu and 
nourished cards. 

G. W. Ware. Boulnm, Tex., a letter, a set 
of well-exectiled wholearra capitaie, and a page 
of practical writing. 

Enrico Petroeino, Caffe della Rosa, Salerno, 
a wellwiiilen letter, iiicloeing the cabb for a 
club of eubscribera to the JuUJtXAL. 

D. C. Tubbs. BuBUiess College, Erie, Pa., a 
letter, and a very creditable cjiecimen by one 
of bia piipila. Muster John Reuson, ten years 

E. L. Burnett, of the Elmira (N. Y.) Busi- 
ness College, a pbotograpli of a sprea<l eagle 
and bounding slag lelteiiog— all very skillfully 

P. IT. Cleary, teacher of wriiing at Linden, 
Mich., a letter. <^ardB, a fluuriehed bird, and his 
photograph. The apeLimens are of more than 
oidiuary degree uf merit. 

G.W. Brown, pre8i<lent of the Jackson (III.) 
Bosiiiess College, several superior specimens 
of praciioal wriiing wiiiien both by teacher 
aud pupils uf hia iiialitulion. 

L. W. Ilallelt, Millerion, Pa , a letter and 
several finely-wiitien cards. He says: "I 
owe my success in writing to a careful study 
of the Jot'RNAI.. No teacher or penman should 
lie wiihout it." 

H. A. Stoddard, of the Rockford (III.) Busi- 
ness College, a letter, and photographs of sev- 
eral very finely-exeenled epecimeus of pen- 
drawing. Mr. S. is highly commended by his 
popils aud tbe press of Rockford as a success- 
ful teacher of wriliog. 

A. R. Dunton, Camden, Me., a eplendidly- 
writteu letter, with a cordial invitation to 
Bpend our vacation with htm, and a prttmise to 
add a poand per day to our "avoirdiipoise" 
doling our lUy ;'«lMMld> we. lr7,.iU.Mi(l>J)tt 



fail oF Ihe fulfitlm-nt of bis promise, anyone 
acquainted with hia hospitality woiiM ceruiiily 
not lay the fault al his door. For so kind no 
invitation he ceitainly bns onr thanks, ten- 
dered with a liopti tbat we may be so furliniate 
ill future lo enjoy a (.ilgrimage to Camden, 
which has onine to be a sort of Mecca for pen- 
men ''dowu East." 

D. W. Ilt.ff, Mar*halltown, Iowa, a finely, 
written letter. He complains that we have 
skipped, without mention, bis epecimeiie liiili- 
erlo sent, presniuibly becAu^e he is not a mem- 
ber of the Biisinees Educators' Associalion, or 

elusions he is certainly mislHkeii. His i-peci- 
mens musi have miscarried or been uninten- 
tionally overlooked. If there i* one thing 

it is to nnt Uy ihe JofllXAL open to a just 
cbatge uf favu'ilism. Some of our warmest 
peiBonal fiieuds— and the besi fiieiids of the 
JOUIiNAL— have made similar complHints. 
The simple fact i.-, tbat some letters and pack- 



: do 1 



> the i 



dense number of our duties we overlook some; 
i^illi olliers, we unforlnnately ditfer in respect 
Ihe merii of their claims. 



"American Counting-room." 

cbangM the fli-«t number nl >4».Tiein Ci>unti„grt>nm- 
neHt. (ixij.f.nr thk" nioutlily maKazin^. ,.ubli.t,P.t 
New Yurk lity. J...lKli,t, lr..m it« wM^Mn. msny of n 






rir Clienls " '■ Clieikinff EmlM-zKlemeni in Thx C.iHm 
ri«.""A Crilici.m OD Averaft-ng A.-c.nnt* " ■ Tl. 
Jiff Qiiwtion." ■■ PoftMnff fr.>m Sli|.ii.'' nixt 'Tte Ilnl 






ipon "he aepartiire of foreign ir 



Slieet ( Poil.i>EIlca adJreM, Box 212G ), Neiv I'urk. 



The factory nt Caslletou, N. Y., pro- 
duces and packs about l,2.')UO(J0 postal 
cards each working day. The total pro- 
duct last year M-as 35U,OaO.O0O. and as tho 
cards arc all made at this one factory, tho 
product tncasjiTS the nuuihcr of cards used 
iu the country. If the domiiud at tho fac- 
tory averages 1,250,UU0 per dtiy, it follows 
that ou]y an nvciage of one card and a 
quarter is used daily by every fifty people 
iu tho country. 



How to Remit Money. 

The best aud Bafest way is by I'oat-otBce 
Order, or a bank draft, on New York ; next, 
by registered letter. For fractional parts of 
a dollar, send poBtagc-stainps. Do not stud 
personal checks, Ofpecially for small buujs, 
nor Canadian postage- statu ps. 



"B^g. pardon, sir,— hie— but could you 
tell mo wliicli is tho opposite side of tho 
stroetf" Why, that aide, sir'' (pointing 
across). '' Mosh oblish. I was sovcr tbcro 
just now, and nsked 'uotber geinTn which 
was opps' side, an" ho said this wns."~2i'x- 
ctiangt. 

Persons desiring a single copy of tbo 
Journal must remit ten cents. No att4Wi- 
tion will be glTeo to poBtal-rard requefta 
lor Mm*. 



AKX aoi'KN.VI. 





' ^' ^' • ^'^^if'-'^^^f:^ '^-^sep^^- ---^^^'^ 




How Every City of Upwards of 


iodeed, very slowly to the Jaclo/all trades. 


consent to ihiuk of anything better when' 


army of bceears and paupers, ami inmates 


10.000 Inhabitants can Have 


au'l lliat tl)0 preocDt slitto uf alfdird could 


what wc have is gf>ud enough. 


iif prisons; the monopi lists aud earnerers, 


a Special Teacher of Pen- 


nut have existed had not the sipecialist ap- 


To carry into ctToctand improve any new 


and gamblers of every kind and ^r.ide. 


manship Without 


peared and eslablislipd n claim whirh liaa 


plan simply means additional money, and 


Consider how much brains and energy 


Additional Cost. 


licfin readily aoncpted by every intelligeot 


to this end many a scheme 13 discouraged 


and capital arc devoted, not to the produc- 


Article I. 


and well ineaniiig citizen. 


because in the outset thcri cannot be seen 


tion of wealth, but to the grabbing of wealth. 


For many years in the large cities the 


returns prior to any expenses being in- 


Consider how iutemperauce and unthiift 


Bj CUAXDi.Fn It. PKincK, uf Ki-okuk. Iowa. 


snbjoGls of music, German and penmanship, 


curred. We do not propose discussins; the 


follow jiovertv. Cou'lder how the ignor- 


The public scIujoI fystein, whii^li in the 


have been treated successfully by spe- 


qiiestioo of fioanco, but wo are always 


ance bn-d of poveriy lesfoas production. 


priilc of our nation, h improving every ycHr 


tiilista. 


ready for intelligent advancement, oven 


and how the vice bred nf poverty causes 


under the (-llicieat mHnagcinent of inon and 


In later years, ci'ies of smaller grovrih 


where money is one of the controlling 


distiactioa, and you can hetlw answer the 


womeo devoted to the cause of pducaiiou. 


have sliarcd the enterpriae, and equally 


powers. 


question, la everyone doing his very besti 




CUi M)CMmm, vwiidwd i^mmmi> on t)mi) !oi .^iicavHuidtiotu 

ys^HRM. BE WAITED* UPON V\^J¥M S^EtSlMEMiS; 



t 



ON REQlfJ^ESHFi. 



# 



""^Ci.'rsS ^^ -/^aT 



m 



I photo- 



We 



pioud of each department of 
learuing, and rau account f..r tlio rapid 
strides taken in no better way than that 
each has been treiited as a specialty. 

'Tis irue, indetd, that much has been 
done, b«it it is au undeniable fact th.-xl iho 
most elUcient teachiog is where fpecialists 
have held full Eway. 

From the high schools along up to the 
aclt no nl edged superior institutions of learu- 
iug, uo 6nd every statement votiOed, and 
every argument conclusive evidence of the 
foot that progress and adTanoement come, 



engraved from pen-and-ink copy executed at the office of the "Journal," and is gk 
Size of original, 17x21 inches. 

eatisfactory results have been gained. With 
smaller cities, the question of finances to 
meet these eeomingly molropolilan move- 
ments is firsthand its importance usually 
weighs BO in the balance that the old plan 



This 



rith 






been educated under the very same regime. 
I sometimes wonder how, and M-hy, the 
old beaten traclt is diicarded. Why the 
now style is substituted for the old. Why 
we ever gave up the very things that were 
once our pride and Joy. Why we should 



As a nation, we have made wonderful 
progress; but with all, could there not have 
been oven greater? Is everyone doing hU 
best 1 

Consider the enormous powers of pro- 
duction now going to waste ; ronsidcr the 
great number of unpmductivo consumers 
maiutaiuod at the expense of the producers 
— the rich men and the dudes; the worse 
than useless Government oirimls; tho pick- 
pockets, burglars and confidence men; the 
highly respectable thieves who carry on 
their oporationi inside the law ; the great 



I a specimen of lettering. 

Every enterprise must have a leader who 
Mill advocate its cause and demand its 
recoguition. Tho day is about to dawn 
when every city of 10,100 inhabitants can 
have a spf cial teacher of iicnmanship with- 



ndditional 



I noi 



plausible truth, but can produce e- ideii^e 
iu figures and facts that is unuuniai>ie 
proof. This, surely, is reform iu us puni;. 
because tho rule s:)ys, more money for every 
new enterprise; here wc have the exceptiou. 
More money is not demanded, more money 
is not doBired. It is simplj a dliTeiiMit 



applioation of the p'f>!»eDt indtive power. By 
the maoy it is runcedcd thnt the geueral 
plao of learning hnw t.i write shoitld be 
from printed copies at the top of hi>r)k8, or 
slidiog copies or in slip furin— a particular 
copy to be practiced by the entire class at 
the name time. 

The different forms of litjht have en- 
grossed the time of master iniuils through 
aeea. Its history lias beeu writton, but Dot 
UDtil an Edison cried E>irelca, Eureka, did 
we dream of the witiiderful pnwrr foun.l io 
tbo electric li^ht. The tallow dip, the 
candle, the coiil-oil lamp, the gn^, each has 
served its purpose and proved to be of 
inestimable worrh. But must we still cling 
to tbem after soiaothing better has been 
discovered t 

The copy-booU sjet'^m, with class in- 
struction, has not materially changed amce 
its incipien"y. 

That a better plan has been discovered 
is proving itself wlienever tried. While it 
may he some time before the electric light 
will shine everywlicre, it gradually must 
displace all other. So uit.h the copy- 
book system, as it is and has been ; it will 
gradually give way to something better, 
which is to be expected by a progressive 

The copy-book system is not to be 
derided ; it has served its purpose long and 
well. It is possible, aUo, that nothing else 
could have been so satisfactory, nod pre- 
pared the world fur advam-ement as well as 
our present leading system. We do not 
disclaim any honor due the noble army who 
are, and have be n, engaged in a glorious 
struggle. We arc simply contending that 
a change of base iu iuijtartiiin instruction is 
necesi^ary to make a radical improvement 
in the next era. 

The present condition nf the Spenceriau 
System, which, in execution, surpasses all 
others the world has ever known, will re- 
main unchanged for inauy years to come. 
Improvemeijt cannot coir.e to its forms of 
letters; but I am pn^iitlve it has begun in 
the methods of securing the best rcsuUs to 
the greatest number. In the past fifteen 
years there has been a vi-ry decided change 
in the method-i of tea<-hiug languages. The 
results have m>t mMtfriHlly changed, but 
the methods that lead to those re-ults are 
the all-ahsurbiog topic. 

It is an easy tnaticr.to go to New York 
from a distant point. The praittical ques- 
tion to be solved is, Which is the cheapest 

There are many ways to learn to write, 
there are many ways in teaching writing. 
But the way llmt. will bad the miii..rity, the 
easiest, cheapest, quulest. it the one desired. 
I began the study nf grammar with Pin- 
neo, but do not think now thai I would Ho 
so again. If you have been teaching ac- 
cording to a system that does not entirely 
satisfy every demand, if you would bo suc- 
cessful, if you would rise in your profession 
you must seek for bettei melhudi", for a bet- 
ter plan of imparting that which you know. 
There is no reason why improvement 
sbonM not bo the watchword here as in 
everything elae, unle*3 (pardcm me for the 
statemrnt) that thinking, living ])enmen are 
few, and the few are not alive to their own 
interests. Sumo one ujust, some one will, 
advance in every cause ; some one must, 
some <me will, be the leader in every en- 
Specialists must teach the pupils how to 
write in our public schools, if it is at all 
well done. How to secure them is met 
upon every band with the same objection — 
no funds. Did it ever occur to you that the 
difference between the wholesale and retail 
price of material used would pay a spreial 
teacher $10(1 per month, with an attendance 
of 2,500 p.ipiUf 

Copy-books of the bpst material that will 
serve every pi.ssildt' purpose can be furnished 
at five cenia Crifli, retail. Ink, peus, holders, 
pencils, c-ic , vnu In-, nud an-, fmnisbed by the 
Boards of Eatu'allou at so siimll an outlay 
that to do olherwisM is simply an imposiiiun 
upon an imelligent oommunity. Are not 



the text-books furnished to the schools in j 
some States t The regular teachers do not, 
and have not, taught penmanship only in 
isolated cases with any degree of satisfac- 



Isi 



t high time that something should 
J relieve this farsical monotony f 



A New Card-House. 

We rccoully dropped into the new store 
of the New England Card Co., I. M. Os- 
born, proprietor, 7.i and 77 Nassau Street, 
New York. This company has been 
established since 1872, and is acknowledged 
as headquarters for all style of cjirds. In 
general arrangement, convenience and 
adaptability to the business, we doubt if 
there is another card-house quite like it in 
the country. And the proprietor sets forth 
a strong array of arguments in the slmpe 
of cards in every style, variety and use 
known to the trade, to prove the truth of 
his assertion, that no card -house in the 
United States has an equally complete line 
of goods. The first impression of the 
visitor who enters the store is, that he has 
stepped inside a picture-gallery instead of 
a place of business. The walls on every 
side, ten feet or more in hight, scorn hung 
with picture-cards, bright in color and at- 
tractive in des'gn. The walls are in reality 
shelves two feet in depth filled with cards. 
Cards to the right, cards to the left, cards 
in front — in fact, cards everywhere but on 
the floor beneath your feet ; for overhead 
wires are stretched, from which are sus- 
pended some of the most elegant and ex- 
pensive goods. Besides cards all around 
and above, we almost forgot to speak of the 
exquisite gems of art in plush, and hand- 
painted, which are protected by the hand- 
some show-ciises which flank the room on 
three sides. Our readers will thus see that 
the house has a good claim to its name of 
being a fitsf-class card-house. The original 
and primary object of the New England 
Card Co. has been to furnish cards for ad- 
vertising purposes, and for the wants of 
penmen and printers. This branch of the 
enterprise has attained a wonderful growth 
and development, and is still the leading 
feature of the business. 

During the year 1883 this house has 
entered more largely into shape goods, and 
has now one of the largest and most 
select lines in the market. Their lines of 
new and artistic souvenirs are admired by 
all persons of taste and culture. When 
we have said that the house carries pretty 
much every tiling known to the card world, 
it would be only a waste of time to enumer- 
ate in detail their more than 2,000 styles 
and varieties. Here are to be found the 
latest novelties in shaped cards, plaques, 
palettes, etc., etc., also a very fine line of 
tlieir own importations of lithographic 
goods. And right here we would say that 
they are the owners of many special editions 
of popular designs, and publishers of some 
of the best selling goods of the day. This 
house also carries a full line of fine cards, 
like bevel and gilt f dge, and their assortment 
is acknowledged to he the most complete 
in the city. The New England Card Co. 
extend a cordial invitation to their friends 
out of town, and all interested in cards, to 
call upon them at their new store in Now 
York. 



Woman, who has been looking over 
blankets in a Main Street store : " Well, I 
didn't mean to buy. Am just looking for a 
friend." Clerk, politely: "Don't think 
you'll find your friend among the blankets. 
We've looked 'em all through." 



Subscribers who may desire to have their 
subscription begin with Prof. Spencer's 
course of lessons, which began in the May 
(1882) number, may do so, and receive the 
Journal from that date until January, 
1884, for $1.50 with one premituiL 



Caution in tlie premises — " Hadn't I bet- 
ter pray for rain to-day. deacon t " said a 
Binghamton minister, Sunday. " Not to- 
day, Dominie, I think," was the prudent 
reply, "the wind isn't right." — Bingham- 
ton Sepuhlican. 



CfTo those subscribing at club rates, 
the book will be sent {in paper) for 25 
cents; { in cloth ), .50 cents extra. Price of 
bonk, by mail ( in paper covers ), 75 cents ; 
oloth, $1. Liberal discount to teachers and 
agents. 



BUSINESS COLLEGES 



A. H. STEADMAN, 



TESTIMONIAL. 

"Prof. A. H. Slendiimn i8 A Bhillfiil penmnn and • 
or tb6 most iiicdMnrul Ifathere ..f tlip itrt evpr emploj 




Blackboards. 

LAPILINUM (Stone-Cloth). 




P-Jt ut< Id rolU ol 



Black Diamond Slating. 

Tht Best Liquid SlatiiKj (withtnU fx-replwn) for 
trails and H'ootUn BlarkhoanUi. 



Pint,»1.25T Q«art,K; nHllfialUm. ri.W; Oal]on.»6,50. 

Vaed and gives Perfect Salitfaclion in 

College of Phyaicians aort SitrgeoM - ' 

University of ibe City ol N«w York - 

Coll««e of Pbarmacy ,.".... 

CollegB of 81 Praocis XBVier • - ■ - 

Sla.lfs..n i:mv.-r«ily HaniiCnlx Y.' 

^i-'-- '--''■■■■■■■!■ IVcliiiology - . - Hobokep. N. J. 

-■iT'i Oxford. MlM. 

-■ - I 0#hl(.«h.Wi». 



COLUMBUS BUGGY COMPANY, 

COLUMBUS, OHIO, 



Jereey City, N. J. 
BergeD PoFdI, N. J. 



&sr 






ranted bydealera iu almost every t 



ROLL BLACKBOARDS. 

PRICES. 



ORDERS PROMPTLY FILLED. 
PENMAN'S ART JOURNAL, 



W^; 




Phntn-Enqravinq-^'^Phntn-LithnqrHphi^. 

n.X Aates . 205 BnDRn\vxi. 

XMa Card ia Pholo^Sn^rav^d from P«» a»d Ink Copy. 






Perseverance and Penmanship. 



o dally D 



only I 



III securing a good hftudwritiDg I doubt 
if there is aoy iither (lualiBcation more ab- 
solutely esdeutial than a steady, earoest, 
loDg-coDtiaued [lerseverance, and yet bow 
comparatively few ever dream or realize 



it • 



bt, , 






[lenir 



alone in dollars and cents, bul 
practice. I have fretjuently been very uiu«h 
amused at students, in the frill conceit of 
their teens, who imagined that it was a silly, 
aenseleas waste of time to spend twenty 
iiiiuuteB' practice upon one of the most im- 
portant priooiplos, said students having had 
their heads stuffed full of Bourbon bosh 
about learning in twelve short lessons all 
they will ever need to know. Nothing has 
done more tt) lower and degrade the profes- 
sion than such noosensical claptrap. 

We believe that penmanship is not one 
jot loss, but a thousand times, more entitled 
to a full, complete course in' every school, 
both public and private, in the land", than 
hundreds of studifs thai occupy terms and 
years, and much sooner forgotten, and do not 
possess a tithe of the ])ractical benefits. 
What, then, is the duty of every oue who 
I respect and 



of I 



ukindt It 



? and Penmanship 



advocate that Pei 
must go hand in hand as twin sisters, and 
tliat to sepHrate them is but to insure catas- 
trophe and failure. Teachers should en- 
deavor to impress upnn iheir pupils the 
necessity of perseverance and hard labor if 
they would become good penmen, and 
should frowQ down that commuoic dogma 
of something for nothing, which is taking 
root and spreading. One of the most con- 
spicuous penmen of America to-day is a liv- 
ing example of what pereeverauce aud pluck 
can accomplinh. Thou«h naturally a very 
an-kward aud clumsy boy, he had that iron 
will aud never-say-die-under-any-circum- 
staucps which has placed liia name upon 
the uppenrioBt pinnacles of fame as a pen- 
man, aud the youn^ readers and amateur 
penmen of the Practical Educator can adopt 
no better texi than the one at the head of 
this article it they would insure to them- 
selves true success.— Pracficai Educator. 



Witness uv Hand and Seal. — In tne 
year 800 after Christ, what was the state of 
Europe f The Guths, the Vandals the 
Pranks, the Huns, the Normans, the Tu ks 
and other barbarian hordes had invaded and 
overthrown the Romau Empire an had 
established various ICiogd .ms on its r us 
In the then so-railed Christian nations there 
existed uo science worthy of the name no 
schools whatever. Reading, writing and 
ciphering were separate and distinct trades 
The masses, the nobility, the poor and the 
rich, were wholly unacquainted with tie 
mysteries of the alphabet and the pen A 
few men, known as clerks, who generally 
belonged to the priesthood, monopoli/td 
them as a special class of artists. They 
taught iheir busiuess only to their eemin- 
arists' apprentices ; and beyond themselves 
and their few pupils no one knew how to 
read and write, nor was it expected of the 
generality ; any more than it would be uow- 
a-days that everybody should be a shoe- 
maker or a lawyer. Kings did not even 
know how to sign their names, so that when 
they wanted to subscribe to a written con- 
tract, law, or treaty, which some clerk had 
drawn up for them, they would smear their 
right-hand with inb and slap it down on 
the parchment, saying, " Witness my hand." 
At a later day some genius devised the 
substitute of the seal, wliich was impressed 
instead of the baud, but ofleuer beside the 
bad a seal with a 



hand. Every geutleui 



He 



i the t 






,ow m us 
' affixed 



Serve at lca.*>t the purpi 

of the ignorance of Middle Ages. — Pupils' 

Companion. 



'* Witness my 
modern deeds* 
of reminding 



The Packard Commercial Arithmetic, 

Bv S. S. PACKARD.'OF Packard's Business Coli^eoe, 

AND BYRON HORTON, A.M. 

IN TWO SEPARATE EDITIONS. 

1. Complete, 320 pp., large octavo. 2. School, 275 pp., duodecimo. 

Tb« Couiptettt wlltlon. finit issiieil In June, hat paued to its flBh (hoiiBBDil. and llie Soliool cidltion, Ht*I Iwut 

r,iiiiri>'i'< — h^iMoif L:r"ni' <»ii "I Hie >c;ii>in <>f li CO smu poll tan inglilutioQ. ami tiuving been vEilUfactorily leHIed by 11 
niiiifit I'-.iili.-ra ■.! ).r,,,ii.j,l ;inilimeno iij Um oounlry. 3d. They are tminerUli/ a>lapt«d lo »elfin8truQrnin, 41 



lictad Prices: Complete Edition, $1.50; School Edition, $1 
Prices to Sclwols : Complete Edition, $1 ; School Edition, 75 c( 



ISoolt and olwtnue 



I, JeniPy City, 1 



Shorlttdge, Media. Pa ; J. V. Everilt, Uoion Sprmg*. N. Y, ; Cti 

S. S. PACKARD, Publisher, 805 Broadway, New York. 



Sv^K?\V»y^^•^^''^^9V'«^^^^'s^vv\'«,\^'Ws^^^^ ■^vj.^'SK ^Vk^at 



ESTERBROOK'5 



n; Series of 

bcHnnii PUIS. 




What knowledge is of most worth! See ^W 

What fvery hov ;iiid cirl should study. ^^ 

What evHvv t...„-|ffi- ~h<-^AA study. %^ 

What will ~. .' I .- .1. i- nf dollars. I^- 

What u I . . . V liov for biiainesB. ^g" 

Whiitui:, . ii. , ■ .-.li.e liligatiou. Jt^" 

What If - iiii|'i'i (.iiif ilian "ologieB." ^S§^ 

What will iimk^ iliis Miidy teachable. ^ 

Whiil branch has been too much nt-glected. Q;^" 
What should be used in every school. (^* 

What every teacher should adopt at once. (t^* 

rrlce, poBt-paid, 81.25; sample copy to teachert 



L. L. L.; 

On, 

FIFTY LAW 
LESSONS. 



D. APPLETON & CO, Publishers, 

New York, Boston, Chicago, San Franc 



PEIRCE'S I Penmanship and Art Department 

BUSINESS COLLEGE , western normal college 



KEOKUK IOWA 



PENMEN'S and ARTISTS' SUPPLIES. 

On M,, ,.-.,-.,,■ ,,^ . ..■^.■.l. we vrlU for- 

I ■ I ' I 111' rely not only 

li| I > . ijuLupoudoLof! 

/iiii. 1 ■■ < ■■ , I I . r.inaiiBhip, %i W 

lii'\' .1. , i-.^'nouBeiid 3 M 

'1' '■ 111 '^'. ' ""'' i;iiiiing4« 

t.0"'ilKVrV' .'M ■■ ■".'.'.'■*,*■." a 00 

100 " i;i' . S 00 

Bristol lioaiJ > tn.. prsbt M 

French B. B , :\ 1/ .« --ipreBB.. ^^ 

•■ 'ly\w. '■ ■' .. 3 as 

Blacit Card Boiua. •lln.Zi, for while Ink BO 

Black Cords jiur 100 . 9C 

Bluck Cards pur tliousotid, by uxprosa — 3 DO 

Wbat'B dr'lng-paper, bot-prfw*, 15x20 $ 15 f 1 tt 

" Ux2Z. 20 « 00 

19x24, 20 . a » 

•• ■' » 21x30, 26 1 7ft 

SlxQa! 1 15 80 06 
Blantc Bristol Board Canla, per 100 ... tt 

" ■■ ICPOObyex - K 

WhisorJtNevi-ton'SBuor auo tod luk. eti-^li i» 



/A- 




Human and Animal Types. 

Mail's framo, the iiioPl complex wliicli 

tlio aii.itoiriist knows, is coimnnnly bclicvcl 

to be constructed on !\ type ppciiliiir t(i itst'If- 

19, at least, i\ miitler of coiniiinn bolk-f 

ll atwcstiind on a striictiniml platfonn tti;it 

pcculiiirly our own. It is tliis tacit bclii-l' 
wliicli causes ua to regnnl any obvious ap- 
pt-oach to our own stnictiirc iiud confonna- 
tioti— as in tlio apes, for oxiunplc — in the 
li^ht of a natural buvlcsquo rather than as 
a sober reality, depcniliiig upon causes and 
laws wiilton uuinistakably iu tho constitu- 
tii>n of livinj; tilings. Yet there is uo truth 
further reniovoJ from tho region of fiction 
or hypotliepis thau that which asserts tliat 
inau has no typo peculiar to himself, nuy 
move thau a shrimp or butterHy possesses a 
bodily plau esseutially and peculiarly its 
owu. Ou the contrary, wo sec iu the human 
frame merely the most specialized and dis- 
tinct form of a particular typo or plan, 
which agrees iu its broad details, as a plan, 
with that seou in every fish, frog, reptile, 
bird, and quadruped or mammal. Ilunian- 
ity rcai-s its head erect at tlie top of llio 
animal tree, but it exists after all only at 
tho end of its own particular braucli, which 
we know scientificiiUy as the vertcbnita, oi' 
familiarly as the "backboned" type. Every 
feature which iu man is to be vegardcil as 
most purcdy distinctive and human in its 
nature can bo shown to represent simply 
the extreme development or modilication of 
charactera or orgaus belonging to the type 
as a whole. From mau's liver to his br.iin, 
from tho bones of his wrist to the structure 
of his eye, there is uothing to be found that 
is not foreshadowed in type in the quadru- 
ped class, or cvcu iu still lower vertebrates. 
Later on wo shall have occasion to show 
that, as Mr. Darwin remarks, man bears iu 
liis body undeniable Inices of his lowly ori- 
gin. So that those philosophers who may 
feel inclined to grumble at tlio clear cvj- 
deucps which anatomy presents of mau's 
relationship to, and place in, a great com- 
mon type of animal life, will require, after 
all, to bear a grudge not against the auato- 
mist, bnt ngaiust Nature hcreelf, and 
against the consiitutioa of tlic animal world. 
It is hardly worth our while in truth to feel 
aggrieved, for example, at the kuowleilgc 



tliat the highest apes possess ; 
bone for bone and mnsclcfor muscle, r 
bk's our owu iu type, when m'c di: 
tli.it man's ''third eyelid "--existing 
rudimentary state — is in reality a relii 
complete structiu'c, possessed by auhr 
low down in tlio vovtebratc scale c 
fishes. — Longman's Magazine. 



■hicli, 



A thief was caught in a London estab- 
lishment a short time ago opening a safe 
contaiuing a forluuo witli a key as perfect 
as though mado ori^^inally for the lock, 
The man was convicted, and Ills prosecu- 
tors, out of curiosity, bp^'ged him to tell 
them how ho got tho key. "Xotliing 
easier," he replied. '• \Vc knew who car- 
ried the key and what it was like. So me 
and my pals we gets into the same c;irriago 
with yonr manager when he's going home 
by rail. Ono of us luis a bag wliich ho 
can't open. lias any gentleman got a key t 
Your umnnger produces his bnuch; and 
my pal, ho has wax iu his ])alin, and takes 
a likeness of tho key of tho safe while 
seeming to opcu his b«g. There's tho se- 

Send $1 Bills. 

Wo wish our patr.ins to bear io mind that 
in payment for subscriptioua we do not de- 
sire postHge-staiiips, and that they should !)« 
sent only for fractional purls of a d'dlar. A 
dollar bill is much more convenient and safe 
to remit than the same amount iu I, 2 or 3 
cent stamps. The acUal risk of remitting 
money is slight— if propeily directed, not 
one miscarriago will occur in one thousand. 
Inclose tho bills, and wliero letters contain- 
ing money are lealed iu pre4cnc« of the 
postniaster, wo will assume all the tisk. 




ff. Wr'ifinir CHnto hi«1 IiiriinH.mN. elo. TliU txxik li.ui n^i i1i..ii.*ani)ii '■! -r-nnn 'I 
'\ tm- cheap at ten dullan a copy. AOUKTd wAiiTKli. ' ini'uie Ri'ieil and b 
■ruf. O. A. QASaEI.1., PubUsher, Box 1S34, New York City P. O. 



Used in all the Leading Colleges and Schools. 
Class-Book of Commercial Law 

FOR THE SCHOOL AND COUNTING-ROOM. 
A PLAIN, PRACTICAL EXPLANATION OF THE LAWS OF BUSINESS. 

ESPECIALLY FOR CLASS OR PRIVATE INSTRUCTION. 
By C. E. CARHART, 

PRINCIPAL OF THE ALBANY BUSINESS COLLEGE- 






SENT, POSTPAID, TO ANY ADDRESS ON RECEIPT OF ONE DOLLAR. 

SPECUL RATES TO COLLEGES AND SCHOOLS. 

Address C. E. CARHART, Principal, Albany Business College, Albany, N. Y. 





H. W. KII3BE, Utioo,, N. Y. 



CURE YOUR CORlSrS. 

■\yiIAT THE MEDICAL PKOFESSION SAY OP KLINES COEN CURE. 
A Spicimen Teitimonial. 

DIlBKTflOX & C^. DUXFLLFM. N. J . Ulav 3Ur, lEPS. 

f,t7'Himtn:~S\nef, heonming arqnaliilei} will, Kline. Com Cure tt bus tiut tiii «l Io «ivo |<r.iin|>i ai 

Thi. 

Bud liually. 

It l.i>» ne^.er hern Icnown Io fail. 
We (end llii. remfdy anj-i\liere ou rtcti]U of Uic piko, aj CfiiH, iu U. .S. poalage alamps. 

ROBERTSON & CO., Pharmaceutical Specialties, 

Sole Afienta. 6J No. iiia Broadway, Ne-wr York City, 



THF, ,Nl;\V 

BRYAM & STRATTON 
BOOK-KEEPING BLANKS, 

Adaplfd for mm will, or «-ill)oul Tfxi-Book, 

&ud lb. uuly ..I r.coQiaieud.d 10 

accompauj 

"THE KKW 

Bryant & Stratton 
Counting- House- Book keeping." 



"JOHN D'S FAVORITE PEN." 



DANIEL SLOTE & CO., 

no A.\-D 1-21 William Stkkkt. Nkw Yo 



THE DAY SPACING 
Shading T Square. 





SCRIPT RULERS, 



r tniUaf. Addnu, PutMA-t's 



aBiMdMy, Nairl 



Former Stationery. 
Is it not sliiingc iii tlitsc days of clicnii 
Btntii'ucry in think uF ii time wlioii butli 
jMrcliiitoiit «nJ piipyriis Inul l)rcoinc so rare 
niiit so cvorliilaiilly expensive lliat boili 
Greeks aii<l Romans were in the linLit of 
xmug ii palimpsest, which was simply tionie 
old niKUUSCiipt with the former Aviiting 
erased f Thus countless works of atitlioi's 
now celebrated, aiul M'liose every word is 
held priceless iu this nineteenth century, 
were ruthlessly destroyed by Iheir contem- 
ponirics. Verily those prophets lacked 
honor! Many were the expedients resorted 
to by the cai-ly scribes for tho supply of 
writing inatcrials. There was no scribbling 
pnpcr whereon to jot down trivial memo- 
randa or accounts, but the heaps of broken 
pots aud crockery of all eoi-ts, which are so 
nbundarit in all Eastern towns, prove tho 
fii'st suggcsliou for such china tablets and 
slates as wc now use, and bits of smooth 
stone or tiles were coustantly used fur this 
purpose, and remain to this day. Frag- 
ments of anrieut tiles thus scribbled on 
(such tiles as that when-ou Ezckiel was 
counnanded to portray tlie city of Jerusa- 
lem ) have been f..und in many places. The 
island of Llephnntiuo. on the Nile, is said 
to have furnished more than a luuidred 
specimens of these memoranda, which are 
now in various museums. One of these is 
a Soldier's leave of absence, scribbled on a 
fragment of au old vase. How little those 
scribes and accountants foresaw the interest 
with which learned descendants of the bar- 
barians of the isles would one day treasure 
their rough notes! Still quainter were tile 
writing materials of the ancient Arabs, who 
before tho time of Mohannned used to can-e 
their annals on the slioulder-bladcs of 
sheep; these "sheep-bone clirouii Ics" were 
slniug together, and thus preserved. After 
a while, hh^ep's bones were replaced "by 
sheep's skin, and the manufacture of pavcli- 
ment was brought to such perfecliou as to 
place it among the refiuomcuts of art. Wc 
hear of vidlums that M'cre tinted yellow, 
others white; others were dyed of a rich 
purple, and the writing thereon was in 
golden inlt, with gold borders and many- 
colored decoi-atious. These precious manu- 
scripts were anoiutcil with tho oil of cedar 
to preserve them from mollis. We hear of 
one sncli iu which the name of Mohammed 
is adorned with garlands of tulips aud car- 
nations painted iu vivid colors. Still more 
precious was the silky paper of ihc Pei-siaus, 
powdered with gold and silver dust, where- 
on were painted rare illuminations, while 
the book was perfumed with attar of roses 
or essence of sandal-wood. Of the demand 
fur writing materials one may form some 
faint notion frcnn the vast manuscript U- 
braiies, of which records have been pre- 
served, as having been collected by the 
Caliphs both of tho East and West, the 
former in Bagdad, the latter in Andalusia, 
where there wore 60 great public libraries, 
besides that vast one at Cordova. We also 
hear of private libraries, such as that of a 
pliysieian who declined jiu invitation from 
tho SulUm of Bokhara because tho carriage 
of his books would have required 400 
camels. If all the physicians of Bagdad 
were equally literary, the city could sciucely 
Imvo contained their books, as wo hear that 
tho medical brotherhood numbered 8G0 
licensed practitioners — ■ The GentUman's 
Magazine. 

Writing-Ruler. 
The Wriling-Rulcr lias become a stand- 
ard ariifde wiih those who profess to have a 
suitable outfit for practical wri'ing. It is 
to the writer whnt the churl and compass is 
to iho mariner. The Wriling-Ruler is a ro- 
liablo penmanship chart and compai 
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Entbrrd A1 
New York, N. Y. 


THE PoST-OfFICK OF 

AS Second-Class Mattbb. 


l:l:K"LLiyT.l^"ti'ZZT'' new york, October, i883. 




Vol. VII.— No. 10. 



LESSONS IN PRACTICAL WRITING. 
No. XVI.— By Henry C. Spencer. 

Copyrighted, October, 18S3. hy Spencer Brothers. 



. Engraves ibo knowledge with & beam of light." 

Theory in writing is useful only as it is reduced to practice. Theory directs, practice 
perrorina, and the result is a useful art. To write well should become the fised habit of 



ing, or disciplinary exercise. Hence eacli lesson, aa we have remarked before, should 
be commenced with a movement-drill exercise occupying at least ten minutes' time. 

The good right arm is the magazine of power. Using it from the shoulder with the 
elbow slightly raised, the hand gliding on the nails of the third and fourth fingers, largo 
forms may he produced with finish, grace and beauty. Such is the wkolearm-movement. 
This, modified by poising the arm upon its large full muscles on the under side between 
elbow and wrist, produces with rapid untiring strokes the medium or smaller sizes of 
capitals, small letters and figures, best adapted to business writing. This is called tho 
Jbrearm or muscular movement. It is the most useful and practical, and requires most 



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every one who writes. Habits are formed by the repetition of actions. Bad habits are 
cured by doing tho right thing over and over again. 

As a means to securing a good handwriting we have in these lessons sought to secure 
the proper position and handling iif the pen. " Position gives power " ; " Movement is 
the parent of form." As the position, so the movement; as the movement, so the form. 

Throughout our country now, the teaching in regard to hohling and haudling the pen 
has been brought to one standard— the same we have sought to inculcate in these few 
lessons. 

To secure genuine ekill in the use of the pen, the arm and hand require much tr^n- 



persevering discipline in order to make it available. 

Attending the forearm-movement, may be allowed a slight subordinate thumb and 
finger extension and contraction, producing the compound- mor«nwi(, adapted to easy, 
graceful, current writing. 

The^tif^w-ttiovemwii, purely aa such (as has been stated in a previous leseoii), scarcely 
exists in the specimens of the ready writer. It is cramped, slow and labored. 

Plate 1. This ledger account contains three sizes of writing. Tlio heading, consist- 
ing of the name, for the sake of prominence, is written on a scale of eighths of an inch; 
^ho short letters being one-eighth, the semi-extended two-eighths, and the capitals three ■ 



in\c,\ lettoi 



m.ispr, 



ciglitlis. Tiip Dr. aixl Cr. arp on a scale of tenths. The entries bel 
twelfths, anJ the writing 8|)ace occupipfl hy the higlit of capitals ai 
18 throe- fourths of ruled ppiit-e or the 8pace between ruled lines. 

Ledger- paper, or paper ruled in coliirnns like the copy, is most suitable f< 
ticc. Bo careful to give the figures their proper places in the columns. 

Plate 2. This presents a body of writing for practice. The first three words, for 
prominence, are written on a scale of eighths and shaded throughout. Care should bo 
taken to shade the down strokes uniformly as to strength. All that follows is written 
on a scale of tenths, und the capitals and extended small letters occupy three-fourths of 
tlie ruled space above lino. 

In a body of writing, regularity of size, slant, spacing, and uniformity of shade, are 
indispensable. 

Write again and ngain, gradually increasing your speed until you surely attain rapidity 
combined with legibility and pleasing uniformity. 

It is good practice to copy freely from books and newspapers and to write from the 
dictation of another, taking note of time to ascertain how many words you can write ou 
an average per minute and execute well. The way to reach a high rate of speed in writ- 
ing is to practice for it. 

PLATB a. Individuality of handwriting is in great measure the result of individual 
modifications of tho forms learned while under instruction, the selection of forms of letters 
from the variety presented for consideration, as well as the physical characteristics of 
the writer. The small letters afford but a limited variety, but the capitals admit of nu- 
merous variations id form, proportions, and shading, which open up quite an extensive 
field for choice. Mad we space at our command for such purpose, we could exhibit many 
more styles than have yet been given. We commend this plate for your careful study 
and practice. 

At the beginning of this course of lessons you were requested to write each a speci- 
men showing your penmanship then ; this being the last lesson of the series it is in order 
for you who have followed the lessons in theory and practice, to write each a final speci- 
, and, by putting it in comparison with tiie first, show the improvement which has been 






All wlio gain a practical knowledge of the art of v 
rco of pleasure, profit and improvement. 



•iting, find in it through life ; 



Or, a Trl'k Tale of Nat TunNr.n's War. 
Bv Mart E. Martin. 
Out on the suburbs of the little town of 
Jerusalem, in Southampton, stood a home 
noted for its magnificence both within and 
without. In its parks the deer wandered at 
will. In the long line of white-washed 
cabins that greeted the eye, on a morning 
of the year, the dusky forms of those who 
lived wiihin could be seen gliding in and 
out, and conversing in hurried whispers. 
In one cabin alone there was no confusion. 
Bob sat on a lo.v flag-bottom chair, just 
outside of his door. He drew hia bow across 
his fiddle and played soft low music. Not 
so b.w that it did not reach the ear of bis 
mistress in the mansion beyond. She had 
been walking up and down one of the long 
colonnades of her home; her lips firmly 
closed ; her hands tightly clasped. As she 
walked to and fro she cjist her eyes first up 
to the fleecy, foam-like clouds, then to the 
fields of ripening wheat that bowed and 
Hashed in the sunlight. There hovered 



mock the 

contented 
e up from 
the halmy 



orders. 



•iver all a calm tb 
qneenly woman's misery. No 
thin calm was rippled by ih 
whistle of the partridge that ca 
the grassy orchard's dejiths. Nf» 
morning breeze bore to her ear sweet musii 
fr-nn Bob's cabin. She stopped in he 
walk, and between her closed teeth ehi 
murmured, "I will do it." She touched; 
hell near the door, and a maid soon an 
peared and « 
"Tell Bob 
mistress commanded. 

In a few moments Bob stood on the up- 
per step of the coh.nnade ; his hat off, and 
p'aced carefully beneath his arm. As he 
Brood there one could see that he was a 
young man yet. and of fine proportions. 
His skin was so black that his white teeth 
gleamed like pearis. 

" r have sent for you, Bob," his mistress 
said, " to talk with you. Have you heard 
that Nat Turner is abroad f » 

"Yes, Miss Agatha," he quietly an- 
swered. 

The woman's lips quivered before she 
spoke again; then said: " And you know 
where my dhugbter Mary ist" 

"At a hoarding-school not far from the 
next town, Miss Agatha." 

The lonely woman's breath came quick 
and short; yet she stood outwardly calm. "I 
have sent for you, Bob," she said, "to tell 
jou that I wish you to go for her ; but it 
muBt be of your own free will that you do it. 



You know that this school is on the road 
that Nat Turner will take; bring my 
daughter to me. Bub, in safety, and ask me 
in return any favor and it is yours." 

Bob raised his head proudly, and a bright 
light .shone in his face that made his mis- 
tress wonder just a little what it could mean 
He looked his fair mistress in the face, and 
said : "I will bring her to you, Miss Agatha, 
or give up my own life." 

Bob turned and went to the stables, and 
had the swiftest horses put to the large 
roomy carriage, and drove away— the re- 
maining blacks wondering where he could 
be going. Some whispered, to join Nat 
Turner. 

The school where Mary Grantham was 
hoarding was beautifully located on ele- 
vated grounds, in an oak grove of twenty 
acres. It was usually well filled with pu- 
pils, but late, on this morning of terror, 
Mary was the only one left. Every one 
had been removed to places of t-afety by 
their fathers or brothers. The teachers 
were neariy all gone, yet Mary Graniham 
could not be prevailed upon to leave. No 
she would stay. " I have no one else— but 
I believe Boh will come for me." 

"Would you trust yourself with him?" 
exclaimed one of the teachers. 

" Yes," said Mary,"before anyone hut my 
mother." 

She was right, for the sun was only at 
high noon before she saw the carriage stop 
at the door. In vain the prin.npal plead 
with Mary not to go with the negro. G,, 
she would. Bob placed everything, even to 
the feather bed that Mary had brought into 
the carriage, and filled a basket with lunch. 
Mary insisted upon knowing why he should 
do this, but as he handed her into the car- 
riage he respectfully told her it might be 
best. They had only gone an hour's ride 
from the seminary when Mary heard a 
sound that made her heart almost stand still. 
On looking from the carriage window she 
ctly in the road before them, Nat 



Tun 



She grew a liulo 



pale, fur she felt that death 
Was Bob false t Was it an accident that 
they had met? All this she wondered as 
she saw Bub jump down and talk with them. 
Whai was her horror when the few words 
she caught of the conversation she heard 
Boh say that ho would join them. He then 
mounted the box again, and drove the car- 
riage into the woods, while the crowd went 
on. It was in a gloomy-looking grove that 
he stopped the carriage, and told Mary to 
get out. She did so, and at once asked : 
" What do you intend to do with me, Bob t " 



" They have compelled me to join them, 
Miss Mary, and you will have to stay here. 
There is a little cave here, not a soul knows 
of it but me. You must stay here for a day 
or so, and if anything happens to me yiui 
mu^t try to make your way home." 

What Bob did not tell Mary was, that 
Nat Turner bad told him to kill her and 
supposed he had. Bob placed the feather- 
bed inside the cave, and the basket of lunch 
by. After Mary had gone in, he pulled the 
vines carefully over the mouth of the cave, 
and went back and joined Nat Turner. 

Mrs. Grantham waited with anxiety the 
return of Bob with Mary, yet she did not 
lose faith in Bob when the time passed and 
he did not come. It was the second night 
that Mrs. Grantham, unable to sleep, was 
sitting at the window of her room, with the 
blinds closed. She was wondering what 
could have become of Bob and Mary. 
Presently there was a slight rustle of the 
shutter that made her start. Then a low 
voice called: " Miss Agatha! " 

She opened the blind just a little, and 
there, crouched beneath the window, was 
Bob. 

" Come out to the fartliesl corn-crib," he 
whispered ; then he disappeared in the 
darkness. Ouly for a moment did she hesi- 
tate. There was just this thought flashed 
through her mind: If Bob had brought 
Mary, why should she act in such a secret 

She still trusted him ; so, wrapping a dark 
cloak about her, she stepped from the open 
window, and made her way to the crib. 
When she reached it, she found the carriage, 
and Bnb standing at the horses' heads. 

"Where is my daughter. Bob?" she at 
ODCfl asked. 

He opened the carriage-door without a 
word, ami Mary sprang into her mother's 
arms, safe and well. Bob then told Mrs. 
Grantham that he had been compelled to 
join Nat Turner to save Mary. 

" Oh, Bub, my boy, don't think that you 
can ever atone for it if you have stained 
your hands with blood!" 

" I have not. Miss Agatha I I only staid 
until I had a chance to slip away. I am 
going now to hide in the Dismal Swamp 
until this fuss is over." 

Mrs. Grantham plead with him to let her 
hide him, but he would not. Then, taking his 
hand in hers, she said: "You have kept 
your promise; when you come back, ask 
me what you will in return and it shall be 

The same look of joy sprang into his 
face that Mrs. Grantham saw as he had 
stood on the steps of the colonn.ide. Even 
in the darkness she noticed it ; yet there 
was a difference in the look > it seemed now 
as if he had been running a race, and was 
ready to put his hand upon the prize. 
What would he asked f 

Mother and daughter went back to the 
house, and before they slept Mrs. Grantham 
mado Mary tell hfr the whole story. Mary 
tuld of Bob's care of how he risked his life 
in leaving her, and of his difficulties in 
finding his way bade. 

As soon as it was possible Mrs. Grantham 
had free papers made out fur Boh. She 
felt that this alone could bring that look of 
joy on his face. One morning, not lung 
after as she was sitting on the colonnade, as 
she suddenly looked up there stood Bob on 
the top step. He asked, in the most non- 
chalant manner: "What's your orders, 
Miss Agathat" 

"My orders, Bubf I think you have 
not yet told me in what way I can repay 
you for saving Mary." 

"Teach tnc to write!" ajid his face was 
filled with happiness, as if of all boons that 
one could crave that alone was greatest. 

"Teach you to write. Bob I" Mrs. Gran- 
tham exclaimed. "Is that all you ask in 
return for what you have done for me ? 

"It's more to me, Mies Agatha, than 
anything you could give me." 

"Mary shall begin this very morning to 
teach you to write. But here, I will give 
you your freedom papers," 



Bob pushed the papers gently aside, say- 
ing, " I have no use for them yet— if ever 
I do, I wants to he a free man in knnwl- 
edgP, Miss Agatha. Free my mind firi^f. 
I thirst for knowledge. Miss Mary has 
taught me, long ago, to read, but I must 
learn to write. I long to know how." 

It was a pretty sight to see Mary Gran- 
tham bending over the pine table, in Bob'a 
cabin, teaching him how to write. She 
■began her task that morning, and kept it 
up for many a day after, until Bob had 
learned to write as beautifully as she could. 



After Bob bad learned 
in greater awe by hii 



folln 



e he was held 
'-blacks than 



side 



3re even the old 
Bob lies 
rantham, in "God' 
ives of the Atlanti 
eir graves. Few 
roic he was. His 



by Hide with Mary 
acre," and the blue 



ow grand and 
nil nevfr pro- 
duce a greater hero than the man who 
would risk life that he might ask and obtain 
the boon of a perfect knowledge of writing. 
What a source of pleasure— what fields of 
beauty it caused to be opened out to that 
darkened mind I We, who have never 
known what it was to have the understand 
ing darkened, can n< 



State! 



The Title of Esquire. 

The legislative prohibition by the United 
of titles of nobility could not eradi- 
cate the trait of human nature whi^h 
makes such titles, or any verbal badge of 
distinction, a dearly craved prize to the 
mass of people; hut in our eagerness for 
tliese we have done more to abolish them 
than any laws, by making them ridiculous. 
A title given to everybody is a self-contra- 
diction and absurdity, for it distinguishes 
no one and implies nothing; and, in our 
democratic society, no one is willing to 
give others the monopoly of such distinc- 
tion. In consequence, several titles which 
were tolerably definite in meaning once 
have become tags that do not add a hair to 
the meaning of the name itself. Among 
these is "Esq.," once a coveted badge of 
professional distinction, and in early New 
England times confined rigidly to its narrow 
use— indeed, even " Mr." was only allowed 
to respectable householders iu good stand- 
ing. Coming to us from feudal England, 
"Esq." marked members of the legal fra- 
ternity and kindred occupations. It was at 
length assumed by or conferred by c 
upon prominent and wealthy citize 






ndult 



-the I 



'Mr. 



nl, the eame 
lit addition. 



ithe 



iild i 



ply 
therefore, utterly 
useless, a bore and an ott'ence; for a mean- 
ingless title is an affront to any man. It 
should be disused altogether, and left to be 
marked "obsolete" in (he dictionaries. 
Write "John Smith," or "Mr. John 
Smith," if ycm please, but let us have no 
more of "John Smith, E?(\."—Travders' 
Record. 



John W. Brooks, the railroad mana; 
once notified a. man to remove a b 
wltich he had placed upon the compai 
land, sljiting in the notice that be would 
pn)secuted if the bam was not immediat 
removed. The recipient being unable 
read the notice thought it was a " pa: 
over the line, and used it as such for t 
years, no conductor being able to read 



begin ^ 



When to Subscribe. 

several reasons it la desirable, that 
ifl is practicable, subsoriptiooa shouh 
rith the year, yet it is entirely op 
tional with the subscriber as to when hii 
subscription shall commence, 
may be specially interested in the very praO' 
tical and valuable course of lessons jusi 
dosed by Prof. H. C. Spencer may securt 
all the numbers of the JtiURNAL contain- 
ing these lessons, except that of January, 
1883,— fifteen numbers in all— for $1.25 ; 
Biogle numbers, 10 cents. 



ho 



The Art of Writing, 

As Viewed and Treated bv toe Father 
OE Spencerian Penmanship. 

By R. C. Spencer. 
Id a pprludpd nput among the Catskill 
Muiintaiin, not far from the {liitison, No- 
TemWr 7lh, 1800, was liorn a biry with a 
passinD and ina. iration f .r thf art cf writ- 
ing. From infancy, almoBt, liis geniiia for 
Ilip ppu showed itself. Before the age of 
six years, without teacliera and with only 
the rudest models of script letters, be liad, 
in the absence of other materials, used the 
Hy-lcaves of his mother's bible upon which 
to instruct himself in penmanship. This, 
liowever, betokened no want of reverence 
for the book that gave him the history of 
The divine origin of the art to which he de- 
voted his talents. Indeed, the book was to 
him proof of the inestimable value of writ- 
ing, without which there could ho no books. 
Tlie precepts of the moral law, written upon 
tables of stone by the finger of God, im- 
pressed his mind with the utility of writing, 
to the moral, intellectual and social world, 

, but of making k 



the di\ 



lind to huu 



nily. 



of writing 



These views of the 
were uppermost in h 
during more than half a century as- 
siduously devoted to its cultivation, 
teaching, improvement, and diffu- 
sion, he Bteadily held it up to con- 
templation as among the chief in- 
struments of intelligent progress. 
By exalting the art in its relations 
to the best movements of mind and 
heart, he dignified his work, and 
drew from it a spirit of grand en- 
thusiasm that found ex|»re8sion often 
in eloquent speech and jtoetic form. 
But these, of course, were the pro- 
ducts of his maturer thoughts, that 
began in the genns of his early pas- 
sion for writing. They were the out- 
growth of a nature most happily 
constituted for the mission it per- 
formed. The forces that were work- 
ing in him were apparent when, as 
a mere child, he was accustomed to 
steal away to the kind old cobbler 
in the neighborhood, who allowed 
him to write on his strips of leather, 
jirodncing thereon the forms of let- 
ter?, which were in part the origi- 
nal creation of his inventive fancy. 
This same impelling ami prophetic 
passion in the boy showed itself in 
the use to which he put the first 
penny of which he became the 
owner, at the age of six years. That 
penny, kept with miserly care for 
the purpose, was sent by a neighbor to the 
nearest market - town, some twenty miles 
away, to be invested in a single sheet of 
wriling-paper. 

The time consumed in those days in trav- 
eling that distance and in returning over the 
rough mountain roads was really consider- 
able. To the ardent and expectant boy, 
tt ailing at home for the coveted sheet of 
wriling-paper, the hours passed slowly. 
Bui his mind was busy thinking of the letters 
he would make on that sheet of paper. Late 
into the night he waited up for the coming 
of the agent to whom he bad intrusted his 
penny with authority to invest it in one 
sheet of wti'ing.paper. At last, overcome 
by sleep, he dreamed of his paper and what 
he would write upon it. By his aide lay 
his pen, made by his own hand, with a 
barlow knife, from a qnill plucked from the 
n-mg of one of his mother's geese. Soon 
after midnight the messenger returned, 
bringing with him the coveted sheet of 
wriiiug-paper. The expectant boy awoke 
from his dreams to try his pen upon the 
uiper. But the hand did not obey the will, 
and the forma that he produced on the paper 
were so inferior to the ideals in his mind that 
he Uid down his pen, put away his paper, 
and with a disappointed and heavy heart 
he returned to his cot and troubled sleep. 
Even at that early age he was not only a 



'XiLa Jr^^iV V. 



cloae and critical observpr .f i m rvil n ;; 
that was done with a pen, but liwd begun tn 
notice the faults and imperfections of what 
he saw, and to judge in accordance with the 
original standard of his own. The elements 
of grace aud beauty to which he was keenly 
alive and impressible he f^lt to be greatly 
lacking in, and often entirely absent from, 
I the writing which iie saw. In some of the 
belter specimens he observed a degree of 
regularity, and a fi-ninfsa and strength that 
pleased him, and ho imitated them. Those 
were the best features of what he found to 
be the English round-hand style of writing. 
Although in developing Spencerian pen- 
manship he discards the heavy, sombre and 
laborious features of the English round-hand, 
he always held them in high estimation for 
their solidity and distinctness, and to the last 
year of bis life executed them with wonderful 
skill and perfection — excelling the most 
famous masters of England, whose elaborate 
and artistic works had been engraved and 
published under royal patronage and at 
great cost. 

While yet a small boy, he who was to 
create in Spencerian penmanship the stmid- 




]d of a stick of 
id length. The forms of 
natural objects about him had taught him 
lessons in art, until he expressed the senti- 
ment that "Nature is the Mother of the 
Beautiful." 



The Master Outdone. 



The 






1 school 



lage in Spain bore the reputation of being 
a very clever calculator ; but upon one occa- 
sioo he almost ff-rfeited his reputation. 

The rector of the parish and the alcalde, 
on a certain occasion, paid a visit to the 
school lo inspect the progress of tlie chil- 
dren. A little rogue, of whom no question 
had been asked, and who had therefore 
missed the opportunity for distinguishing 
himself, which he greatly desired, made up 
his mind to question since he wa« not 
questioned. 

" Master," he said, "will you do me the 
kindness to answer me something! " 

" Ask whatever you please," replied the 
master ; " you know I always tell yon to 
ask about anything that you do not know. 



A Good Handwriting. 

By C. G. p. 

"Can I ncqiiire a good handwriting t 

is a question asked by nearly every young 

person. Professional j)Gnmen, when asked 

the question, always answer, " Yes, of 



The 



. you . 



tion iB,"Howt" Says the 
tiug-mastcr — especially if 
iiness of teaching — " By a 
lOnths' inBtruction under a 




profopsionat m- 
he be in the b 
few weeks' or 
good teacher." 

If some one whose writing is a miserable 
scrawl, which none can read without great 
difficulty, is asked the question, he will 
most likely answer, " Yes, if you have a 
natural talent for it, or the 'gift of writing'; 
and if you haven't, then you may as well 
not waste your time in trying." 

These answers are all given, taldng as a 
standard of good writing the fine copy- 
hand of the professional penman. 

The next question asked will be, " After 
I have attained a good hand can I retain 
it so as lo always write as well as when I 
finished my course of instruction!" The 

one will answer, ** You cannot lose 

it"; and the other will say, "It 
will be of no use to you when you 
come to write continually, and you 
will write 



joaa photo-tn graved from copy executed hy J. W. Brote, principal ff the 
Pranice Department of Peiree'a Businett College, Eeokut, Iowa. 



though you 



often asked I 



style of writing, by the death I He who asks makei 
" My father is 
' Will the time ever 



istakes." 
times my age. 
when he will be 



ard Ai 

of his father was lelt to the care of his 
widowed mother and older brothers. Dis- 
couraged with tho hard struggle for exist- 
ance among the Catakill Mountains, and 
hearing glowing accounts of the richness of 
the then Far West— the Connecticut West- 
em Keserve of Ohio,— the family gathered 
their few household articles into an ox-cart 
and turned their faces westward. After long | child. 

months of weary travel they reached the land I "Silence, impertinent little fellow I » 
of promise, erected a rude cabin of logs, and i cried the angry master, who only spared 
began life in the wilderness of Northern j the rod out of respect to the visitors. These 
Ohio, sharing the hardships and privations | gentlemen looked with little approbation 
of that early day. The boy, who at the age ' upon a lad who tried to pu.zle the best cal- 



" That is not a question," said the master, 
"it is a joke. To bring that about the 
clock must stop for your father and coaiinue 
to go for you." 

s quite possible," continued the 



of six years had devoted his first penny t 
the gratification of his desire to improve i 



<ng, had i 



twelve years. His desin 
intense, but there were n 
if any, books within his 
so, but the forest must I 



lad of 



tained a 



schools, and few, 
reach. Not only 
3 cleared away, a 
home established, and the soil cultivated, lo 
obtain the barest necessaries of life. After 
the exhausting toils of the day, the evenings 
were spent in the light of the log-fire, by 
the wide hearth of the log-cabin, mastering 
arithmetic and English grammar and in the 
study of history. The snow of winter fall- 
mg smooth and soft among the great trees, 
and the frozen surface r.f the streams, spread 
out before the lad inviutions to write which 



n Biscay, and obstinately main- 
proposition which appeared to 
absurd as it did to the master. 
"I will prove." said the child, "that 
what I say is true. I am twelve years old, 
my father is thirty-six. la twelve years I 
shall be twenty-four and my father forty- 
eight. CoDBcquently my father, who is 
now threo times my age, will then only be 
its double." 

The master became whiter than the walls 
of his room, and the visitors burst into 
peals of laughter.— JV^o( re Dame Scholastic. 



Sample copies of the Journal sent only 
<D reoeipt of priofr^tan oents. 



poor a scrawl as 
'er took lessons in 
Another question 
What do you con- 
sider a good handwriting to be!" 
This question calls forth a variety 
of answers from difierent persons. 
One says that no writing is good 
unless it resembles very closely the 
engraved writing in the copy- 
books; another, that good business 
writing has little or no resemblance 
to the engraved copy-hand. 

Now, our idea as to what good 
writing is, is that it depends very 
much upon the purpose for which 
the writing is done. If done by 
the teacher, for pupils to copy, it 
should be done in as artistic a man- 
ner as possible — and by artistic we 
do not mean wath any unnecessary 
flourishes. The person who would 
write good copies, fur pupils to 
practice from, should have an eye 
for beauty and the artistic disposi- 
tion of lines, and Ins hand should 
be trained to produce smooth, even 
and symmetrical characters, with 
a proper regard for the blending 
of light and shade. 

Aud, unlike some enthusiastic 
penmen, I do not believe that 
everyone can acquire this art of 
good copy-writing. 

But for business purposes, good writing 
is that which cau be easily written and 
read, arid the letters should be formed with 
as few strokes of the pen as they possibly 
cau and be consistent with legibility. 

And we believe this stylo of writing can 
be acquired by anyone, though some would 
require much more study aud practice than 
others. With plenty of study and practice 
almost anyone can acquire something ap- 
proximating a f.,ir copy-hand. But by a 
great many it cnu only be written very 
slowly and with great care, and by spending 
more time with their writing than most 
people can afford to do in this ago of rush 
and hurry. Where much writing has to bo 
done, each person will develope a style pe- 
culiar to himself, no matter what instruc- 
tiou and practice he may have had in 
"writing by rule." 

Then, you may ask, why should the 
teacher of writing be required to write 
such a fine hand, so much better than it is 
possible for his pupils to acquire! Simply 
because auy work will be done better by 
having perfect models to copy from. 

The nearer wo can come to a perfect im- 
itation of a good model, the better our 
work will appear. And if wo all use the 
same model for abasia, which our mental 
and temperamental peculiarities will dovel- 



ope into our own individual style, it will be 
easier To read the writing of different iadi- 
vidimls than it would be if we bad different 
models to copy from. 

The Pen. 

By L, L. Tucker. 



Oh, gladly, 1 
For power e' 
Thy might n 



Educational Notes. 

[CumoiuDicatioae for this Department may 
be addreeBed to B. F. Kkllky. 205 Broadway, 
New York. Brief educational items aolicited.j 



If your head always directs your pupil's 
hand, his own h^ad will becomo useless to 
him.— Rousseau. 

In the public schools of Ohio 98,691 
scholars are tauglit the alphabet, 642,748 
reading, 653,-363 spoiling, 528,417 arith- 
metic, 221,051 grammar. 

Kansas owns 5,555 schoolhouses, worth 
$5,000,000. It has a State university, a 
State agricultural college, two normal col- 
leges for the education of teachers for the 
public scliools, a college to teach the deaf 
and dumb to speak and the blind to read. 

According to report teachers throughout 
Prussian dominions are paid about three 
and a half times as mu<'h now as formerly. 
In 1820 the average salary was $74.30; in 
1878 it was »271 50 to a teacher. The 
average salary in Berlin at the present time 
is $495.12. 

President Bartlett, of Dartmouth College, 
is reported as saying that the graduation of 
Daniel Webster at that college was one of 
the worst things that ever happened to it, 
because every student of low standing refers 
to liim as one of his kind who afterward 
attained 



Education is general in Denmark, and is 
compulsory ; nearly every man and woman 
can read and write. Belgium spends an- 
nually over two millions of dollars for 
school purposes, having the free compul- 
sory system. About four-fifths of the peo- 
ple can read and write. 

The catalogue of the Michigan Univer- 
sity for 1682-83 shows that the total num- 
ber in attendance is 1,440. There are 524 
students in the literary department: UtiO 
in the medical; 333 in the law; eighty- 
seven in the school of pharmacy; fifty- 
eight in the homfeopathic college, and 
sixty-nine in the college of dental surgery. 



"The largest sum expended in this 
country for each enrolled scholar is to be 
credited to the Cherokees of Indian Terri- 
tory. Each pupil in their schools is educa- 
ted at an annual cost of $35.76. The 
smallest sum per capita— eighty -nine cents 
— is paid by Alabama." 

A two years course of instructiou in 
mechanic arts will be opened about Nov. 1 
in the College of the City of New York to 
students of the collegiate classes in good 
standing. Instruction will bo given two 
hours a day on three days each week. The 
general processes of wood-working will bo 
taught the first year, and of metal-working 
the second. Machinery and tools will be 
furnished by the college. 

Each inhabitant of the United States 
pays $2.02 for the support of the public 
schools and $1.29 for military purposes. 
These two items of expenditures in other 
countries are as follows : Prussia, 51 
cents and $2.29 ; Austria, 34 cents and 
$1.39; France, 29 cents and $4.50; Italy, 
13 cents and $1.27; England and Wales, 
66 cents and $3-86; Switzerland, 83 cents, 
and $1. — NationalJournal of Education. 

Overwork in schools is not confined to 
this country; there are serious complaiuts 
of it in England. A gentleman wrote a 
letter a few weeks ago to the Liverpool 
JJfercury," in which he criticized severely 
the schools of Liveri)OoI for over-teaching. 
The day's study, he says, begins at 7.45 
a m., and lasts until 8 p.m. Besides this, 
the evenings are supposed to be devoted to 
study at home, and there are no holidays 
on Saturdays. — Canada School Jow^nal. 

William H. Vanderbilt handed his check 
for $3,000 to the proprietor of a hotel in 
the White Mountains to be distributed 
among the thirty college boys who are act- 
ing as waiters there. Tliis is one of the 
ways adopted by poor young men in New 
England colleges to make a little money 
for the following year, at the same time that 
they are getting the benefit of a vacation. 
Mr. Vanderbilt's gift was prompted, it is 
said, by the self-reliant spirit and gentle- 
manly bearing of these young men. 

Actions, looks, words, steps, form the 
alphabet by which you may spell character. 
— Lavater. 

Educational Fancies. 

[ In every inetance where the source of any 
item used in this department is known, the 
proper credit Ib given. A like courteBy from 
othtirs will be appreciated.] 

A Yale student swall'wed his diamond 
pin and is 99 cents out of pocket thereby. 

If a student convince you that you are 
wrong and he is right, acknowledge it 
cheerfully and— hug him.— Emerson. 

" Emile," asks the teacher, " which 
animal attaches himself the most to man ! " 
Emile, after some reflection: "The leech, 

The Spaniards are a well-meaning people, 
but you can't expect very much of a people 
who spell " Hosay " with a " J."— Burling- 
ton Hawkeye. 

What confort some pedagogues might 
derive from the thought that wise pupils 
can learn as much from a fool as from a 
philosopher.— Feddfir. 

De agricultural colleges mus' be er long 
ways off, 'cause heap er farmer boys goes 
off ter em' : n' nebber gits back ter de farms 
agin. — Texas Sijtings. 

An impecunious individual remarks that 
life was the same to him at school as it is 
now. He was strapped then and he has 
been strapped ever since. 

The Harvard " annex" for women is em- 
inently BUccesstul. Two ladies out of a 
class of five have become engaged to their 
teachers. — Chicago Herald. 

"No, my daugliter didn't do nothing at 
the exhibition ; she ain't much of a scholar, 
you know ; but everybody says that she 
was the best-dressed girl in her class." 



" Wliy does a donkey cat tliistlest" asked 
an Austin teacher of one of the largest 
boys in the class. " Because he is a donkey, 
I reckon," was the reply.— Texas Siftings. 

Father, addressing his little boy, who 
has bniuglithomeabad mark from school: 
" Now, Johnny, what shall I do with this 
stick?" Johnny: "Why go for a walk. 

Student ( not very clear as to his lesson ) : 
" That's what the author says, anyway." 
Professor: "I don't want the author; I 
want you I" Student (despairingly) : 
" Well, you've got me." 

Enny man who has kept a skool for ten 
years ought to be made a major-general ; 
and have a penshun for the rest of his 
nateral days, and a boss and wagon to do 
his going around in. — Josh Billings. 

A man winks his eye an average of 30,- 
000 times a day, and a woman's tongue 
makes 78,000 motions every twenty-four 
hours. At this rate how long will it take 
the man to catch upT — Detroit Free Press. 

Professor to the young lady student: 
" Your mark is very low, and you have 
only just passed." Toung lady : " Oh I am 
so glad." Pro/waor, surprised : "WhyT" 
Yowng lady: "Oh, I do so love a tight 
squeeze." 

The Portland Evening Post has had a 
tussle with the possessive case, and got 
licked. It says, "Lady Eastlake emplia- 
sizes the presence of one fine trdt in tlie 
character of the late historian of Greece's 
wife I " — Portland Advertiser. 

Seven difl'ercnt mothers interested in the 
heathen of Africa have twenty-nine chil- 
dren between them. Five of the children 
swear, throe have been in the workhouse, 
two have run away, and the police are after 
four others. What is the remainder, and 
how nmch will it cost to wash their faces 
and mend their clothest 

The Famier's Tribune tells this chapter 
of real Bfe : "Your daughter graduates 
this month, Mr. Thistlepod?" "Yes, 
she'll bo home about the 20th, I reckon." 
"And your son graduates also I" "Oh, 
yes ; lie'Il come homo about the same time." 
"And what are they going to doT" 
" Well," said the old man, tlioughtfuUy, " I 
don't just exactly know what they want to 
drive at, but Marthy she writes that she 
wants to continue her art studies on the 
continent, so I think I'll jast send her to 
the dairy and let her do a Uttle plain mod- 
eling iu butter, and Sam he says he's got to 
go abroad and polish up a little, and, as 
good luck will have it, he'll be home just iu 
time to spread himself on the gi'indstone 
and put an edge on the cradle blades 
against the wieat harvest." And the old 
man smiled to think that he hadn't thrown 
money away when he sent his children to 
school. 



A pine floor laid in a gold-worker's shop 
in ten years becomes worth $150 per foot. 
A Syracuse jeweler once bought for loss 
than fifty dollars some sweepiugs that gave 
$208 worth of gold. In bis cellar a tub 
into which is blown the dust from a polish- 
ing lathe, accumulates fifty dollars a year. 
A workman in that shop carried off on the tip 
of his moistened finger thirty dollars of fil- 
ings in a few weeks. Workmen sometimes 
oil their hair and then run their fingers 
through it, leaving a deposit of gold par- 
ticles, which they aftenvard wash out. — 
Syracuse Herald. 

Magical Numbers. 

THK NUMBKR liaSi)? AUAIN, AND Otiieiis. 

By W. U- Grenelle. 

Id the September number of the 

Journal appeared some very interesting 

experiments with the number 142857, with 

an inquiry for other numbers having like 



properties. The figures 142857 form thn 
ropetcnd obtained by reducing the frani.m 
^ to a circulating decimal, and in the jim- 
cess of reduction all the possible rGumindi'iH 
are obtained thus : 

7)1.000000(.I42857 



1 

We now have 1 the number with which 
we first started for a remainder, and annex- 
ing ciphers and continuing the division 
would only give a repetition of this set •A' 
figures. This is not iVuWoV as it w..uld 
have been had the division terminated here, 
but HHH^^fi a-id this fraction multiplied 
by 7 to make it equal i, or 1 would give 
mm- Multiplying us yS- by any num- 
ber is the same as multiplying | by that 
number and reducing to a circulating deci- 
mal ; for instance, f multiplied by 4=f , and 
i in decimal form is .571428-f = WfU^- 

Now any fraction having 1 for its num- 
erator, and a prime number for its denomi- 
nator which will yield in its reduction to 
decimal form all possible remainders, which 
are all the numbers less than the denomi- 
nator, will give rise to a number having 
exactly the saine properties in relation to 
its denominator that 142857 has to 7. 
For example, A reduced to a circulating 
decimal gives .05882;i5294U7647-f- = 
M-M-USH^HUJ, and it will be found 
that this number multiplied by any number 
which does not contain 17 as a factor will 
reproduce these figures in the same order 
but beginning differently as in the case of 
142857. If the multiplier be greater than 
17, the product will contain more than 
sixteen places, and dividing iito periods of 
sixteen figures, each begiuuing at the right, 
and adding periods, will reproduce the orig- 
inal number. Likewise A reduces to 
.052631578947368421 -f, aud A to. 04347 
82608695652I73913+, which numbers boar 
the same relation to 19 and 23 respectively 
that 142857 bears to 7. 

The number in order to be complete must 
contain one less place than the number 
indicated by the denominator of the fraction 
from which it originated. Thus the numbers 
produced from }, iVj A and A have, re- 
spectively, 6, 16, 18 and 22 places; Imt 
there are many other curious numli.is, 
which do not have so many places as 1 l.ss 
than the deuominator of the fractious iVmhi 
which they are derived. Such numbers ure 
those obtained from A and aV, which are 
.076923 and .032258064516129. These 
numbers, instead of containing 13 and 30 
places, contain just half that number, 6 :ui(l 
15. The remainders obtained in reduiiriL,- 
A to a decimal are 1, 10, 9, 12, 3 and 4 
and .076923 multiplied by any of the t.-- 
mainders found in the reduction of A, "i I'V 
any multiple of 13 to wliich is added mw <>[ 
these remainders will, on dividing int.. 
periods of six figures each and adding per- 
iods, exhibit the sam- figures in the siuue 
order. But if this number (076923) bo 
multiplied by any other liuniber ( except ;ni 
exact multiple of 13, which will always [•!■- 
duco a product of all 9's), a certain oiiHr 
number will always be produro(i,viz.,1538 li i. 
Tho same is true of the number 0322.i8n(;- 
4516129, which, multiplied by any of thr 
remainders obtained in the reduction of ,',, 
which are 1, 10. 7, 8, 18, 25. 2, 20, 14, Hi, 
5, 19, 4, 9 and 28, or by any multiple of .*{] 
plus one of these romaiuders, will give ay;i iii 
the number 03225 etc., but which ou br- 
ing multiplied by any other numbers exicpt 
exact multiples of 31 will always pn'dtuf 
a certain other number, 096774193548387 



American Oblique Pens and 
Oblique Penholders. 

By a. R. Lewis. 
(d 1848, Mr. Pickett, a celebrated gold- 
en mauiifacturer of Pitteburgh, Pa., placed 
1 the market obli<iuG gold-pens, whicli, so 



far > 



kno 



the 



factured in this country. They found but 
little favor until some years later, when the 
widow of Mr. Pickett transferred the busi- 
Dess to Detroit, Mich. 

P. U. Spencer vieited Ihe factory, and had 
the peu remodeled to suit his ideasof a cor- 
rect oblique instrument for smooth, easy 
writing. From 1854 to 1864 the pen was 
manufactured as the " Spencerian," and whs 
sold in every part of the country. When 
the Spencerian ateel-pens were placed in the 
market in 1860, Mr. Spencer recommended 
them as superior to the average grade of 
gold- pens, and in time his opinion was jus- 
tified by their extended sale and general uee. 
John Holland, of Cincinnati, O., and several 
New York firms, were at different times en- 
gaged in making oblique gold- pens under 
the name "Spencerian"; aho, under other 
names, and for any one who would give an 
order for $100 worth at a time. 

Experiments in making oblique steel- pens 
have not been very successful. Esterhrook 
&, Co. have produced a fair quality of the 
oblique sterl-points. Perry & Co., of Eng- 
land, have shipped to this country oblique 
points of about the same grade aa those of 
American manufacture, but there seems to 
be but little demand for them, either in the 
school B or counting-rooms. 

In 1852, one of the twin brothers, H. A. 
Spencer, then quite a lad, made a model for 
an oblique penholder, aud submitted it to hia 
father to be tested. After writing with it, 
the patriarch of the Spenserian said : " My 
son, the principle of an oblique inBtrument 
for writing is correct, but you must embody 
it in a penholder of couiely shape." 

H. A. had, it is said, several hundred 
models made at different times, bat secured 
no patent until 1868. This is briefly the 
history oi the first oblique penholder placed 
in the American stationery trade. 

As far back as 1839 a writing device, con- 
sisting of a tube or metal plat« cut in the 
shape of an arc of a circle and attached to a 
wooden holder, was patented by Wm. Fife, 
but it is not known to have been manufac- 
tured or offered to the trade. 

During the past year a patent has been 
issued to Spencer and Cutting for a double 
penholder, which can be used to hold the 
pen oblique or straight, as the writer may 
prefer. It can be attached to either large or 
to medium sized woods, or to the ordinary 
cheap penholders used in the schools. This 
double penholder, as furnished to the trade 
by the Journal, I belieTe, at less cost than 
the old oblique, is a valuable invention 
which, if properly introduced and given a 
fair trial will, no doubt, be appreciated for 
its superior writing qualities, and come into 
extended use as an aid to good writing. 

The only regular oblique penholder fac- 
tory iu this country, or perhaps in the world, 
is situated at Providence, R. I., under the 
proprietorship of R. S. Cutting, who manu- 
factures penholders according to the Spencer 
and Cutting letters patent. 



" I really can't understand why you don't 
pay me my little bill. You have never given 
me a single cent." " If time wasn't money, 
Pd explain to you." " Now you are giving 
me impudence." "Well, you were com- 
plaining just now that I hadn't given .you 
anything. You are always grumbling about 
nothing." " You promised to pay me three 
months ago, and I relied on you." " Ti;at'fl 
80." "Aud you lied." " Precisely so. I 
lied on you and you relied on me, and so we 
are even. Good-hy."~Texas Siftings. 



Remember, you can get the Journal 
one year, aud a 75-cent hook free, for $i ; 
or a $1 book and the Journai. for $lJi5. 
Do your Erienda a favor by telling them. 



Bank of England Notes. 

A recent visitor to the Bank of England 
thus records some of his impressions and 
gleanings as to the notes used by the au- 
thorities: 

It is never of less denomination than £5, 
and is never issued a secoud time. Stand- 
ing in the redemption department of the 
bank, where a small army of clerks were 
assorting and cancelling these notes, cutting 
fi-om them their signatures, 1 noticed par- 
ticularly the clean-white, and unworn, un- 
mutilated ajtpearance oi a majority of these 
notes; and as many of them were of big 
denominations — say five and ten thousand 
pounds sterling each — it did seem almost 



heard the story of how these notes wore 
once split in two by an ingenious mechanic. 
The report that this had been done greatly 
alarmed the Bank of England. 

The method was a secret which they long 
endeavored to get possession of. But their 
alarm subsided in a measure when it was 
found that only one of the two halves were 
calculated to pass as money —one-half pre- 
served a good impression ; the other a faint 
one. Nevertheless the Bank adopted a new 
ink which entirely thwarted the splitters, 
and their secret became known. They 
had pasted cloth upon the back and front of 
the notes, then pulled the sheet apart. 
Moisture applied to the sections rendered 



Sometimes yju hear"ficood" instead of 
"if I could"; "wilfercan" instead of "I 
will if I can," and " howjerknowt" for 
' ' how do you know f " 

And have you never heard "m — m" in- 
stead of "yes" and " ni — ni" instead of 
"no"T 

Let me give you a short oouvereation I 
overheard the other day betireen two pupils 
of our High School, and see if you never 
heard anything similar to it: 

" Wiircjergo laatnigbtt" 

"Hadder skate." 

" Jerfind th'ice hard'n good!" 

"Yes; hard'n enough." 

" Jer goerlonet" 










iTtfft^ ^j{a3nxmm. 




The above cut wok photo-engraved from ptn-wnd-inh copy executed at the office of the "Jom-nal," and is one of eighteen plates, togethtr 
with thirteen pages of inatruction in plain and artistic penmanship, prepared for a large quarto-work, about being published by 
R. S. J'eale t^ Co., St. Louis, Mo., entitled, " I'eale's Popular Educator and Cyclopadia of Reference" : Historical, Biographical, 
%rly 700 elegantly-iUustrated pages. 



and Statistical. It will t 



shocking to me to put out of existence 
paper which would be such a power on the 
ontside of that raiHng. 

I considered these notes the handsomest 
paper money afloat. But there is a deal in 
association ; and possibly their good looks 
are enhanced iu my eyes by the recollection 
of their wondrous power in the land of 
their birth— a power which opened for me 
in England many desirable things which 
would otherwise have been shut in my face. 
Most people know that these not*8 are printed 
with black ink, on paper made and water- 
marked especially for the bank, and that 
they are printed in the Bank of England. 
I waa permitted to see the rapid and perfect 
way in which their fine bank note printing- 
machines did their work. Bat a few have 



them easy of removal from the oloth. — 
Geyer'a Stationer. 

Shorthand Talking. 

Among the common errors in the use of 
language are these : The mispronouncing 
of unaccented syllables, aa terruble, for ter- 
rible ; the omission of a letter or short syl- 
lable, as goin' for going, and ev'ry for every ; 
and the running of words together without 
giving to every one a separate and distinct 
pronunciation. 

I know a boy who says, " Don't wanter," 
when he means ' ' I don't want to " ; " Wha- 
jer say f " when he means " What did you 
sayt" and "Where de got" instead of 
"Where did he go?" 



" No ; Bill'n Joe wenterlong." 

" Howlate jerstay t " 

"Pastate." 

"Lemmeknow wenyergoagin, wonchert 
I wantergo'n'showyer howterskate." 

" H — m, ficoodin' skate bettern* you I'd 
sellout'n'quit." 

" Well, we'll tryerace 'n'seefyercan." 

Here they took different streets, and their 
ceased. These boys write their 
grammatically, and might use 
good language and speak it distinctly if 
they would try. But they have got iuto 
this careless way of speaking and make no 
effort to get oui of iU~Christtan at Work. 



Sample coplea of the Journal, 10 cents. 



Destructiveness of Wars. 

In H talk with Mezzrofl', reported in the 
N. Y. Star, ou the uust and destiuctiveness 
of war, he aaye: 

"Apart from the revolting carnage and 
cruelty of war, the sickening and heart- 
reodina; ^hts of the battlefield, the untold 
mUery that follows in its train to those who 
are bereft of kindred, many of them left 
destitute and helpless, the expense of war 
is one of the most intere ting economic 
problems of the day. The array of fig- 
ures that represent this item of national 
budgers ia etarHing, and so large that the 
ordinary mind fails to conceive its full sig 
nificance. All the miseries produced by 
war are iutensifieil in a tenfold degree by 
the double operation of withdrawing large 
armies of the strongest porlion of the 
human family from useful production, and 
turning these into beasts of prey to devour 
and dtistory the produce from the hard and 
patient toil uf the peaceable millions, and 
all to satisfy the sordid ambition and thirst 
for glory of morbid tyrants. It will thus 
be seen that the expense of war and the 
chief features of ils most horrible evils, 
from the moralist's point of view, are inti- 
mately connected. 

"Destroy honorable v 
Mezzrofl', " and you de- 
stroy the avaricious mo- 
tive, or, at least, you sup- 
press it, and render the 
spring of action which 
has incited the uiurder- 
nus propensity to destroy 
human life and disgrace 

practically aboftive." 

" How do you propose 
to accomplish the aboli- 
tion of trai, seeing that 
those who have the 
means of waging it hold 
fdst that monopoly f" 
the Prof, ssurwae asked. 

" By the use of cheap 
ma'erial and making the 



s Profea 



number of their fellow- Christians. We 
might find some consolation for this in the 
Mallhuaian theory, but Christianity does 
not countenance this doctrine. Therefore 
it must shoulder the full weight of the 
criminality which this wholesale slaughter 
iuvolveii in all its hideous results and de- 

" How do the war debts of the world 
compare with the coin — both in circulation 
and all that is hoarded! 

"The war debts since Waterloo have 
usually averaged from five to eight times 
the amount of the precious metals above 
the ground. The war expanses of Eng- 
land in peace would be sufficient to exhaust 
her present resources in about half a cen- 
tury, if her slaves did not go on multiply- 
ing and accumulating production." 

" If you should take in a panorama of the 
old wars, what an enormous scene of de- 
struction you would conjure up!" 

" Yes." he said ; " the mind recoils and 
the heart sickens at the very idea. 1 
should iudge that in the application of 
arithmetic to a horrible panorama like that 
the result would show a waste of property 
alone fifty times larger thau the sum total 
of all the property now upon the globe." 
Then, attempting lor a 



Old Manuscript Ink. 

While examining a large number of 
manuscripts of an old scribe some 2)1 years 
ago, I was struck with the clearness and 
legibility of the writing, owing in a great 
measure to the permanent quality of the 
ink, which had not laded in the least, al- 
though many of the manusoripts were at 
least 200 years old. It was remarkable, to.t, 
that the writer must have been celebrated" 
in his day for the excellence of his calli- 
graphy, for I met with a letter or two from 
his correspondents in which there was a re- 
quest for the receipt of the ink he used. 
I found his receipts, which I copied, and 
from one of them, d:ited in 16.54, I have 
during the last fifteen years m^de all the ink 



ed. The r 
^ 1 gallo, 



?ipt 



folio 



gills bruised, 1 
pound; green copperas, i pound; gum 
arahid, 10 ounces 5 drams 1 scruple. Not 
requiring so large a quantity at a time, I 
reduced the proportions by one-eighth, and 
the receipt stands thus: Ilain-water, I 
pint; galls, bruised, U ounces; green cop- 
peras, (j drams; gum arable, 10 drams. 
The galls must be coarsely powdered and 
put into a bottle, and the other ingredients 
and water added. The bottle securely 
stoppered, is placed in the light (sun if pus- 



that the 



lieuds 



gulai 



rille and bomb, will be 
practically taught the 
utter folly of playing at 
the game. It will be 
thus seen that this is 
only a legitimate out- 
come of their improve- 
ments in honorable war 
and the art of killing, and the populi 




George F.Barslow, of San Francisco, who 
left an estate valued at $80,000, gave these 
injunctions in his will; " Haviug observed 
that Ostentation and expensive funerals are 
injuriouB to ihe people, iifier absorbing 
money which poverty caunot well spare to 
vanity and |iride, therefore, by way of ex- 
ample, for which I beg pardou ..f the under- 
takers, let my coffin be a plain redwood box, 
put together with common nails or serewg, 
without paint or varnish, with plain iron 
handles, and all else about the funeral to 
correspond with this plainness. Let there 
be a cheap shroud and no iiowers. What 
is a dead man but a handful of dustf In- 
stead of a hearse I may just as well be carried 
to the grave upon some ordinary vehicle in 
every-day use, since life is but a journey and 
the day of death the final rest." 



Elder Evans on Collecting Debts. 

All laws enforcing collection of debts 
might saft-ly be reaciuded. The money p^id 
out to colltcc the debts of the Americiu 
pe.iple equals in amount the sums cdlecifd. 
Why, then, not let the debts g- au.! (=avH 
all the law macliinery and personal vexaij.iu 
that attends the legal collection of money 
loautd f Let each person who lends money 

paid or lost. Whose 
hueinesB is it but that 
of the parlies interest- 
ed ? If the loaning is 
a matter of friendship 
— a favor confened — 
the law should not in- 
termeddle. If it is a 
business trauaauiion it 
may safely he left ia 
the hands of the parlies 
concerned. The li-nder 
assumes the contintieu- 
cy that the borrower 
will be in better fiuan- 






the 



futui 



Ho 


ace 


Sreelcy gald : 


' 


1 1 


ate lawyers ; 


(hcj; d.i 


more uiiechief 


ilitt 


lUey are worth. 


I'hi 


y ca 


am disorder — 


deu 


orali 


zing every 


furu 


of 


equality, and 


are 


the 


cliief obstacle 



f elit 



nil 



turned againet them that 



:ill I 



i find i 



Jiy of profe 



nurderers. The 
dynamite munitions will become popular, 
as they wUl relieve the taxpayers and pro- 
ducers of heavy burden," 

" Will you he kind enough to furnish the 
readers of the Slar with a few of the lead- 
ing statistics of the aoiual cost of war t " 

" With great pleasure," replied Mezzniff. 
" Let us take the wars of Christendom fiiat, 
as they are nearer home. The bare in- 
terest on the entire war debt in this pious 
region alone amounts to about $1,000,000,- 
000. The principal, of course, is some- 
thiog like Dickens's definition of the capital 
stock of an insurance company, 'A big one 
with an unlimited number of naughts after 
It.' The Euroi)ean wars during the pe- 
riods of their activity cost on an average 
$2,000,000,000 a year, and the armies dur- 
ing the years of peace and preparation for 
war, which, as a general rule, has been 
contemporary all along, over half this 
amount. Since the battle of Waterioo the 
cost of war in Christendom alone would be 
sufficient to build a railroad that would en- 
circle the earth more thau one hundred 

" The carnage connected with this waate 
of wealth must be something stupendous t " 

"During the past half century nearly 
10,000,000 of professing Christians have 
been butchered by about the name number 



ize the picture, Mezzrofl^ added : " Think of 
Bacchus and Sesostris, with their millions 
of hosU; Ninuaand Semiramis, Cyrus and 
Campysis, Alexander and Cji-sar, with the 
myriads of their ferocious successors. And 
the time would fail me to speak of the Sara- 
cens and Crusaders, Tamerlane and Zen- 
glus Khan, with their millions of marau- 
ders, murderers and ioceodiaries, burning 
villages and cities, laying waste empires, 
and ravaging the whole earth with fire and 
Bword. To think of these and all the 
abominations and miseries that must have 
followed in their train, is almost enough to 
make a man regret that he belongs to the 
genus homo." 

The largest object-glass in use is the 26- 
inch leos at Washington, with a focal length 
of aa feot. Its light-gathering power is 
1G,000 times that of the unaided eye. 



The Price of a Specimen Copy 

of the JouKNAL is ten cents, which ia not 
paid with a one, two, three, or five cent 
stamp, as many applicants seem to suppose. 
Persons expecting their orders fur apeoimen 
copies to receive attention should remit ten 
cents. 



Whii 



the 



difi'erenco between an old 
tramp and a feather hod t There is a lua- 
■ial difference. One is hard up, and the 
soft down — Norriatown Bvrald. 






ally ui 



the bottle daily, and 



as it effectually prevt 
growth of mold will 
the quality of the in 



e stirred 
id copperas are 
1 enough to shake 
the course of a 
nk win he fit for 
' add 10 drops of 
of the bottle, 
the formation and 
any detriment to 



. far I 



. I kn 



Back Numbers of the "Journal." 
Please Note. 
Every mail brings inquiries respecting 
hack numbers. The following we can send, 
and no others: All numbers of 1878; all 
for 1879, except Mat/ and November ; for 

1880, copies for months of January, Feb- 
ruary, April, May, June, August and 
December only remain; all numbers for 

1881, and all for 1682, except June. It 
will be noted that while Spencer's writing 
lessons began with May, the second lesson 
was in the July number, so that the series 
of lessons is unbroken by the absence of 
the June number. Only a few copies of 
several of the numbers mentioned above 
remain, so that persons desiring all or any 
part of them should order quickly. All the 
51 numbers, back of 1883, will be mailed 
for $4.00, or any of the numbers at 10 cent» 
each. 



Sample copies of t 
leiMtipt of pria«f 10 w 



> JOVBMAh 1 



to good 

If A lets B have his property without pay- 
ing, I dun't see why C D F and all the rest 
of the alphabet should be called upon as a 
police force to get it back. No such thing 
should be attempted by law. It is the most 
monstrous innovation upon man's honor and 
integrity that was ever forced into the com- 
merce of the world. Let a man trust another 
at bis own risk. Even the gambler pays 
his debts contracted at the gambling- table. 
He is not obliged to pay, but he considers 
them debts of honor. Abolish all laws for 
the collection of debts, and thus abolish the 
whole credit system ; this is the only safe, 
true basis ; that would abolieh most lawyers 
and all of the broker's trade which now 
controls the commerce of America." 

To my mind that is good morality and 
sound logic— iV. Y. Tribune. 



A firm faith is tli(> best divinity ; a g 
life the best philosophy ; a clear conecic 
the best law ; honesty the best policy ; 
loiiiporauco the best physic. — Charron. 



How to Remit Money. 

The best and safest way is by Post-office 
Order, or a bank draft, on New York ; next, 
by registered letter. For fractional parw of 
a dollar, send poetage-atamps. Do not atnd 
personal checks, especially for autitU lumSi 



Am .j<>iikn;vl'S5 








J \'L 




CJC'/^ytheyy/iJz/?.Ma'^6'<m//a/n(^A£/- 



/rc<U(^/iyx?j/^J^jn^j4^trU^ 






yi^/miide^y^^,anCc<m7Ju<n^ 









-/u^J^C<77-l-t7?n^/CrUj, 



'U/ 







^^dJ(^^:^2<^^i^^i^:^i^:J^':^^ 















The sbuve cut was photo-eugraved by C. L. Wright, No. 17 Ann Slroet, frotn pen- 
aiidiuk c..p\ excculd nt the olUce of ihe Journal, and rppresents the preface of "Ames's 
New Co,i,pc,Mimn of Practical and Arti.lic Penn.anship," now on the press, and will he 
ready t„ u,«il in a few days. The work will consist of seventy II il4 plates, en.bracing 

iiplctc curse of mstruction and copies for practical writing, Bonrishing, designing and 
* "" " -'-'--'^ nprehensive and practical guide to all depart- 



letlering. It will certainly he the i 



uenta of the penman's art ever published, and, unlike most other penmanship publicaiions, 
it repvescntsVnly the penman's;work and skill, since all the plates have been either photo- 
engra"ed or photo-lithographed from the original pen-and-ink copy, and therefore appears, 
eioept as to size, as did the pen-work, nnmodified by the skill of the engraver. 

The work will mailed, poat-psid, for $5, or free, as a premium, to the sender of a 
olub of twelve subscribers to the Journai., at $1 each. 




And TEACHERS' GUIDE. 

Published Monthly «t «1 x.«-f "ii 



ADVERTISING RATES. 

imn POXW' iGS.M |I20.ob |m.o6 

a, la'iJiM'"".'.' 3.25 B^M 10.00 18.00 

LIBERAL INDUCEMENTS. 



PREMIUMS: 
To all who remit »1. we trill mail "'^^[^''^^{^^^"j'' 
S^'of ArtWSrPennmnBhfp'^'^r. for »1 35. n copy 
boDDd in cloth. For »2 the " Hand-book." in clotb, and 
the "Slandard PraoMcwl Peninaiiihip, ' will both be 
mailed with the fli»t copy of the Journal. 

The CenteonUl Pioture of Proyrew 22x28. 

;<_ Flouriihed Eaglo 24xK. 

" Family Record 18x22. 

■' Marriage CertiBcate 18x22. 



Con^aon-. Nonnal System of Letteriog 
T three names and W we will forward the large Cen- 
daid Practical PemnftDebip." 



oloth).. 

''" rCo'mpendi'cm orbre 
PeanianBblp"; retails for 15. 

TO CLUBS: 



r tweWe subacriptiotiB and $\2 we will send a o>)>^ 
price 1^. Oi 



PENMAN'S ART JOURNALf 
[ AQENCY. 



mptly atleuded to by the 

INTERNATIONAL NEWS COMPANY, 



New York, October, 1883. 



Prof. Spencer's Lessons. 

With the present issue of the Journal 
closes the course of sixtcou admirahle wiit- 
iDg lessons given through ita columus by 
Prof. H. C. Spencer, associate- author of the 
" Spenceriau Syslein of Penuiauship,'' and 
priucipal of tlie Spenceriau Business Col- 
lege, Washington, D. C. In giving the 
lessons, Prof. Spencer has done the teachers 
and pupils of writing throughout the coun- 
try a service that can scarcely ho appre- 
ciate'a. The -ourse has bceu uiost thorough, 
coinpri'housive, aud iuteresting. And in 
view nf the (act that through the far reach- 
ing circulation of the Journal they have 
Itei'n placed before so many thmisauda of 
tcafhers and writers, not aloue in our coun- 
try, but iu all parts of the civilized world, 
tliey cannot fe.il of exciting a powerful in- 
llucnce in favor of good writing aud correct 
teaching. Indeed we already have the most 
roni'Iusive evidence of the great interest 
taken iu ihi-so lessons aud their fruitful 
results, iu the numerous teslimnnials from 
teachers, and improved apecimene of writing 



sent to the office of the Journal, through 
almost every mail that reaches us. 

We feel assured that all the readers of the 
Journal will most heartily join with us 
in tenderiug to Prof. Spencer most hearty 
tliauks fur the very great service he has 
tlius so generously and ahly performed. 

Back numbers of the Journal contain- 
ing all of Prof. Spencer's lessons, can he 
mailed, except that of January, 1882, for 
$1.25; any single number, ten cents. 



Hints to the Teacher of 
Writing. 

A correepoDdent asks our advice regard- 
ing the best method of securing and in- 
structing classes in writing. It is scarcely 
l>08sible to lay down any prescribed course 
which will be suited to all persons desiring 
to organize and instruct classes in writing. 

A course which one teacher might pursue 
with signal success, another might find 
quite impracticable ; modes must vary ac- 
cording to the tastes aud peculiarities ol 
persons. Yet there are some things which 
it will be at least safe for all to observe. 

1. The would-be teacher should be cer- 
tain tbut he clearly understands the subject 
himself; then he can not only set the 
proper examples, hut illustrate in a clear, 
forcible and interesting manner the priucl- 
ples, forms and construction of letters, and 
the general characteristics of writing, aud 
be equally skillful iu pointing out and cor- 
recting the faults of his pupils. 

He should have an honest desire and firm 
purpose to spare no efforts to give the full- 
est satisfaction to all pupils. 

In many loiialilies the profession of a 
traveling writing-teacher is in very bad re- 
pute, simply because some poorly qualified 
or dishonest "blow hard" champion pen- 
man has organized classes, only to collect 
tuition in advance, for wbii^b, either through 
want of ability or intention, no satisfactory 
return has been given. 

A thoroughly competent and conscien- 
tious teacher of writing will always be re- 
spected and welcome wherever he is known, 
and will seldom fail or find it even difficult 
to secure good-paying classes. 

How TO Secure Classes. 

First, prepare a variety of the most es- 
cellent specimens of your own plain and 
ornamental writing ; a few specimens 
should be nicely framed and placed in con 
spicuous places iu the neighborhitod of 
where the class is to be organized ; also 
prepare a scrap-book or album containing 
specimens in convenient form to illustrate 
quickly and forcibly your skill, system and 
plan of teaching. 

This done, call first upon the school-offi- 
cers of the place and, if possible, interest 
them in your behalf, aud secure the use of 
a public schoolroom in which to instruct 
the classes ; next, call upon the teachers in 
public and private schools, and, if possible, 
get permission to give before the pupils an 
explanation with black-board illustrations 
of the system and method of teaching ; 
after which, call upon aud endeavor to in- 
terest some of the recognized leaders in so- 
ciety and business. These things accom- 
plished, the way to success is open and 

It will often, and indeed usually, be found 
to be wise to extend an early invitation lo 
all schoolteachers to join classes free of 
charge. When the proper eucouragemeut 
has beeu received, the rooms for instruc- 
tion secured, and the time fixed for organ- 
izing the class, circulars carefully prepared, 
giving full information, and containing well 
authenticated recommendations fruiii former 
pupils and patrons, should be iaaued and 
placed in every house and place uf business 
iu the vicinity ; and if not especially rt'pug- 
uant to his taste the teacher will find it 
greatly to his advantage to canvass tbor- 
I ugbly the entire neighborhood, exhibiting 
bis best evidences of skill and ability to 
give satisfactory instruction. 

With persons who are fluent speakers 



and skillful at black-board illustrations, it is 
an excellent plan to issue tickets of invita- 
tion, free to everybody, to attend a lecture 
accompanied with black-board exercises il- 
lustrating the best system and methods of 
teachiug writing; special preparations and 
efforts should be made to amuse, interest 
and instruct the assemblage; after which, 
proceed to take the names of all who desire 
to join for a course of instruction. With 
many skillful speakers and writers this 
method alone rarely fails to secure large 
classes. 

The number of lessons—from ten to twenty- 
four — for a course varies with different teach- 
ers. We should favor /ifenfy aa the num- 
ber most likely to give satisfaction to the 
puplis, and bring credit to the teacher. 

Two hours, including a short intermission 
at the middle, should constitute a lesson; 
lessons should not be less frequent than two, 
or more than three, times per week. It is 
well for economy of time in thickly popu- 
lated districts to have two classes in pro- 
gress in ueiifhboriDg places, at the same 
time, alternating the lessons so as to give 
three in each place per week. 

Stationery, 
of the best quality should be furnished at a 
reasonable coat by the teacher ; this ia es- 
sential to secure the necessary good and 
uniform quality. 

To each pupil should be furnished one- 
half quire of the best cap paper, good black 
ink, and pens ; we prefer movable copy- 
slips, either written or engraved, to a book 
with stationary copies ; the slip can he kept 
in close proximity to the pupil while prac- 
ticing, which is a very great consideration ; 
each exercise should be short aud thoroughly 
analyzed at the black-board before the 
class is allowed to practice it. It should he 
borne in mind by the teacher that the pupil 
must first think right before be can practice 
right ; great effort should be made to cause 
the pupil to study the forms and peculiar 
construction of each letter ; as regards the 
proper positions and movements a teacher 

maintaining them throughout the entire 
course of instruction. Regarding them, we 
have already expressed our opinion in the 
previous numbers of this Journal, and to 
which our inquirer is referred. 



Our Premiums. 

With the first number of the Journal 

each subscriber who remits $1 is entitled to 

choice of the fol- 
lowing premiums: 

First. " Ames's 
Hand- book of Ar- 
tistic Penmanship," 
which is a hand- 
some work of thir- 
ty-two pages, giv- 
ing examples for 
flourishing and let- 
tering. Second. The 
Centennial Picture 
of Progress, 22x28, 
which is one of the 

n-pictures 
uted, giv- 
ing a pictorial representation of changes 
wrought in our country during the one 
hundred years following the declaration 
of its independence. Third. The Bound- 
ing Stag, which is an elegant specimen 
of flourishing and lettering, 24 x 32 inches 
in size, and on fiue heavy plate- paper. 
Fourth. The Spread Eagle — a beautifully 
flourished design, same size as Stag. 
Fifth. The Garfield Memorial, which 
is au elaborate and beautiful specimen of 
artialio pen- work, 19x24. Sixth. The 
Lord's Prayer, same size as the Memorial, 
is au elegant and popular pen picture. Sev- 
enth and Eighth. A Family Record, or 
Marriage Certificate, each 18x22. Also, 
very attractive and valuable publications. 
To a club of two BubBoribera the Jour- 




nal will be mailed one year for $1.75, and 
to each subscriber a choice of the above 
named premiums. 

To a club of /re subscribers, for $4.00, 
with a choice of the eight premiums. 

To a club of ten subscribers, for $7..''iO, 
with a choice of premiums. 

To a club of fifteen subscribers, for $!l 7.-.. 

" twenty-five *' l')00. 

fifty " 2.^J.00. 

The above very low rates for clubs are 
offered chiefly to enable teachers to place 
the Journal in the bands of their pupils, 
and for the larger clubs we shall desire to 
send the premiums in a lot, by express, to 
the person who gets up the club for distri- 
bution to the subscribers. 



Directions 

For Preparing Specimens, Letters, 
ETC., Designed for Publication 

IN THE "Journal." 
We are in the receipt of so many speci- 
mens of penmanship— many »f great merit, 
and designed by their authors for publica- 
tion in the Journal— which, from various 
causes, we cannot use, that we have thought 
bpst to give more explicit directions than we 
have hitherto done regarding the prepara- 
tion of such contributions. 

Many specimens received being either 
exact or slightly modified copies from pub- 
lished and familiar works, we are unwilling 
to be at the expense of engraving, and by 
printing them give, for such contributions, 
unmerited credit to the copyist. Speci- 
mens, in order to be acceptable, must be 
either original or so greatly modified as to 
present more of the skill of the contribu- 
tors than that of the original author. 

Size. 
We desire as far as practicable to have 
all illustrations in the JOURNAL occupy a 
space iu width equal to either two or three 
columns, that is 4i or 7 inches. In order 
that it may be photo-engraved to the beet 
advantage, work should be executed twice 
the leugth and width of the desired cut; that 
is, on paper either 4^x9, or 7x14, inches in 

Materials. 
Use either a good quality of thin bristol- 
board, or the best quality of heavy cap paper, 
and a good quality of India ink— no chemical 
or ordinary writing ink can he used — every 
line, however delicate, must be jet black ; no 
light or gray line can be photo-engraved. 
If perfectly black, no matter how fine a line 
may be, it can be reproduced. 

Letters 
designed for publication as specimens should 
he on a letter-sheet 8x12 inches in size. 
The writing should be in a strong, bold hand 



just I 



Contributions not conforming to the above 
conditions will, of necessity, be rejected. 



The King Club 

For this month comes again from E. K. 
Isaacs, principal of the penmanship depart- 
ment of the Northern Indiana Normal 
School and Business lustituto, Valparaiso, 
Ind., aud numbers one hundred and thir- 
teen. This is a club of truly astonishing 
dimensions for October. Upward of two 
thousand subscriptions to the Journal 
have come from this school within a period 
of about three years. Good writing is evi- 
dently appreciated at Valparaiso. 

The second club in size numbers thirteen, 
and is sent by S. H. Strite, Bloomfield, 

The third club in size comes from J. J 
Sullivan, Atlanta, Ga., and numbers twelve. 
The signs of the limes indicate that we are 
about to receive a lively clubbing. 



Changing Address. 

Subscribers wishing to liave their addi. 
changed, should be careful to give both i 
old and new address. 



■Aliu* 



Chirographical. 

" The generally cramped,' HouriBhy ' and 
illegible style of hamlwritiDg is lamentable. 
Good, readily-readable writing is very rarely 
met with. Carelessness in forming and con- 
necting the letters of sentences has become 
BO customary that reading a piece of written 
composition depends largely upon the guess- 
ing power. The silly practice of attempted 
ornamentation by means of 'flourishes' is a 
vulgarism to he condemned. Writing, as 
taught in the schools, is a poor medium for 
communication of thought. It calls for too 
severe conjecture- Almost any person can 
make out to cipher his own chirngraphy; 
but the puzzle is to comprehend the ideality 
of his correspondent. Much of the diflicully 
is the fault solely of the individual writer, 
who adopts a hurried, unmeaning, champed, 
alouchy, or ' fancy ' style, to which he teua- 
ciously adheres. Few 'masters' are com- 
petent to teach legible writing, their fancy 
style being uuapproachable by the echolar. 
Printed plate-copies being either too scru- 
pulously perfect or too elaborately orna- 
mental for the learner to sucreed in imita- 
tiug, he abandons the atteoipt in disgust and 
adopts a standard of his own, to which he 
applies all his force and diligence to render 
unintelligible. Yet anybody with hands and 
eyes may becouie a neat, plain writer. It 



advice to learners, and criticisiug the use ot 
engraved copies, he speaks like one wanting 
the wisdom of experience and observation, 
to be gained in the class-room. " Few 
'masters,'" he says, "are competent to 
teach legible writing, their fancy style being 
uuapproachable by the sclmlar." This is 
certainly fancy on the part of the writer, for 
in the term "master "is not at all implied 
fancy wniiug, but rather, special skill and 
experience, by which he is enabled to place 
before his pupil good examples, and make 
intelligent and helpful criticisms and sug- 
gestions for his advancement. And as to 
the more perfect standard for letters aud 
their combiuatioos, as given by "masters" 
and copy-books, being auy more harmful 
or discouraging to the learner than are those, 
imperfect, awkward, and variable, or none 



tall. 



i fail to bell€ 



But the climax of absurdity is reached 
when the writer says, " Let him (the learner) 
adopt an alphabet of capitals and ' body 
letters ' corrected from his usual order of 
writing." If we correctly understand the 
meaning sought to be conveyed in the words 



A New Idea for Spice. 

A correspondent, through the columns of 
the Gazette, offers its enterprising editor thf 
following advice ; 

" If you wish to make a spicy sheet, why 
don't you pitch into the gimcrack style that 
was iuauyurated by Williams in his 
' Gems,' and which nearly every penman 
since has copied ? Williams was aided and 
abetted by S. S. Packard, and the book baa 
done more damage to good writing than any- 
thing else. Also touch up Ames on his ar- 
tistic flourishes, which he prints as won- 
derful productions. Take the humbug out of 
these fellows." 

Brother Gaskell pitching into the style of 
Williams and Ames would, indeed, be rather 
"spicy." We regret that the name of the 
author of such a specimen of grim humor 
should not have been given. 



The "Journal *' and Practical 
Writing. 

From the first publication of the JOUR- 
NAL its primary purpose has been to advo- 
cate the cause of plain, practical writing. 



The Versatile Villain Again. 

The Journal's exposure of the fraudu- 
lent operations of A. Tieniere, Jr., and his 
various aliases, in the September number, 
evidently made Chicago a very uncongenial 
as well as unpromising locality for a winter 
campaign by this "browu-eyed, brown- 
haired, handsome young man." Accord- 
ingly, he just shook the dust of Chicago off 
his shoes, aud skipped for New Orleans, 
whore he is now operating under the alias 
of A. Cuahman, No. I!J Toulouse Street. 
And how many other aliases he may have 
we cannot say. Look out for him ! 



The "Journal's" Next Course of 
Practical Writing-Lessons. 

We have perfected arrangements by which 
Prof. H. C. Hiuman, principal of Hiuman's 
Woicester (Mass.) Business College, will 
commence a course of '"Lessons in Practical 
Writing "in the January number. 

Prof. Hiuman has long been recognized 
as one of the most cflicicnt and successful 





:^^ia-c/ica/' &M^t(^'&^ (3'C^n<m^ynJmfiy. 



ROUND-HAND OR LEDGER-WRITING. 

The above cut is photo-engraved from pen-aud-ink copy, executed at the oifice of the Journal, and constitutes a part of a page ofAmeq's new " Compendium of 
Piactical and Artisiic Penmauabip." This work is now on the press, and will be ready to mail in a short time. It will be the moat comprehensive and practical guide, iu 
thf entire range uf the itenmaii's art, ever isaned. The work will comprise a complete course ol" instruction in Plain Writing, a full course of Off hand Flourishing, upward 
of forty standard and ornate alphabets, and over twenty 11x14 plates of commercial designs, engrossed resolutions, memorials, certifiealea, title pages, etc.. etc.; in short, 
it will coutaiu numerous examples of every species of work in the line of a professional pen-artist. The price of the work, post-paid, is $5; mailed free, aa a premium, to 
the sender of a club ot twelve subscribers to the " Journal." We hereby agree that, should anyone, on receipt of the book, be dieaatisfied with it, they shall be at liberty to 
return it, and we will refund to them the full amount paid. 



is cever too late to leam. One may learn 
himself. The labor is by no means great. 

Let the poor writer determine to improve. 
Let him sit down, select a pen whiuh suits 
his hand, paper and ink that will answer the 
purpose. Eschewing all idea ot ' flourish/ 
let him adopt au alphabet of capitals and 
' body letters ' corrected from his usual order 
of writing. To this sty (e of letter-making 
he must strictly adhere. After he has written 
these alphabets once, he should carefully 
repeat the operation, straightening, sisittg, 
and joining the letters so as to set them 
distinct, regularly pitched, and of a uniform 
height. This accomplished, write out the 
alphabet, again, again, and again — each 
time attempting ( and succeeding in ) an im- 
provement upon the last previous lines. 
Follow the selected characteristic form of 
letters, never adopting new shapes, nor in- 
troducing a single mark not requisite to 
shape the letter. Ea^-h succeeding trial will 
show impiovement over its former. Per- 
sistent practice makes the determined practi- 
tioner a legible writer. Speed should never 
be attempted until proticiency is secured." 

The foregoing article came to ua, inclosed 
in an envelope, with no information respect- 
ing its origin. What the writer says about 
" flourishy," careless writing, the necessity 
for, and the certaiuty of, good results to come 
from persistent and thoughtful practice, we 
commend; but when he oomes to giving 



just quoted, it is that when one desires to 
learn to write he shall take for copies 
atid standards his own letters, and practice 
them over and over until they shall take the 
plain, legible, and easily constructed forms 
requisite for good writing. This plan can- 
not, of coureo, apply to beginners in writing, 
for they would be without " their own usual 
order of writing " from which to select 
models. And we can just imagine that now 
and then a learner, who had started would, 
on this plan, find before him models not 
specially a4lapted to fire his young ambition 
with the brightest hope for success, or in- 
spire him with au overpowering love for, and 
enthusiasm in, his efforts to master the 
"beautiful art." We imagine there would 
occafionally be a yearning for some of the 
models of the " master" and the copy- hook, 
and very properly, for, to our mind, nothing 
can be more utterly absurd than the idea 
that the beat way to acquire a correct taste 
for and perfect conception of the good and 
true, not alone by writing, but in any de- 
partment of human thought and action, is 
by following imperfect aud bad examples. 
Aim at the stars and you will hit higher 
than by aimiug at ground. 



The burden of its editorials and its lessons 
have been in the advocacy of, and instruc- 
tion iu, practical writing, for where one 
needs to learn or practice professional 
or fancy penmanship, hundreds, even thou- 
sands, need to, and should, acquire aud 
practice a plain hand. 

While we have freely admitted to its 
pages, as illustrations, specimens of pro- 
fessional and amateur pen-work, represent- 
ing all departments of the penman's art, 
it has been our steady purpose to improve 
every opportunity to score a point for plain 
writing, and to deal telling blows at the 
flourishly, scrawly and unsystematic styles 
of writing now so much in vogue, and 
which are held in special abhorrence in 



The *' Hand-book" as a Premium. 

The "Hand-book" (in paper) is mailed 
free to every person remitting $I.()U for 
a subscription or renewal to the Journal 
for one year, or, for $1.25, the hook hand- 
somely hound in cloth. Price of the book, 
by mail, in cloth, $1 ; in paper, 75 cents. 
Liberal dlsoount to teachers and agents. 



teachers of writing in the country. 

He is a live, thinking, working genius, 
who throws his whole soul into Iris work, 
and our rcatU-rs uiay safely rely upon a lib- 
11 uf original and novel 
thods with Prof. Hiuman's 
3 shall spare neither labor 
furnish the most perfect 
to accomijany these lessons. 



cnil presoutii 
thoughts and 
course, while 
nor expense 1 



The Centennial Picture of 
Progress. 

When we iinnouuecd, a short time since, 
the exhaustiou of our supply of those pic- 
tures, of a size that could be aflbrded free 
as a premium, it was not our intention to 
to re-pu'ilish the work, but so frequent and 
earnest has been the demand for copies 
that we decided to have new plates made 
(32x38 inches), and shall hereafter mail 
copies free to all who may desire them as a 
premium. The new plates arc very much 
superior to the old ones, and heuce the new 
prints will be much more dcslrihle than 
those formerly mailed. Large prints, 38x 
40, will coatinue to be mailed for 25 cents 



A Mean Blackguard. 

The fiillowing crtmmUDictttioD w« have 
jnst received from Factoryville, Pa., spell- 
iog, punctiiatiua and all : 

Mr. I., Lum Smilh— /Jwr Sir: I went lo 
aek y(m one (I'lcptioii wicb ia the woi-8l. To 
hB ewin.iled by Wni. Havims or Liini Smith. 
I have not received the July numbpr yet it 
dues not run out iiiiiil Septombtr. 

This is a ppeoiinen nf the petty, open 
postal-card, blackguard Ibid we are some- 
times treated t« by persona who happen to 
mise a iiiimber of the Agent's Herald, or 
say that thoy have mipsed it. Now, here 
is a creature (for, upou invcstigalion, we 
have t'oitud that such a person really does 
live Hud is known at Paotoryville) who as- 
Buiiics that we have control of the Post 
'Ottlce Deparluient and its Diyriad mail car- 
riers ; can insure that no paper put in the 
post office here during the term of his 
subscription shall go astray, and becaune 
he misses one number (that cost him four 
cents) this mean, pitiful blackguard, ed- 
mundstiles, instead of asking fur a dupli- 
cate copy, free, in a civil way assumes that 
we, who eeud out thousands of copies 
monthly free, as sample copies, meant to 
swindle him. A person so mean will, 
doubtles)*, slander ua, too, among his neigh- 
bors, and we wish to say right here that in 
all caaes where we are assailed we sbalt an- 
swer the party through the Herald, and 
tiood bis section of the country, to business 
men there, that his neighbors may know 
our defense and shun the society of such 
slanderers. We have Ions since realized 
that we expect abuse from such uncharita- 
ble and suspicious persons as edmundstiles, 
but we propose, hereafter, lo answer all 
such persons publicly. 

The Herald, in its treatment of edmund- 
stiles, has very well done what we have 
often been tempted to do with some 
of the impertinent, not to eay blackguard, 
correspou dents of the Journal, wlio, be- 
cause a paper fails to come, or an answer 
to a letter, M'hich has miscarried or to 
which they neglected to sign their name or 
address, is not received, assume that they 
are swindled, and write discourteous or in- 
sulting complaints. We however, always 
suspect that such assumptions are born of 
very evil natures, and we afterward deal 
cautiously with sach correppoudents. 

As a single specimen of the petty insults 
to whicli we are treated by the edmundstilea 
class of blackguards we present the follow- 
ing : 

" Dear Sir : I send you by to-days mail 
the specimen-copy I ordered of you some 
time since (by postal-card 1. If I had 
known the price of your paper I never 
would have had you send it free. It was 
recommended to uie by W. P. Newt.in, who 
said I could got a sample-copy, and gave 
me your address. I will try and be as little 
trouble to you hereafter as possible. When 
yon get short of postage, or get so you can't 
run your business, call on me." 

The writer of the above is not only a very 
mean blackguard, hut he is cowardly, for 

residence ; but it was p"st-marked, " Hamp- 
ton, Ga.," and, by relerence to our books, 
we find that, on October 5lh, we received a 
postal-card from the same place, signed, 
W. A. Henderson, asking for a sample-copy 
of the Journal. The card was evidently 
in the same hand as the insulting note. 
Compared with wabenderson, edmundstiles 
is quite a respectable blackguard, since he 
does not seek to avoid respouBibility in the 
cowardice of an anonymous letter. 



The October number of JJto Lewises 
Monthly, like each of the previous numbers, 
abounds with good eense, and proves that facts 
may be madu as entertaining as fancies, and 
subserve a better purpose. Its appearance is 
e, and its contents admirable. 



Don't live in hope with your arms folded. 
Foituu.. smiles on tliosu who roll up their 
sleeves aud put tlu'ir shoulder to the wheel 
tli;it propolj^ them on to wealth and happi- 
ness. Cut this out and carry it about with 
you iu your vest pocket, ye who idle iu bur- 
rooma or at the corner of tlie Blreett. — 
Z{ormal Journal, 



Hymeneal. 

We clip the following from the Red Oak, 
Iowa, Express, of October 5th : 

"Prof. H. C. Carver, who has eained 
many friends in this vicinity, having tjiiight 
penmanship in and near Red Oak for two 
years, arrived here on Sunday evening from 
La Crosse, Wis., where he is now engaged 
as penman and instructor at La Crusse 
Business College. On Monday evening, at 
the residence of the bride's parents in this 
i-ilv, ho was joined in marriage to Miss 
Syivenie Benedict, Rev. J. W.Webb per- 
forming the ceremony. The lady, by sev- 
eral specimens of fino portrait painting and 
iliiral pieces, establishes her talent and 
ability a^s an artist, which, together with 
her standing in society, her very pleasant 
and amiable disposition, wo believe will 
make her husband not only an agreeable 
and loving wife, but also an aid in the work 
which ho is so successfully accomplishing 
as a teacher and pen-artist. They took the 
triiin Tuesday morning for La Crosse, 
Wis., leaving behind many friends, who 
M'ish Ihein a safe and pleasant trip, and 
long, happy and useful lives." 

Mr. Carver is a fine penman and a popu- 
lar teacher, and we join with his many 
fciends ia tending him our most hearty 
good wisbo?«. 

Exchanging Autographs. 

Henry P. Vogel, of St. Louis, Mo., sug- 
gests that all penmen who are willing to 
exchange autographs upon the plan lately 
suggested by C. II. Peirce, through these 
columns, should forward their names for 
publication iu the Journal. We thiuk 
this may be a good suggestion. Should it 
meet with favor we will, in our next i^sue, 
open a column for such names. By such 
means exchanges may be greatly facilitated. 




J. B, Campbell ia teaching writing at Green- 
wich ( Conn.) Academy, 

R. C. Gemht^rling ia about opening a special 
Bchool ior leaching writing at Ashley, Pa. 

C. J. Brown, late of Burlington, Vt., has 
become connected with the Clark University, 
Atlanta, Ga. 

J. W. Brose is principal of the BusineBs 
Practice Depaitmeut of Peirce's BusineBs Col- 
lefje, Keokuk, la. 

S. E. Riley, formerly of Quincy, III., has 
taken charge of the Commeroial Department 
of Ediua { Mo.) Seminary. 

L. L. Tucker, late with the Providence (R. 
I,) Buetnesa College, in engaged at the New 
Jersey BusineBs College, Newark, N. J. 

W. H. Gibbs 18 in charge of the department 
of penmanship at Mies. A. & M. College. Agri- 
cuhural College, Mias. He is a fine writer. 

We regret to learn that Henry Beardsley, of 
Claridou, O., a teacher of rare excellence, and 
a jinc penman, is very low with conaumption. 

G. B. Jones, who has duriug the past year 
beeu teachhig writing-el aBBes at Bergen, N. Y., 
i« now purauing a special course of in»tructiou 
at Flickinger'a Writing Academy, Phdadelphia, 

W. S. Macklin, of St. Louis, Mo., is an ac- 
complished pen-arti8i. Several specimenB of 
hie Work, which we have examined, are very 
creditable. He ia highly complimenltd by the 
preas fur hia akillful work. 

R. W. Cobb aud J. McKee have lately opened 
a biii^iness college aud normal inalitute for pen- 
maiisliip, at Champaign, III. Specimena of 
penmanship inclosed by Mr. Cobb were of a 
superior order. We wish them auccesB. 

P. R. Cleary haa lately opened a school of 
peumanahip atYpeilanta, Mich., in which he 
haa over tiliy pupila. Mr. Cleary ia a good 
writer aud Buccesaful iuatruotor, and will un- 
doubtedly wiu favor iu hia new location. 

E, K. Bryan, Lima, Ohio, a set of book- 
keeping blaiikH, deeigned for keeping the ac- 
cuunirt of a wholesale or retail buaineaa, which, 
BO far HB we are able lo judge Itom examina- 
tion, are very well adapted to the putpoae for 
-which the/ «r* dvsignvdi 



The Announcement of the Thiriyfiret Anni- 
versary of the Spencerian Buuineaa College, 
Cleveland, O., and Detroit, Mich., preaents a 
Hue specimen of Spencerian script; also, the 
Catalogue ieaued for 1883, by the Cleveland 
College, ia one of the lineBt Bpecimens of cata- 
logue work we have ever examined. 

The Union City {Pa.) Timti, iu Breaking of, 
N. R. Luce-M BuHiueaa College, of that city, 

"The record Prof. Luce and hia BchooI have 
made in this city ban won the confidence of 
the beat people of the town and aurrounding 



I congratulate 

tinned existence among us of bo worth 

iirprise. We wish the school increased 



Our friend. Prof. RuBsell. of the JoHet (HI.) 
Buaine"8 College, is nut only a versatile writer 
for the presfl, but he ia highly recommended 
by the Daihj I'rtts, of Juliet, as a epeech- 
maker. Speaking of one lalwly made at a 
political meeting in that city it aays; "The 
Bpeechea made by Prof. Russell end Judge 
Murphy were the finest and most forcible it 
has been our pleasure to listen to for some 

H. W. Ellaworth, 22 Bond Street, New York, 
author of the Ellaworih Series of Copy-books, 
for use in schools, haa lately introduced a com- 
bined copy-book cover and blotter, for which 
be claims eeveral advantages, among which are, 
aimplicity, cheapneBa, and convenience. It ia 
not only so constructed as lo cover the book 
outekie, but iuaide, which is much the most ira- 
porlant, since it protects the writing aurface 
from the hands while writing. It also obliges 
proper management of the book — moving it 
up, instead of drawing the hand back lo edge 
of desk. 

We clip the following from a late isBue of the 
Syracuse {N. T.) Herald: 

" In the Board of Education parlors, at the 
high Bchool, thirteen large cards, on which are 
ppecimena of drawing, shadiuE. and penman- 
ship, are huun on the walla. The work is that 
of scholara of the grammar Bchoola of this city, 
under the tutorship of Professor C. R. Wells. 
The aheeta on which the work ia executed are 
'2'ix'^ inches, aod are ornamented with unii|ue 
det-igns. beautiful exampha of lettering, and 
Hccurate and graceful linef of writing. When 
it ia tukei) into loneideration that the work is 
lliul of school children, between the ages of 
Iwelve aud fourteen, the piotidency dinplayed 

meudable lo the methods adopted by the iu- 
sirucior. Judged arliaiically, many of the ex- 
amplea are **<[ual to the bewt eftbrta of profea- 
aioual penmen. Execution, ingtead of imila- 
tation. is the secret of Prof. WelU'a succeaa. 
The achular U thoroughly drilled in the move- 
mentB which go to make up the accurate, ele- 
gant and graceful pfumau, instead of being 
taught lo observe forme. The reBiili is that 
the scholar soon becomea master of the correct 
method of writing, which il would be as dilli- 
cullforhim lo unlearn as would be the art of 
swimming. Good judges say that Prof. Wells 
ia tirai to introduce into the public achoola the 
best nieihode of writing taught in the commer- 
ial c<»llege8. His success in this city hac been 



[ Persona sending apeoimens for notice in 
ihia column ahould aee ihal the paekagea con- 
taining the same are postage paid iu full at 
letter rates. A large proportion of iheae pack- 
ages come ebon paid, for sumB ranging from 
three cents upward, which, of course, we are 
obliged to pay. Tbia ia scarcely a desirable 
conaideratiou for a gratuitous notice.] 



A. E. Dewhurst. Uiica, N. Y., cards. 

H. W. Shaylor, Portland, Me., u letter. 

W. F. Early, Valparaiso, Ind., a letter. 

I. S. Preston, Brooklyn, N. Y., a letter. 

Alexander Smith, Cheater, Pa., a letter. 

L. A. D. Hahn, Little Rook, Ark., a letter. 

L. C. Havener, East Beaton, Masa., a letter. 

D. T. Wiukelmann, Jr., Lansingburgh, N. Y., 
L letter. 

A. E. Slocum, llion. N. Y., a flourished bird 
ind cards. 

A. W. Clark, Lowell, Mass., a benutifuUy- 



vUle, 



I University, Rochei 
iting luBlitute, Dai. 




F. W. H. Wiesehahn, St, Louis, Mo., a let- 
ter in superb style. 

S. W. Daugherty, Columbus, Ind., a letter 
and flourished bird. 

C. N. Walsh, Carthage, N. Y., a letter, in a 
good practical hand. 

W. W. Whyland, Beriin, N. Y., a letter and 
specimeuB of writing. 

James W. Weatervelt, Woodstock, Ontario, 
a letter in elegant style. 

Clinton H. Clark, Gem City Business Col- 
lege, Quincy, III., a letter. 

H. C. Spencer, Washington, I). C. a letter, 
in a apletidid practical hand. ' 



letter and 

Rochester ( N. V.) Business Univeisity, a 
most elegantly-writteu letter. 

MMllie G. Rash, Buriington, Wis., a leit^-r 
and aet of capitala very creditable. 

H. F. Vogle, penman, 1,^10 South Broadway, 
St. Louis, Mo., a letter and fancy cards. 

Charles Hilla, penman and card-writer, '2)i'3 
llth Street, Philadelphia, Pa., a letter. 

E. K. Isaace, Penmanship Department of the 
Northeru liitlifina Normal School, a letter. 

G. W. Dix, Lawrence ( Kas.) BusineBS Col- 
lege, a letter aud photo, of a pen-drawing. 

J. J. Sullivan, Atlanta, Ga., a letter and a 
club of twelve suhscribera lo theJouitNAL. 

J. H. Smith, lOlG Cheatnut Street, Philad.l- 
phia. Pa., a letter in excellent style and taste. 

E. L. Burnett Business College. Elmira, N. 
Y., a letter and pheto of lettering aud drawing. 

J. W. Swank, the penman of the U. S. 
Treasury, Washington, D. C, a splendidly- 

M. B. Moore, Morgan, Ky., a letter and sev- 
eral skillfully-executed specimens of writing 
and flourishing. 

GuB Halaizer, Toulon, 111., a letter. He saya, 
"The Jouhnal ia invaluable lo every penman 
and youth in the land." 

G. M. Smithdeal, principal of Smithdeal's 
Practical Business College, Greensboro, N. C, 
a letter and flourished bird. 






H. Bryant, penman at the 6 
leBB College, Cleveland, Ohio, a 
xcellent specimens of card-\ 



■iimg. 



the 



G. A. Swayze, teacher of wriimg in the higli 
and public i^chuols of Belleville, Ontario, al8< 
in Albert College, of that cily, a splendidly- 
written letter and a club of subscribers 
Journal. 

E. W. Smith, principal of the Commercial 
College of Kentucky Univeraity. Lexington, 
Ky., a letter. In it he aaya : " I regard the 
Journal of inestimable value, aud it should 
be iu the hands of every one iutereated in 
education." 



Reliable, Standard, and Complete. 

On the occasion of delivering an educa- 
tional address, President Garfield very aptly 
designated the Spencerian as " that system 
of penmanship which has become the pride 
of our country and model of our schools." 

Its latest complete American edition, pre- 
pared for the Journal by the Spencerian 
Brothers, is a reliable and popular publica- 
tion for self-instruction. 

It is not sold to the book-trade, hut mailed 
direct to students, accountants, merchants 
bankers, lawyers, and professional men gen- 
erally, on receipt of $1. 

The work embraces a comprehensive 
course, in plain styles of writing, and gives 
their direct application in business forms, 
correspondence, hook-keeping, etc., etc. 

If not found superior to other styled eelf- 
inatruotors in writing, the purchase price will 
be refunded. 

Notice. 

Ames'a Compendium, revised, enlarged, 
and greatly improved, will bo ready to 
mul iu a few dayi. Price, $6. 






Answered. 




\\u 


■Inr tlii^ heud ana 


wem will be ^iv 


II to 


all QUr 


Hiim.K-ihfl replie 


B to which will 


.P ot 


VHl.l^ 




to rpadera. Qu*-k 


lidiie 


wliich 


HID perpoiisl.or to 


which auswsre x 


uiiM 


bt) wii 


lour KHiieral iiiler 


8t, will rec«iv« 1 


u al- 


t«i)lioii 


. TliiB will expl 


in to many who 


pro- 


puurnl qui^Hlioiia why no 


anawera are give 


...J 



T. B , Foit Custer, M. T.— Would j.-n 
please inform me, either through the enl- 
uiiios of the Journal or by letter, why it 
in geaerally taught to place the thumb at <>r 
abiive thtt Inwcr joiut of the first finger t"- 
atead of phicing it a? it naturalli/ places iUselJ. 
Also, why the penholder ehould cross tlie 
root of the uail of the secund finger, in pref- 
ereuce to the end of same finger, as many 
good pcnineo hold the penholder. 

My uatural position is, the thumb touch- 
ing the penholder opposite halfiray between 
the lower joint and end or tip of first Jinger, 
and crosses the second finger iit the end or 
lower part of the root of tlie nail, bringing 
the second finger in actiou more, I thtuk, 
than in the other or prescribed way, and 
which seems to give a more eecure or 
firmer hold, and a belter cntrol of the 
pen. Lately, however, I practice the pre- 



motion of the fingers while writing, and at 
the same time grasp and maiuLaio the 
holder in the correct position with the 
gieiitest ease is the best. It is also obvious 
that to carry the pen over the space repre- 
sented by small /, which is the full ex- 
tended upward and downward movement 
of the pen, there must be free and full 
expansion and couttaotion of the musctea 
of the fingers, or the forearm, if that 
umvement is used. Now, by placing the 
end of the thumb at the firut joint 
of the forefinger, it is slightly bent, and 
the muscles somewhat contracted, so 
that by straightening the thumb, the mo- 
tion for making the loop above is given, 
while by its further coutractiou the loop 
bel*>w the base-line is made. The natural 
position of the thumb, as mentioned by 
our coirespondeot, is to have its tnd half 
way below the first joiut of the forefinger 
in which position the thumb being straight, 
or nearly so, there remains no expansive 
force to carry the pen over the exteuded 
spaces above the liuo, and heuce the great 
ditftculty and awkwardness of movement 
when the thumb is in this position. With 
writers using exclusively tlie fiuger movo- 
nieol, tliis would be uu insuperable banier 



because it is an unnecessary strain opou the 
muscles to carry the pen rapidly over such 
lung distances. The hand moves over 
short spaces easier and with greater celerity 
than long ones. Second, the large writing 
aud long loops so fill the body of the sheet 
as to give to the writing, as a whole, a 
mixed aud coofusfd appearance, thus rend- 
ering it much more difficult to read than if 
the writing was smaller, leaving a more 
open aud clear space between the lines. 
All writers should bear iu miud that the 
short letters should occupy no more than 
one-fourth, aud the looped letters no more 
than three -fourths, of the space between 
ruled lines. 

J. L., Baltimore, Md.— Please inform 
me why printers prefer manuscript writteu 
on one side only f Ans. Because it is more 
; for both i 






npositor. 



A. R. H., PhUadelphia, Pa— I am a 
book-keeper, forty-two years of age, aud 
write a very plaiu hand, but am a very uluw 
writer. Please inform me whether I cau 
learn to write rapidly ; and if so, what is 
the best movement for me to use, aud 
what are the best exercises for me to prac- 
tice ou, to become a rapid writer t Ans. 



The subject of detecting forgery aud cou* 
victing forgers through the evidence of 
experts in handwriting is fa&t growing in 
favor and promiueuce. The question, loo, 
of natural oharacterislius in handwritinj;, 
and especially where the writing ia dis- 
guised for fraudulent or unscrupulous mo- 
tives, and by careful and systematic investi- 
gations is trace<l to \U author, is one that 
uaunot fail to t:nlist the attention of businees 
people, as well as lawyers and legal tribu- 
nals. Mr. D. T. Atnes, a professional ex- 
pert in handwriting, whose testimony in 
many important oases lias b«en largidy 
relied upon, has been invited to lecture 
before the Institute of Accountants anu 
Book-keepera of New York Ciiy at their 
monthly meeting, on November loth, ou 
some subject which will enable him to ex- 
plain his plans of detecting forgeries aud 
tracing them to their authors, and of 
giving much otuer valuable iuiormalion 
concerning d'sguiaed aud forged M-ritings. 
Prom a long jiersoual acquaiutanco with 
Mr. Ames aud his methods we know him' 
to be one of the most experienced and 
skilled exauiiuers «if ,[ne^tioned handwriting 
in this country, aud as we believe h- sinuAa 
at the head of t,hi3 cl«ta of exp-its in the 




nae^ 




1^- 



civ^WWWu&>^ 



DANiai AMES AUTHaRSPUaUSHER.eOS BROADWAY NEWTORK. 

EniEf«,ata)idingiiiAnDlCn[ttfEajniheuarlBBZ.tryDanielT.Am£S.in»BOIficenflliBUnfananofConErEttnvrasliini^ 



The above cut is Cfie title-page of Amen's -Hand-book of JrcUlic Penmana 

to every subscriber to the " Journai." Substantially liounil tn rlolk 

person the price of a subscription, while the "Journal" i 



I copy of which ^ 
I. for go cents t. 
lua'ile to every leach 



paper covert, is given, fre 
. The book alone is ttorl 
pupil of lerilint/. 



s''iil"'i ^^■>y. hmI - !i,,„ . ihink it forms 

Mh : :. !.. ■. , , ,.■ , Nil, I forgot all 

i>|.| II,: [ IIP 1 1 |i. i-,r |,,|., ,; ,| I 111' jifuholdcr also 

I am all at sea about this important point, 
IIS I itui convinced it is an importaut one. 
The instructions you sent me wi>h the 
"Standard Practical Penmanship" say: 
'■ Pcnholdiug is second to uo other p«rt of 
the writer's position." 

I formerly thought any posilion that was 
east/ and natural, and not cramped, was the 
h'st position for the thumb and fingers; 
also, that good penmanship was not a very 
essential sccomplishment ; but the longer 
T livi' the more I am convinced to the con- 
trary in reference to penmanship, and that 
the position of the fingers has some difier 
once as t.i lliw result, aud, iis you say lu your 



b_v li-;.'iioe ila-m to bHicve li.at not having 
the ijiti tlioy are debarred from becoming 
good ones." 

So I will guide myself entirely by your 
instructions in my future practice, as 1 am 
ambitious of becoming not only a good 
penman, but an excellent and rapid one, 
and will make every effort to that end. 

Ans. It is obvious that that position 
for the flogera upon the penholder which 
Will \tni ijwlUuU B ^w and tintnunnslsd 



to good, easy writing. With the forearm- 
movement, it is not so fatal, since thf» relax- 
ation of the muscles of the arm will give 
the extended motion of the pen ; but even 
then the eflbrt is much easier, if aided by 
the correct motion of the fingers aud thumb. 
As regards the precise position of the 
ends of the fingers upon the holder, that is 
not so important as that of the thumb. 
They should, of course, be slightly bent, 
for the same reason as should the thumb ; 
iu fact, wo advocate and use the position 
fur the fingers preferred and described by 



S. F. K., Pittabungh, Pa., submits a spec- 

cism of same. This is not, as a rule, the 
kind of a question to be answered in this 
column; but since the chief fault of Mr. 
K's writing is a prevalent one, we will 
make his case an exception. Mr. K. writes 
an easy, graceful hand, making well-formed 
letters, but it is very nearly twice as Urge 
as it should be, either for ease of execution 
or ffood appearance. The body of the 
writing occupies above one-third of the 
apace between the mled Unea, while the 
loops and capitals extend to, and many be- 
jroad; tb« hoe »bov«. TbU It bod. Fint, 



Your hand is indeed a good practical oue, 
and .from long practice your habit of writ- 
ing has probably become so confirmed as 
to render any change quite difficult. Yet 
we believe that a frequent practice upou 
movement-r-xercises, such as are given with 
the " Standard Practical Penmauship," or 
auy of the movement-exercises customary 
with teachers of iho forearm movement, 
would help you to increase the facility of 
your writing. You should employ, as 
nearly aa possible, the forearm movement 
in your writing,— both for the sake of ease 
and rapidity. 

Williams and Packard's Guide. 

We cannot at present fill orders for this 
work. It is out of slock at the publishers, 
and we are not informed that there will be 
another edition priuted. 



For $2 the Jouknal will be mailed one 
year; also, a copy each of the "Standard 
Praolioal Penmanship" and the "Hand- 
book of Artiotio Penmanship" (in paper 
covers i 35 cenU extra in doth). Price 
«Mh, Mpumv, $1. 



various courts in which he has been called 
to testify, Mr. Ames's proposed "talk" 
will be listened to with special intetest. — 
Counting-room. 



At a populous manufacturing town there 
was an inhabitant who held a good position 
aa a fishmonger, aud, being partial to thea- 
tricals, was very kind and gave great asBist- 
ance to the manager of the Theatre -Royal. 
Being anxious to make his dubut, it was at 
last arranged that he should play Polonius 
for the manager's benefit, that gentleman 
himself playing Hamlet. The house waa 
crammed, aud the play proceeded uutil it 
came to the lines, "Do you know me, my 
lordf" "Excolleut well! yoti are a fish- 
monger I" wheu the maternal parent of 
Polonitis ( beiug in frout and thinking the 
hue was a personal insult to her sou), rose 
aud said : " Well, sir, if he is a fishmonger, 
he has been very kind to you, and you've 
no right to expose him iu public."— G/us- 
gou) Evening Times. 

Extra Copies ol the "Journal" 

Will be sent free to teachers and others who 
deaire to make an effort to secure a club <rf 
lubioribvci. 



Ai{ I a<)i uN.vi'. 



A Book-keeping Which is 
A Success. 

About ooe year bince Messrs. Williams 
and Rogers, of the Rochester New York 



Bui 



Vuh 



Bity, 



iBiied 



; that I 






on book-keeping, which 
noticed in these colmnne 
has been thereiu advertised. 

The work is not only in good style — 
most of ita pages bi^mg photo -engraved from 
beautifully-written pen-and-ink copy; but 
the subject matter is arranged and presented 
in a clear, simpli^, and, evidently, takiug, 
manner, for we are informed that over 15,- 
OOU copies have been sold during the first 
year of its publicatiuu, and that it is in use 
by a large proportion of the business colleges 
throughout the United States and Canadas. 
Pew, if any, book-keeping works have met 
with equal favor and success. 



Not Responsible. 

It should be distinctly understood that 
the editors of the Journal are not to be 
held as indorsing anything outside of its 
editorial columns; all communications not 
objoctiouahle in their character, nor devoid 
of interest or merit, are received and pub- 
lished ; if any person differs, the columns 
are equally open to bun to say so and tell 



T?ie Art AmaUur is always full of interest 
and overflowing with illustrations. The 
Octoher numher, which is before us, is a 
treasure of art. Among its illustrations are 
three for china painters — primroses for a 
vase, harebells for a plate, and poppies for 
a plaque ; three for embroidery — a letter 
case, a photograph frame and a bellows; a 
charming hawthorn panel for wood- carving, 
a dozen pleasing figures for sketching on 
linen, and a multiplicity of monograms and 
jewelry designs. There are valuable articles 
on etching, drawing in red, and other art 
topics, with some good examples of crayon 
work; the Munich and Boston art exhibi- 
tions are reviewed and attractively illustra- 
ted; there are some excellent pictures of 
Boule work, and one of a remarkable Henri 
Deux cabinet inlaid with ivory, and many 
practical suggestions for home decoration 
and furnishing. Price, 35 cents ; $4 a year. 



The Hand - hook ( in paper ) is now 
offered free as a premium to every person 
remitting $1 for one year's subscription to 
the Journal. Or, handsomely bound in 
olotb, for 25 cents additional. 



Critics who Agree. — "That's what I 
call a finished sermon," said a lady to her 
husband, as they wended their way from 
church. " Yes," was the reply, " but do 
you know I thought it never would be." 



The Penman's Art Journal is 
the most attractive and interesting of tmr 
exchanges. It is most ably edited by D. '1' 
Ames and B. F. Kelley— both of whom aro 
penmen of great skill and experience, alikt- 
as artists and teachers. Their able and 
skillful conduct of the Journal has cer- 
tainly placed it a long way in advance of 
any other paper of ita class, and even given 
to it a very high rank amoug the class peri- 
odicals of our times. Its editorials are 
powerful appeals for good, practical writing, 
while the practical lessons iu writing and 
correspondence have been of great value to 
all classes, and specially so to teachers and 
young ladies and gentlemen who are seek- 
ing self-improvement at home or in the of- 
fice. We know of no paper that is doing a 
more useful work than the Journal, and 



Blackboards. 

LAPIUNUM (Stone-Cloth). 



it really ought 
home, school, i 
land. It consist 
illustrated, and 
one year, with 
single copies, te 









of sixteen pages elegantly 
ine typography. Mailed 
aluable premium for $1 ; 
cents, from the office of 
publication, 205 Broadway, New York. — 
Counting -room. 




rooster that crows the loudest 
I the last to leave the field. 



DOUBLE PENHOLDER. 











Phntn-Enqravinq-i?»Phata-Lithnqraphq. 

n.T Ameh. ZQ5 HRDAnmax 



Black Diamond Slating, 

Tht Best Liquid Slating {without exception) for 
tt'alia and iVooden Blackboard*. 

able aurface. Easily 



applied ivilh a 



Putn; 



PRrCES. 

Plnt,«L25; Qnart.|3i Halt-Qalloa.«3.50; OalloD, |6.50. 
PlatBmgh[4iD0hM). SOoent*. 

Used and gives Perfect Sati^action in 
Colnmhla College (School of Mines) - New York City 
Oolumbia Orammar Suhool . . . . " " " 

OollegB of PhyaiiuBDa and Snrgeona ■ • 

Unlvenlty of the City ul New York ' 

Oollq[« Of the City of New York - - " 

College of Phamiaoy 

College of St. Franoia Xavier- - - . 

Lafayette College Baston, pa. 

Steveng InBtiiute of Teohnology - - - Hoboken, N. j! 

Steveos High School 

University of Miasiwippl _- Oxford. Mi«g. 

New York Slook Exchange; New York Cotton Ex- 
change: New York Produce I::xohBnge; New York 
CofTpe Exohange; New York Lnm and Metal Exohonge: 
Equitable arain and Produc« Exohiiiige. 
In Iht Public SchooU 0/ 

WiuhingUin,D.C.,(exolitsive1y). Paler«on, N.J. 

New York Olty. Pliwhing, N. Y. 

San Fnaoiioo, Gal. Mt. Vernon, N. Y. 

Newark, N. J. PoHghlteep«ie, N. Y. 

Bfontclair, N. J. Waferly. N. Y. 

Bloomfleld, N. J. Hartfoi^, CL 

Jenwy City. N. J. Naugamck, Ct. 

South Orange. N. J. K?l'ox^Ie!'Tenn"'' 

Hoboken. N. J. llaleigh. N. C. 

ROLL BLACKBOARDS. 

PRtCES. 

No. 1 ... . Siie, 5>3 f.«l .... ,1.2 

!! 3 ■ ■ ■ ■ .',' -'''' '.I • ■ • '-J 

CAKD BLACKBOARDS. 

Plaiu. Without Shelf. 
N?. ; J8»S4 IhCto ... . JJ.2 

ThU « univerjatl)/ admitted to be the b 
material for blackboard in use. 

ORDERS PROMPTLY FILLED. 
PENMAN'S ART JOURNAL, 

l2-tf 205 Broadway, New Yo 



BY MAIL 



s 111 i(i:i>ictil> 

i-ree. NEw' YOiiV'^BobK PURCHASi'n'g'^AGENCY, 
Refhm. by permUiioD, to editor uf the Joukhal. 3-11 




Charity at the Lime-kiln Club. 

"De Secretary will read, de follerin' 
c< >in muni cash un/' eaid tbe President ae the 
meeting opeoed : 

Bro. Gardner — Several of your fricnda 
desire to know how you stand on the (jues- 
tiou of charity this fall. Doea the club 
propose to donate anything to local charity 
this wiotor t 

Hespectively, Four Friends. 

" Ab to de fust query," said the President, 
as he drew himseir up, "de auawers dat I 
have heretofore given inus' stand fur de 
answer now. De charity of Dttroit has 
'bred a race of beggars who will nebber leave 
us. It has added to de loaferism an' en- 
couraged de idleness, an' gineral s]iiftli'S8- 
ness. It has eaid to de heads of families : 
' Idle de summer away an' you shall be 
supported durin' do winter ! ' Go ask de Poo' 
Superiutendeat if de same persons doan, 
return y'ar after y'arT Ask him if men an' 
women have not come to look upon a poo' 
fund as deir right, an, if dey doan' demand 
deir allowance, instead of asking for itf 
Charity filled de keutry wid tramps. When 
charity tried to undo its work de tramps 
began to burn barns an' murder women an' 
chill'en. Charity has encouraged a drove 
of 5U0 beggar chill'en to march up an' down 
ebery resident street. It has wasted its 
tetrs upon brutes of men an' its prayers 
upon hsrdened women, an' its money has 
gone to feed people so vile an' wicked dat 
State's Prison ached to receive 'em. 

" As to the second query, dar am a poo' 
ole man libin' nex' doah to Sir Isaac 
Walpole. Who has paid bis rent for months 
pastf Charity? No, gem'Ien ; chaiity neber 
h'ars of anybody but a bold-faced beggar. 
Our friend, heah, Sir Isaac, has not only 
kept de roof ober de ole man's head, but has 
furnished him many a meal to eat. 

"Up on Grove Slr.et, near de cabin of 
Waydown Bebee, am a poo' ole woman dat 
has gone blind. Brudder Bebee an' odder 
members has chipped in to take car' of her, 
an' whateber she has bad de pas' summer 
or has now am due to deir kindness. Town 
charity hasn't diskibered her yet. 

" Up on Scott Street, clus to de cabin of 
Whalebone Howker, dar was a death de 
odder day an' two chill'en war' left alone in 
de world. Charity left 'em alone in de house 
uutil de landlord turned 'em into de street; 
den charity walked off an' Brudder Howker 
took de orphans home an' will keep 'em frew 

"Up my way dar' am a sick man who 
wants medicines — a boy wid a broken leg 
who wants nourisbin' food— a woman who 
has had a long run of fever widout her rent 
fallin' buhind or her chill'en goin' hungry. 
Let de cry of distress come to Pickles Smith, 
Judge Cadaver, Samuel Sliin, Rev. Penstook 
or any odder member who kin spare from 
his purse or his table, au' it am promptly 
answered. We know our nayburs an' we 
am naburly. We found no hospitals, es- 
tablish no beggar's headquarters, an' issue 
no call fur odder xities to send in deir jiaupers 
to be supported, but our uaybur finds us at 
his sick-bed, an' misfortune finds our purse 
open. He who has charity in his heart need 
not go huntin' fur de poo' to relieve an' fur 
reporters to puff deir gifts. Charity dat 
rides aroun' town on a fo'-hoss wagin will 
see a workin' man starve an' feed a loafer 
who has spent half his summer in de saloons. 
Let us drap de subjick an' proceed to bizi- 
ness." — Detroit Free Press, 



I mind that 



Send $1 Bills. 

We wish our patriius to bear 
in payment for subscriplious wo do not de- 
sire postage -stamps, and that they should be 
sent only for fractional parts of a dollar. A 
dollar bill is much more convenient and safe 
to remit than the same amount in 1, 2 or 3 
cent stamps. The actual risk of remitting 
money is slight — if properly directed, not 
one miscarriage will occur in one thousand, 
luclose the bills, and where letters wmlain- 
iug money are sealed in presenco of the 
postmaster, we will assume all the risk. 



GENUINE 

WATERBURY WATCHES 

TO BE GIVEN AWAY 
FREE! FREE! 

PREMIUM 

GOLD-MOUNTED 
REVOLVERS 

TO BE GIVEN AWAY 

FREE!_FREH! 

SEND TO 

N. E. CARD COMPANY 

FOU TllEIK 

SPECIAL INDUCEMENTS TO 
BUYERS OF CARDS. 

We offer you a choice of t.wfi\'e new 
100-page books, which retail for 25 and 511 
cents (each book being fully described in 
our new price-liet), to every per8t)n sending 
us an order for $1 worth of cards, one of 
the twelve books, and also have the btst 
cards in the market 

Orders maybe made up fioni oin prne- 
list in tbe September issue «•! tl i^ |)H|ie' 
A few of our books consist of, " The Sto. 
dent's Manual of Phonetic Slioithaml" (re 
tails for 50 cents); "The Young Aiiiin 
can's Letter-writer"; "The Standard li.mk 
on Politeness"; "Guide to Bnsiug and 



The very latest cards are now made frmo 
8-ply Bristol, Plain Bevel, at *3 50 pu 
1,000, or 50 cents per 100 — regular sizes 
and oblong. 

(^•Send us an order for 200 and we will, 
in addition to the cards, send one of tbe 
above books. 



We are Special Agents for 

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In the following colors : 

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of any goods we have for sale, we will 
make their portrait. 

NEW YEAR CARDS. 

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per 100, post-paid. 

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larly Bdapteil 


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THE 

American Popular Dictionary 

AKD CrCLOl'EDI. 







AGENTS WANTED, 

IN EVERY TOWN IN AMERICA, 
olioit ■nbBriptioDs to the Pesmaw's Art JouaMAL 



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New Spenwrian CompeDdiniii In part* (6 porls 

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WEEDSPORT, N. Y. 
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1 BrilliRnt Black Ink Recipe . . " .30 
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On receipt of ten 1-cent stamps samples 
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recommended. 

Poor writing made good, and good writ- 
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Students in commercial colleges mako 
money handsomely, canvassing at the rates 

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L MADARASZ, Penman, 

p. O. Box, 2105, New York City 

Please mentiou the JOUIWAL. 



:vi{-r aouKNAi..-3Cii 






from that teohiiica 


" Esfj. 


' after thei 


smnpt 


on orcoDV€ 


rigl.t, 


o whom DC 


think 


of tacking c 


naTnes 


" Squire 


whii^h 


if not 8t 



"Mr," and "Esq." 
But now comes another of onr anomaliep, 
one which greatly pnzzlea European conti- 
nentals, anil which is not always fully 
grasped even bv our American kinefolk. 
Tliia i» the nature of the E-'finire. A clasB 
of people are habitually called plain " Mr." 
in ordinary talk, who would be greatly of- 
fended if their letters were 8o addressed. I 
am not ppeaking of those who claim a 
higher adjective desi^riptioii ; I mean those 
who are spoken of as " Mr. A. B.," but 
who, in any formal description, from the 
sdtlrefa of 4 letter upward, mu«t be de- 
8crib-d as " A. B., Esq." In itself Esquire, 
like Knii^ht, is a title, if not of office, of 
eomethinc very, like office; and it would 
not have been wonderful if it had been 
iis.i«l to call met! " Knight A." and " Es- 
quire B " But " Kniirht A." seems never to 
have been in use ; and " Enquire," or rather 
'"Squire B," can harlly be said to have 
ever been in polite u?e. Afen like Hamp- 
den, who would have ranked as nobles any- 
where out of the British kingdoms, were 
simply " Mr- Hampden," and the like. 

To be sure " Mr." was then more of a 
dis'inct title than it is now. 1 have eeen 
somewhere in the early records of a New- 
England colony an order, in which, among 
other pain' and penalties decreed against a 
certain man, it is forbidden to speak of 
him any longer as '' Mr." Possibly, though 
used to be eqioken of as " Mr.," he did not 
hold the technical rank of " Esquire." For 
Eaqnire is a technical rank, as much as 
Earl or Knight; and one odd thing is that 
when the word, in a contracted shape, is put 
befi.re a name, it means something different 
Many people put 

r conventionality, but of perfect 
living soul would ever 
a " 'Squire " before their 
A." marks a position 
rictly official, certainly 
comes very near to it, a position which is 
not heb! by all who are described as es- 
quires even by strict formal right. But the 
thing that most puzzles the foreigner is the 
presence of the distinctive title after the 
name, or rather its absence before the name. 
He is ready t.. write " Mr. A. B-, E«q."; it 
is hard to persnade him to write " A. B. 
E'q." with nothing before the A. B. And 
no wonder, ff)r it is a description altngether 
without parallel among continental descrip- 
tion'. We are so used to it that we hardly 
thiuk of its singularity. It fails to do, at 
least it seems as if it were going to fail to 
do, the very thing which titles are invented 
fo do. "Lord," "Sir," "Mr," stand as 
guardians before the name, to ebow that the 
mere name is not going to he used. But 
the name of the esquire stands bare, with- 
out any protectinn. We do in fact call hinj 
by his mere name, though we stick on his 
doscripiion afterward. "Enquire" has no 
f'-minine; otherwise it would be curious to 
sfie whether a womau's name could be al- 
lowed to stand unsheltered in the same way. 
How singular our treatment of the esquire 
h seen at once if we fancy a like treatment 
of the rank next above him. We speak of 
a man as " Mr. A. B," and we address our 
iRlters to him as "A B., Esq" It would 
be an exact psrallel, if we spoke of a man 
as " Sir A. B," and addressed our letters to 
him as A. B., Knight. — Longman's Maga- 



Writing-Ruler. 

The Writing-Ruler has become a stand- 
ard article with those who profess to have a 
suitable outfit for practical writing. It is 
to the writer what ihe chart and compass is 
to the mariner. The Writing-Ruler is a re- 
liable penmanship chart and compass, sent 
by the JouBNAL on receipt of 30 cents. 



Remember, that if you renew, or send in, 
your subscription to the Journal, yon 
will get a 75 cent book free, or a $1 book 
for 25 o«nt« extra. 



A/\/ INGRE/\SING DEMAND. 
A NEW EDITION JUST PUBLISHED. 

SADLER'S 




-A zrcTT^, z7?ip7^0T~eci cuxd progressive 'worlc on J3a.sinrss Calculcuitons , 

specially prepcured, cls cl pr^actical tejct-hool'c for Tynsiriess 

colleges, Iviglh scJiools, ctccLdemies ajxd. zuxiversities. 



r piiWinhed ( 512 royal octaTO pages ), has been revined 

■i-ciion of a)l t;pof;raphical errors inoidinit to ihtf publiot 

li] additioD to the publication of tbe norlc io a compl< 



1 ediK 
leges aTid private 

THE NEW EDITION 

n of many new and valuable plat 
of pitrona it i* also published in I 

PART FIRST 



Tiproved by ihe additio 



together with the 
I separali' editions. 



mding to Ihe subject of Percentage, Tlie mt-thodi 



PART SECOND 



Begins with the 
topics in asvsteni 


ubject of PercpntBgp, and embracpB a thorough, exbauBtive, and pre 
alic and natural order. 


■eminently 


This porti 


n of the work (35fi royal octavo panes) waa first published in Septe 


nher. 1880. 


lie succeBB 


was quick and complete, and the demand lor a new edition became a 


imperativ 



Each Edition is now published WITH or WITHOUT ANSWERS, 



THIS ARITHMETIC, it is honestly believed, presents such features 
thorough, complete and praitical than any similar work now hefore the piihlif 

As to its merits as a text-book for busUiess colleges and bcIihoIb, ailent 
received from pa</roT\» only, who have tested the work in their respective class- 



the part of the piilron. 

of improvement and progress as justify the claim that it is more 
on is invited to a few of the many testimonials which have been 



Specimen Pages will be sent to any address on receipt of stamp, 
^ KEY, 

Containing the Bolutions and answers to the problems, will be furnii^hed fret tu all nchoola adopting the work. 
Tbe folluwing exceptionally low retail prices have been adopted : 

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press paid on receipt of price. To tea"hers, proprietors of schools, 



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of the complete edition, for examination with a v 
by PoBi-office Order, Draft, or Registered Letter. 

SPECIAL RATES TO BUSINESS COLLEGES AND SCHOOLS. 






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ANSWERS TO PROBLEMS, 
ise of teachers and private pupils, a work, onntaining 
) all the problems in the COMPLETK EDITION, will be 
mailed on receipt of 25 cents. 



BRYANT, STRATTON & SADLER BUSINESS COLLEGE, 

Nos. 6 and 8 NORTH CHARLES STREET. BALTIMORE, MD. 




Penmanship and Art Department 
WESTERN NORMAL COLLEGE, 



BviHhneU. 111. 





partm«Dt. wit 




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of flourishing and bn 
n ca|>i(ali, variety of 


Apitali"aiul^oo 


iw. 


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1 



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'All About Shorthand" 



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Learn fo Write. 



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PHOTO.LITHOORAPHT 



Wriglit '.s M 1 



Cold..ater, MIob. 



AK'I JOUKN.Vt 



Teaching of Morality, 

From the fine arlicle on " Moral Inatrac- 
tioi) in the Public Schools," id the August 
North American Meview, we c-ollpta the fol- 
linring terse assiTtions of Itev. . Herber 

( 1 ) "In any ratioDal theory of educa- 
tion everything sbouM lead up to character 

(2) "The task of ethical education is so 
•Ipticate and fine that the wisest may well 

(IJ) " Morality must be learned in school, 

(4) "History as now studied, has little 
or nothing of an ethical churacter." 

(5) "The great ethical principles can 
bo traced in terms of physics, in the life of 
a bird or beast. The bee-hive and the ant- 
hill can be made text-books in social 



SPENGERIAN 

BLUE -BLACK ^VRITING FLUID 



ethics." 

(fJ) "Habitat 



plastic Bpir 
noble charfl 

(7) Id 
results we a 



I the 1 



oulds into which 
, shaping it into 



lur impatience for intellectual 
sacrificing character upon the 
altar of knowledge." 

(8) " For all this work of moral educa- 
tion, the lirst step forward is the securing of 
a proper preparation fur the speciality of 
character-culture in our normal schools. 
We must educate our educators."— Fist^or 
and Teacher. 

There is no such thing as a miracle in 
the universe. Miracles are born of ignor- 
ance, lack of reason, and a belief in theui 
is rank superetilion.— ^tw/^nCs Journal 



The Counsel Supposes a Case. 

It was jm ingenious witness that turned 
the laugh upon the gonial County Attorney 
at court, recently. The case was the Philip 
Atkins case. 

" Now, sir," said tlio County Attorney, 
bedding up a gold chain, " what wo-ild you 
have thougJit if you had seen such a chain 
as that around the respondent's neck f " 

" WeU, I can't say. I didn't see any such 



sts^^.^VVbyx^vA^.Ka\m^^\^>^vvN^s^'^^^^ 



ESTERBROOK'S 



SI Serfes of 

CHnnii PENsI 

^osrfO/f S/dU Brail 0£/ILC/fg\ 




PHE^OMEN-^L SUCCESS 

OF THE NEW 

Rochester Business University 
Book-keeping. 



Only one year since the first copy c 
every prominent commercial school auj r 
Portland, Oregon, and from Manitoba tc 



ime from the presp, and now in use in almost 
)mmercial department from Portland, Maine, to 
the Gulf, and others are introducing it every 



"Tos 












"Well, if you had* " 
"I can't say; never 
Atkins's neck." 



ich eha 



"Yes," replied the attorney; "but let 
us suppose a case. Suppose, for instance, 
that you had seen this chain around Philip 
Atkius's neck; what would you have 
thought, knowing Atkins as you do!" 

The court room was very quiet. The 
witness drawled perceptibly as he replied: 
" Well, I suppose il I had seen it I should 
have thought that he had a gold chain 
aruuud his neck." The Judge relapsed, and 
the audience exploded, and the prosecution 
lost the point. — Letcistcn Journal. 



PooK People.— The United States is 
paying interest this year to W. H. Vander- 
hilt on $.37,()0I1,UU0 of bonds, instead of 
fifty millions last year; to Mrs. A. T. 
Stewart, $30,n00,(]n(); to J. Gould on J13, 
OUO,OUU registered bonds and a large amount 
of coupon bonds. Flood, of California, has 
$15,0(10,000, and there arc half a dozen 
holders who have about ten millions each. 
Moses Taylor, of New York, has $5,000, 
000, and D 0. Mills, $"1,000,000. The 
Hbtbschilds arc eaid to have $400,000,000. 
Baroness Burdett Coults Bartlett has $20,- 
0(10,(10(1; the Duke of Sutherland, $5,000,- 
0(10 ; and Sir Thomas Brassey, $.5,000,000. 



delight 10 me." " 1 
■' A decided hit." 
more than plensed 
print." "Wecann 



the Comments of some of the Teachers who are. using it. 

to adopt it." " Can teach three times as many pupils with il a 

" Better than the best of its predecessors." "In a teaching ex^ 

found no book so thoroughly excellent." " The engraved peomansbip ie a 

Have never seen a text-book on the subject that could compare with it.'' 

" Surpasses all others." " Is destined to come into general use." " Am 
am delighted." " My work would be doubled with ttny other work in 

jt say enough in its praise," etc., etc. 



The work is published in two forms : 
"Book-keeping," 160 pages, antj " Complete Book-keeping," 208 pages. 

^"Specimen pages, and circular giving prices, contents, etc., will be mailed to any 
teacher with a view of introduction, fret. 

ADDRESS 

WILLIAMS & ROGERS. Publishers. 

ROCHESTER BUSINESS UNIVERSITY, ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



H. W. FLICKINGER'S 

SELECT WRITING ACADEMY, 




COLUMBUS BUGGY COMPANY, 

COLUMBUS. OHIO, 

SUPERIOR vebiolei can hn -".en. wUI l>e «pnt you. 
ly We bftve the I,ARGKST FACTORY it, Hi 

worm lor msnurHOtHTitur Siip»rior Bujirieii, Phaeloni 
t i({ht Csrriages. Surrey Wagooa. aod our popular Amei 
Icaa Village Carta. t)ie latter tha moat perfect and fre 



iHnuflicIory of Uie Coi.u 



FOR SALE. 
WINNIPEG BUSINESS COLLEGE, 

Winnipeg, Manitnha, f^natla. 
^' Sn'o". Ijaving decided lo en^agn hi otber businei 



SPECIMEN COPIES 

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i NOnrH-WEST- 



READ THIS! 



fflvr5 



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rioiivllle, Onondaga County, Now Yorit, 



Special Offer.- 

'l f'lr ibo Prsmas's 






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400 +. "ZIX:.'\ 

ooveiiDg 50 puce* of ittper, 1 
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Assorted expressly fur the use of Penmen and 

writers -Brilliant and Durable. 



BOOKS AND SHEET-MUSIC 

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POSITION WANTED. 



pEIRCE'8 (E. L. ofW,) l\o\An (or omamtntal v 
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g; 


1 


TO A 


THOnSHlI-. 
:t«. Ot lWK>ls'«« 


!»t" 


I 


« 


zB. 


I 


v 


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H- 


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1 


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^ 





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.f yonr palen 


















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pplied It, 


». 


'" 


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utu>, 


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Applelon 
Sept. H, 


881 



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npon recelvmg asuperior article, hut tipOB doing 
BO promptly. 
Ames' Conipendtnm ot OrnI Penmansliip. (4 50 

Ames' Book of Alphabets 1 ISO 

Bryant's Book-keeping, Counting House Ld 2 W 
Amea' CopySlips, for ini^lniclioii and prac- 
tice In writing, per (^btcl, toiiliiininglU 

eierciaes — 10 

50 sheets, (50 fuU setsof topies) » 00 

100 " (100 full seta of couies) d 00 

Bristol Board, 3-sheet thick, 2-2x28 in., pr eht M 

22x23,persheet,byexpi'e98.. 80 

French B. B., 24x34, " " 78 

" " 26x10, " " .. 1 25 

Black Card Board. 22x28, for white Ink SO 

Black Card3 per 100 26 

Black Curds per thousand, by express 2 00 

Whufa dr'lng-paper, hot-presa, 15x0),$ 16 $1 M 

^.f *™ ..' 17x22^ 20 a 00 

19x24, 20 2 20 

>• " " 2fl-\:40; 65 7 % 

31x52. 1 76 30 OC 

Blank Bristol Board Carda. per 100 XQ 

M •< •■ 1000, hy ex. ' N 

Wlnsor&Newton'BBapraaD. lad. Ink. atJct i 00 

bymftil...^.^^£ ' 20 

ft^pa^ld "Sdl^'lnli; "pM "bolVle," liy expr^" .'..'.'.'. 65 

AmL^a'p^nmS FavorftrNTl' er 1 » 

{^■»» Iw* , * 

Spencerian No. 1. extra for flounahmg 1 25 

Tbe New Spencerian Compendium, Part I. % 3, 4, 

Crow-qulirPen. very fine, for drawing.'doV'!..- 

Congdon's Normal System of Flouriahing 

Sponge Rnblier. 2x2 in-, very superior 

Sluue Cliifli, i-i\-! yiira ivi;le, auy leugth per yard. 



Penmanship Instruction Charts. 

.e only appHratu« in t-xisteni-o tor leaching aud lUi 

d. H. REED, Lancaster. Wis. 



f\ page t>ook, giving all Itie prinoipW aud iiiaoyd 



' X 




TEACHERS' GUIDE. 



NEW YORK, NOVEMBER. 1883. 



Vol. VIL— No. 11. 



Reprint. 
Tlie January, 188y, issue of tbe Jour- 
nal having become exhausted, the series 
of Prof. SpoDcer's writing- lessous, and, also, 
our owu articles upon Letter- writing, were 
coDBeqiiently broken, and aa we still have 
nearly 1,000 copies of all tbe remaining 
numbers having these articles, we deem it 
best to reproduce them in this number. 
Persons wishing the Journals contain- 
ing thf entire aeries of sixteen lesons 
in praptical writing, by Prof. H. C Spen- 
cer, beginning with May, 1882, and end- 
ing with October, 188:J, and, also, all 
the articles upon Letlcr-writing, can now 
secure them by remitting §1.25. To any 
teacher or pupil of writing these series of 
lessons are worth ten times the price named. 



sons in Practical Writing. 

No. Vlll. 
By Henry C. Spencer. 




quick to detect faults. A fault most com- 
mon in writing the lower loop lette'rs 
is, slanting the loop too much. If, as is 
often the case, this fault be the result of 
turning the hand over to the right, or, be- 
cause the third and fourth fingers are not 
drawn back under the middle of the hand 
away from ihe first and second fingers, to 
allow them unobstructed play in making 
descending strokes, the only remedy is to 
correct the position— to thus remove the 
cause of the defect. 

Copy 3, gives word-practice on the let- 
ters Just taught. Other words giving such 
practice may also be written. Such words 
as the following: ;usi, justice; yours (ruty; 
faith, faithful; amaze, amazing; good, 
goodness, etc. 

Be careful that you do not make your 
loops too long below the ruled Hue— must 
not exceed two i spaces— or thoy will in- 
terfere with the short letters on the line 
below; which is a serioua fault, one that 
gives writing a confused, tangled appcar- 



, signs and punc- 

n greater import- 
cause they are so 
;■ important 



Copy 1 is a movement exercise, which 
may be profitably traced lightly, with the 
dry pen, and then practiced freely with ink, 
forming and joining the letters throughout 
tbe combination with combined movements 
and making the compound sweeps left and 
right with forearm movement. Put vim 
into this exercise, and continue until you 
can execute it easily and well. Observe 
that the loops are the same in width as the 
small o's, and on the same slant. 

Coi'Y 2 requires study before practice. 
Ruled slant lines before the page, and head- 
lines, each an i-space above the base line, 
will assist in securing correct slant and 
bight. Again, study ilie relation between 
short and extended lettci-s: See how the 
first and second strokes of i and its dot 
apply in^'j how the third, fourth and fiftli 
strokes in n form also the part of y; liow 
the first four strokes of a apply in ^; how 
the first and second strokes of « apply in /, 
and the o, lengthened to 2i spaces, forms 
the lower luUf of/. Also, see in the mon- 
ogram bow all extended letters, both above 
and below the ruled line, depend upon the 
loop as their principal stem. Observe that 
; has no shade, that y, g, s and /are each 
slightly shaded 
on their second 

strokes. Make .^^--^ ^^Pi^, 
all the strokes 
of the letters ' ■ ' ' 

with prompt ^-^l^ l^iy, .^J^m>^t^, 



Copy 4 teaches figu; 
tuation marks: 

The figures are of < 
ance than the letters, 
often employed to she 

They should always be unmistakable. If 
a letter in a word is uncertain, its charactei 
may be determined by 
it is not so with figures— they 
ent characters. 

The figure 1, if commenced on the left 
with a short oblique stroke, as is often seen, 
is liable to be mistaken for a seven or a 
nine; and a nauglit, 0, made with its right 



side shortened, is liable to be mistaken for 
a 6. 

The copy shows all the figures, except 
tbe tj, to be one and one-half times the 
i-space in bight. It shows the 6 to be 
half a space higher, and the 7 and y to be 
half a space longer below the line. 

Analyze the figures, naming their con- 
stituent elements— the straight line, right 
curve, and left curve; also, study forms and 
proportions, and observe that each has a 
slight shade. 

Learning to make the figures correctly 
may be greatly facilitated by placing trans- 
parent- paper or tracing-linen over the cojiy, 
and writing upon that, guided by the cor- 
rect forms beneath. Then the pupil may 
write the figures upon his transparent-paper 
away from the copy, and correct by placing 
the copy and amending them to 






Copy 5 

Practice ii 



Squares. 



The Figures 

irriting the figures in squares 
has been found excellent for the purpose of 



/O 


/ 


.9. 


r? 


^ 


ri 


"^ 


w\ 


















r 


^ 


fi 


/ 


^ 


r^ 


// 


^f 


















/f? 


7 


r 


47 


^ 


/ 


-2 


4 


















^ 


ri 


7o 


7 


r 


^7 


fi 


/ 












' 





securing jiroper bight, spacing, and vertical 
columns. Draw a square four medium ruled 
spaces in bight, which is just one and one- 
half inches. Be careful to have the four 



sides equal. Divide the square by vertical 
and horizontal lines into fourths, then into 
sixteentlis, then into sixty-fourths, accord- 
ing to model. With pen and ink write in 
the figures like the copy. The bight of all, 
exce])t the 6, should be three-fourths the 
bight of the squares. The <i should be 
the full hight of a square, and the 7 and 
9 extend below base line one-fourth of a 
square. 

Copy 6. Letters Simplified. "To 
save time is to lengthen life," some one has 
truly said. In this copy we show how the 
labor of writing may be materially dimin- 
ished and much valuable time saved to the 
\VTiter. This Is done, mainly, by omitting 
the first upward stroke in upper loop letters, 
and in other letters that have top angular 
joinings at the beginning of words, as in o, 
&- c, d, /, g, h, i, j, k, I, 0, p, t,u,w; also, 
by omitting the last cun-e from lower loop 
letters occurring at the end of words, and 
from short letters where their essential char- 
acter is -not affected thereby, as in/, g, o, s, 
y, r, final in copy. 

The final d in and, r in Aw, p in peep, 
t in tint, in copy, are modified in form to 
secure greater simplicity. In the figures a 
saving of strokes is made in the 2, 3, 5, 7; 
and 8 is somewhat simplified by beginning 
with a shorter loft curve, descending and 
completing with tlie usual compound curve. 

Thus you have, in a nutshell, the method 
by which time and labor can be readily 
saved in writing the small letters and figures. 

Study and practice will soon put you in 
possession of the art thus simplified. 

In lessons to follow we shall teach the 




S^^C "Woids embracing loop letters, "Mind loop cEossmgs- 
•yvC- TheIigures,eic,Ulnd6i2e,Elia£e,9laQtft:Shade. _ 

/' 



^/^^/2< 




To be able to write a letter — elegant and 
appropriate— in all the numerous depart- 
ments of correspondence, is a most desirable 
and useful accomplishment to either lady or 
A letter reflects largely the 
character and attainments of its author. 
One slovenly, careless or awkward in his 
writing is very likely to bo so in other 
things, while the degree and quality of his 
mind as well as education, refinement, and 
even amiability of character, are sure to bo 
made manifest in any extended correspond- 
Not only is such an accomplishment a 
most potent agcn<-y for opening avenues to 
employment and success in a business point 
of view, but it is a most pleasing and fruit- 
ful source of friendly and social enjoyment. 



It 



watched by 
crilioal c.y 



_^/^-*%^ -^U^U^, 









cities, with mer- 
chants, profes- 
sional men and 



^^ /^^ ^^y^^. ^^ , /aj^/j'S/ff^/j, 



An I aouitNAi; 



^^rTSr^ 



assistanta, io seek them tliroiigh ndvertisp- 
raenta in our iltiily papers, directing appli- 
cAiita to mliiress in their own hand writing, 
and hy tlie character of such communica- 
tions the applicants are judged, and fairly, 
we dare say, in most iustances. 

The experienced man of husiness, tlie 
astute lawyer, or other professionals, reads 
in these com umnicat ions, almost unerr- 
ingly, the talent, attainnicuts and goneriil 
character of their authors. Such letters 
reveal— /«(, as a matter of obsorva' 
the artistic skill and literary attainments of 
the writer; second, by inference, his generiil 
taste and judgment. The inference is 
drawn from all the attendant circumstances : 
from the selection of writing-materials to 
the superscription and affixing of the juist- 
age-st&mp. 

Perhaps there are one hundred applicants 
for a pusilion; one is chosen; juat «'hy, he 
will not know; while ninoty-nine will bo 
left to wonder why their application was 
unsuccessful. Some were bad writers, some 
Tere bad spellers; one made a fatiil rcvehi- 
tion of his lack of good taste and judgment 
by selecting a largo-sized letter or foolscap 
sheet of paper, which he folded many times 
and awkwardly to go into a very small- 
sized envelope, upon which the superscrip- 
tion was so located as to leave no place for 
a postapo-starap upon the upper right-hand 
corner, where it should be; it was thorefor(f 
placed at the lower left-hand corner, and 
head downwards. The poat-office clerk, 
from force of habit, of course strikes with 
his canceling- stamp upon the envelope 
where the postage -stamp should be, thus 
disfiguring the superscription. Another 
wrote, with red ink, a large sprawling hand ; 
while another covered three pages with 
awkward, ungrammnlical composition, 
where half a page properly composed would 
have suiEced. One touched off his wilting 
with a profusion of flourishes and other 
suporfluities; another waited long for a re- 
sponse that could not be given from his 
omission to name the street and number of 
his residence. And so to the end of the 
list, each MTiter has, through faults of omis- 
r the excellencies of 
I proved, or disproved, to 
the satisfaction of a would-bc employer, 
his ciipability and fitness to render satis- 
factory service, and has accordingly gained 
or failed to gain place and favor. 

In view of the great importance of this 
subject, and its very iutimate relation to 
good peuinauship, we have deemed H a fit- 
ting theme for a series of articles or lessons 
in a penman's paper; and especially so in 
view of the fact that thousands of this jour- 
nal's readers are yet pupils in our public or 
private schools, and are, therefore, favorably 
circumstanced to profit most fully by such a 
course. It will be our earnest endeavor to 
render thr articles as interesting and prac- 
tical as poNtiible. They will be accompanied 
with numerous illustrations and examples, 
photo engraved from care fully -prepared 
pen-and-ink copy, illustrative of every de- 
partment of correspondence. 

In our next article we shall present the 
subject in its general aspect, treating upon 
those things which are essential to all de- 
partments of letter-writing— such as the 
selection of material, style of composition, 
and method of arrangement of the several 
parts of a letter, superscription, etc., with 
proper illustrations. 

The "Hand-book" (in paper) is mailed 
free to every person remitting $1.U0 for 
a subscription or renewal to the Journal 
for one year, or, for $1.25, the book hand- 
somely bound in cloth. Price of the book, 
by mail, in cloth, $1 j in paper, 75 cent*. 
Liberal discount to teachers and agents. 



For $2 the Journal will be mailed one 
year; also, a copy each uf the "Standard 
PracticMil Penmanship" and the "Hand- 
book of Artistic Penmanship " ( in paper 
covers; 25 cents extra in cloth). Price 
each, separate, $1. 



Society to Encourage Studies 
at Home. 
Bv Mary K. Martin. 
To some, the hearing of this society may 
be an oft-told tale ; and if any one is ready 
to cry out " piper's news," we do not mind, 
for we are not writing to you. But when 
the Journal is whirled away from the 
great throbbing city — whirled on and on, 
over hill and valley, until it finds its way to 
some home where a tired mother sits 
with that overflowing, never-ending, 
basket of mending before her, — as she tears 
the wrapper from the paper that has still 
about it the atmosphere of the printing-room, 
and as she says, desperately, "I will read 
it, if the mending is never done" — mon 
ami, w© are writing to you. Writing, be- 
cause we cannot come in and tell you that 
you, who were sought out in marriage be- 
cause you were so blight and intelligent, 
and now, cut ofl" by so many cares, feel 
yourself growing rusty — that this need not 
be. We write to tell you that there is a 
society that you may join, and, without 
leaving your home, come in contact with 
the most intellectual, the most cultured la- 
dies of our country ; have their direction in 
any branch of study that you may choose 
to take up ; have an inierchange of thought 
that, perhaps, the conventionalities of life 
might prevent, even if you were in the 
habit of meeting. To some teacher, anx- 
ious above all things for a finished educa- 
tion at Vassar or some other college, we 
offer to you in this society all and more 
than any university course could give you. 
The"e is no reason why everything should 
look so dark before you, your heart's de- 
sire can be obtained. To some young per- 
son who has seen her dream of an education 
slip away in the hand-to-hand struggle of a 
"bread winner," make life brighter for 
yourself by joining this society; you will 
bless the day you did. 

It was the English society of a similar 
name, in 1873, that gave the idea to the 
originators of this society; yet our Ameri- 
can society has been worked upon a plan 
much improved. The English society at 
that time only reached out to the wealthy 
classes ; the society in America has always 
held out its hands to all. The object of this 
society is to induce ladies to form the habit 
of devoting some part of every day to study 
of a systematic and thorough kind. It takes 
up all branches not elementary. A student 
may take up a course of history, science, art, 
English, German, or French, literature— 
either or all, as she may wish. After a 
student writes for admission to this society, 
and selects a course, her name is at once 
sent to the teacher who has charge of that 
course, and at ouce enters upon a study that is 
delightful, and finds a friend and advisor in 
her instructor. Their plan is to have the 
student read or study a certain amount each 
day ; on the next mornii'g, before opening 
the book, write from memory all that has 
been studied the day bafore. At first one 
may be rather chagrined to find out what a 
sieve their memory will he; but it would 
be a stupid being who could go through a 
winter's study without this plan giving them 
a well-trained memory. Each student is 
required to make an abstract of every hook , 
road, and a printed examination-list is sent, 
which, on honor, the student must pass with- 
out reference to the book. 

This society has just gone beyond its first 
decade ; during all that time Miss A. E. 
Ticknor, No. {) Park Street, Boston, Mass., 
has been the secretary, tu whom all ap- 
plications should be made. This society 
has a monthly, quarterly, and yearly meet- 
ing. To the yearly meeting, at the home of 
the secretary, all students are invited. Cov- 
ering the ground of thirty-nine States and 
some territories, the number of attendants 
must be small ; but at a meeting on the first 
Thursday in June, 1882, tltere were present 
ninety-eight students, sixty-six ladies of the 

June of the present year, sixty-two students 
and fifty-four ladies, who carry on the in- 
struction. The society has now a Lending 



Library of over 1,400 volumes. It speaks 
well for the students that, although the 
mails are constantly circulating these books, 
only five have been lost through careless- 
ness of students. 

As high as nine hundred students have 
been enrolled for one year; yet in the very 
nature of the work this number must some- 
times vary. Fifteen per cent, of this num- 
ber have been professional teachers — many 
of tliem trained in normal schools. A very 
gratifying thought is, that a large jtropor- 
tion of the number of students have been 
married ladies, showing that with advancing 
years there is no desire to stop the growth 
of the mind. In the much discussed ques- 
tion of the higher education of women, 
could there be anything better than this 
sheltered way of obtaining instruction f 

This whole work is a labor of love, being 
entirely free, except an entrance-fee of three 
dollars to cover postage, etc. We mention 
our own connection with the society only 
because we know that to tell of a thing 
lived brings a matter more vividly before 
the njind than a simple statement of facts. 
The benefit we derive from the society is 
only the testimony of one; while esch mail 
carries to Miss Ticknor the glad tidings of 
how much she is doing for all. 

It was in the very early years of the ex- 
istence of this society that we found our- 
selves the centre of church-work in a small 
Western town. Circumstances which we 
could not control had placed us there; and 
as far as we could see into the/uture, (here 
we were likely to remain— very likely to 
remain^shut up in this narrow space — fif- 
teen hundred miles from every relative, 
from all early association* ; cut ofi" from all 
companionship that was congenial. You 
may say we had our work that should have 
filled all of our craving nature. That is 
true; but human nature is so organized 
that one may have the highest work before 
them, and carry every duty out with faithful 
minuteness, and yet long with unutterable 
longing, as we did, for intellectual society 
and for daily contact with congenial people. 
We had come from a home of unusual re- 
finement — we had no recollection of ever 
having a pointed cjuestion asked us before 
this time ; yet the people we were now with 
took such an interest (f ) in us that the time 
was not long before the very sight of an 
interrogation point would make us wince. 
So it seemed like reaching an oasis in the 
desert that one rainy drizzly day, as we 
stood near a window looking out on the 
long stretch of wooden sidewalk and at the 
frantic struggles of the horses to pull 
through the mud of the road tliat seemed 
bottomless, a uew magazine was placed in 
our hands. Almost the first thing that met 
our eye M'as a paragraph about this society. 
It was just what we needed. We joined, 
taking up the Art course ; and the lovely- 
minded lady whom we had for correspon- 
dent little knew hi»w she and her letters 
were filling up the blank places of our lives. 
We took up such works as Kugler, Lubko 
and Winkleman. What did it matter now 
if our manifold duties on some days would 
keep us from opening a book until the 
night was far advanced? When the time 
came, no maiden ever flew with quicker 
step or happier heart to meet her lover than 
we to some room where we could shut our- 
selves up with our books. Often and often 
the "wee sma hours" would find us just 
finishing our allotted task, and as we closed 
our books and looked into the fire before us, 
in deep reverie, we saw no visions like 
"Ik Marvel," but before us would rise up, 
in grand procession, the paintings of Ka- 
phael, Michael Angelo, Leonardo da Vinci, 
and Titian. 

The grand, noble woman, who is the sole 
representative of thl^ society, has no need 
of a tribute; she stands as priestess to the 
many women who, year after year, come 
before her. She stands as Vesta, the em- 
blem of life-nourishing warmth, whose 
statue was at the entrance of every dwell- 
ing. She, like Vesta of old, has kindled, 
and is maintaining, a fire that will never go : 



out. If the time comes when "Woman's 
Sufl'rage" is a fact, and not a (luestion, she, 
in this invisible leaven that has been at 
work for ten years in our land, will have 
done more to fit women intellectually than 
all the orations from political platform, or 
inflatnmable books that could be written. 



Our 



Men of Many Millions. 



I Homan Ach 



day. Pythes, i 
of C'elicnn-, W!i: 
returned from 
S500,n00,t)(JO. 



We occasionally read interesting i 
of the wealth and extravagant expenditures 
of our railway kings, bonanza kings, and 
other financial kings. There is a certain 
fascination in these descriptions of immense 
possessions and the personal characteristics 
and traits of those who control them. That 
Vanderbilt pays a small fortune for a pic- 
ture; that Mrs. Astor wears diamonds 
worth $200,000, aud that Mrs. Mackey 
gives a dinner at a cost of .§25,000, are facts 
which to the popular mind have a peculiar 
charm. And undoubtedly there is an im- 
pression in some quarters that the amassing 
of enormous wealth and the attendant ex- 
travagances are things of comparatively 
modern growth. How ftlr this impression 
is from the truth may be seen by a glance 
at history, which in this respect is really 
comforting to us poor devils of the present 
or Pythius, the Ly<lian lord 
3 worth *1(;,000,000. Cyrus 
the conquest of Asia with 
Darius, during his reign, 
had an income of .* 14,500,000 a year. The 
votive otTerings of Cro'sus to the Delphian 
god amounted to $4,000,000. Alexander's 
daily meal cost $1,700. He paid the debts 
of his soldiers, amounting 1o at least $10,- 
000,000, aud made a present of $2,500,000 
to the Thessalians. The obsequies of 
Hepbii-9tian are said to have cost $1,500, 
000. Aristotle's investigations in natural 
history involved an expense of $1,000,000. 
Alexander left beliiud him a treasure of 
$50,000,000. The wealth of his satraps was 
extraordinary. One of them, Harpalus, ac- 
cumulated $5,000,000. A festival of Ptol- 
emy Philadelphus did not cost less than 
$2,239,000. The treasure of this king 
amounted to $;175,000,000. There was 
immense M'ealth among the Hoinaus. The 
landed estate of Crassis was valued at $8,- 
500,000, and his house cost $400,000. 
Civt^iUus Isidorus lost much, still left $5,- 
235,000. Demetrius, a freedman of Pom- 
pey, was worth $4,000,000. Lentulus, the 
augur, possessed no less than $17,000,000. 
Clodius paid $010,000 for his house, and 
he once swallowed a pearl worth $40,000. 
Antony squandered altogether $735,000,- 
000. Tiberius left, at his death, .4118,120,- 
000, and Caligula spent it all in b ss than a 
year. The extravagant Caligula paid $J50,- 
000 for one sujiper. Speaking of suppers, 
one meal cost Heltogabalus $100,000, and 
the supper of Lucullus at the Apollo cost 
$8,330. Pegellus, a singer, could and did 
spend $40,000 in five days. Seneca had a 
fortune of $17,.=j00,000. Apisius was worth 
about $5,000,000, and after he had spent in 
his kitchen and otherwise squandered sums 
to the amount of $4, ICO, 000, he poisoned 
himself, leaving a few hundred thousands. 
Tacitus informs us that Nero gave away 
in presents to his friends, $!>7,500,00't. The 
dresses of LoUia Paulina, the rival of Agrip- 
pina, were valued at $1,064,480. I his did 
not include her jewels. She wore at one 
supppr $i,(itii;,500 worth of jewels, and it 
waR a jdaiu citizen's supper. She was worth 
altoeeiher $200,000,000. The luxury of 
Pappji', beloved by Nero, was at least equal 
to that of Lollia. Pallas, the lover of Agrip- 
pina, left an estate in lands valued at $15, 
000,000, and this was only a small part of 
his immense fortune. The villa was burned 
by his slaves out of revenge for some injury. 
— Cincinnati Star. 

Subscribor.s wishing to have their address 
changed, should be careful to give both the 
old and new address. 



An I rlOriSNAI 



Fifty-seven Years in Harness. 

A limr.KAriiicAi. Skctcii ok 

Plioj. A. R. DiiNjii.v. 

By J. P. CoWLES, M.D , Camden, Maine. 

The task of preparing a sketch of Prof. 
Dunton's life and laliors, as a pen-artist, 
has been assigned to me, and documents 
plaeed at my disposal from which to gatlier 
tlie facts. Tlie most dilHcult part of this 
wririt i^ to so abbreviate the life-long story 
of an active pioneer as to bring it within 
the proper limits of a monthly periodical 
liite the Journal. 

Alvin Bobbins Dunton was born in Hope 
Waldo (now Knox) County, .Maine, in 
181.3 — consequently lie is seventy years of 
age, well preserved, and as active as ever 
in the prosecution of bis life-work as a 
penman and pen-artist. His father, Abner 
Dunton, was a well todo furmer, and Al- 
vin was brought up as a tiller of the soil. 
At a very early period in life Prof Dun- 
ton exliibited a rare fondness for the use of 
the pen. In those early days when the 
goosequill was the pen in use, Alvin would 
go into the schoolroom with a handful of 
these quills, which he had previously pre- 
pared for use, and, seated at his desk, com- 
mence to try them; when one was found 
which made a mark to snit.he would com- 
mence to write, and never seem to tire of 
this escrciso. hut continue t.. write tlie en- 
tire day with the most joyous .satisfaction. 
He had paid s.i nmch attention to writing, 
and had acquired such an cscellent style, 
that at the age of thirteen- years he so far 
surpassed the teachers of Iiis district-school 
that he was employed to write the copies 
in the writing-books and make t le pons. 
It should be remembered that at that early 
day the present style of copy-books were 
not in use ; but teachers wrote at the head 
of each page a copy, as a guide for the pu- 
pil to write from ; consequently, at every 
change of teacher the style of writing was 
changed. But Prof. Dunton would never 
follow anyone's style; therefore never had 
a teacher in peninanship. 

As be became more interested in the art 
he became dissatisfied with the styles then 
in use— tlie most promluent of which were 
the old English round licavy hand and the 
sharp angular style. He discarded the first 
as being impracticable for rapid writing, 
and the second because in rapid execution 
it became unintelligible. Being thus l»ft 
without a guide, he built up a system 
which was essentially and truly his own— 
a style which fell between the two ex- 
tremes of the old, thus producing at that 
early age praclicitlly the same hand he 
writes to-day, and which appears in all his 
published works. The writer has had an 
opportunity to examine some of Dunton's 
early penmansliip, and the only difterenco 
observable in his style .as it was, compared 
with what it is to day, is that a greater 
degree of elegnnce is observed in the for- 
mation of some of the capital letters — this 
im|uoveuient appearing mostly in the shad- 
int; and turns of the steins. 

As luis .already been intimated, Professor 
Dunton commenced his active career as a 
penman and pen-artist at tlie ago of tliir- 
tceu years; but it was not until im that 
he commenced teaching the art as a pio- 
les.<.ion, being then twenly-two years of 
uge. At this time he opened his first 
si'liool at Hales Mills, Mass. Prom this 
lieginning he traveled through the New 
England, some of the Western, Middle, 
and Southern States, teaching what he 
considered a very groat improvement on 
the old styles of penmanship, and also 
upon the manner of teaching it. 

In 1841, or thereabouts, he commenced 
visiliiig the various schools, in the interest 
of penmanship, which led to the discovery 
that the pupils wore writing as many dif- 
fvrcnt styles as there were teachers, with 
but few, if any, good writers among ihein, 
while the manner of teaching was in no 
way calculated to inspire the pupil with a 
love for the art. Ho therefore conceived 
the idea of uniformity of style as a wcMsily 



to general good penmanship, together with 
an imjiroved mode of imparling iustructiim 
as an accompanying necessity, and took 
upon himself the task to bring about this 
very desirable result — to accom])lidi which 
everywhere be went be formed classes and 
writing organizations. In teaching these 
classes ami organizations, he established 
what he denominated "concert drill," which 
consisted in every pupil using the same 
kind of ink, the satne kind „f pen, paper, 
anil all taking the same position at the 
desk, pens all held in tlie same manner; 
then, in a uniform movement as a military 
drill, at the word of command the pen6 
were carried to the inkstand ; on a second 
order they took ink, and on a third broueht 
the pens back in position for writing. The 
first movement he taught was the arm- 
movement ; then, arm and finger cotnbined. 
In this exercise the whole class were re- 
quired to make the movements in concert 
with a regularity similar to beating time 
for music. This practice was continued 
until it became familiar, thus giving the 



and tnuglit it in a large number of public 
schools aud to private classes, with marked 

As an illustration of Prof. Dunton'? per- 
fect penmanship, the following circuin- 
j stance -is related: In J840 an Englislimnn, 
by the name of Bristow, was teaching pen- 
mansliip in Boston, Mass., who placed 
in the Mechanics' Fair specimens of liis 
penmanship. When Professor Dunton saw 
them, ho placed in the Institute some spe- 
cimeus of his own executiou. Mr. Bristow 
discovering them, went to the judges and 
represented tliat Prof. Dunton was perpe- 
trating a fraud upon them, in that the spe- 
cimens of writing enterca as his own were 
copper- plate ; adding, that it was out of tho 
power of man to execute, with the pen, 
work of such excellence. The judges oiled 
upon the professor, and repeated what Mr. 
Bristow had said. Prof. Dunton's reply 
was; "I'll show you that it can bo done." 
Thereupon he took pen and paper and exe- 
cuted, ill the presence of the judges, finer 
I'pccimens than tho.se he had placed on ex- 



<m 



%' 



W«i 




ils an easy, free, and graceful movc- 
t of the pen. At the opening of each 
on, it was the professor's custom to 
spend a short time in reviving tlie previous 
lesson; then the students were carried 
through the various movements in a pro- 
gressive order, until they were all attained. 
Whether this plan of teaching was ever 
practiced before him he knows n<it; but if 
it had been he was not aware of it • conse- 
quently, so far as he is concerned, the plan 
was entirely original with himself. 

Wherever ho went his manner of teach- 
mg and his style of writing was recognized 
and adopted as the most practical of any 
that had preceded him ; for instead of its 
making a few good writers, all who con- 
tinued to practice acquired a good, easy, 
and rapid style of penmansliip. 

In order to more thoroughly perfect this 
plan of uniformity in teaching and writing, 
and in ord-r to give it a wider field for 
cultivation than he alone could cover, he 
published, in 1843, in New Orleans, La , 
a series of copies intended for four books : 
two for the use of ladies, aud two for gen- 
tlemen. Since that year Prof. A. K, Dun- 
ton, and pupils taugiit by him, have intro- 
duced tho Dantonian System of Peuinau- 
ship into the schools of many of tho States, 



hibition. The result was that Prof. Dun- 
ton received a medal as the first premium 
for offliand and commercial penmanship. 
Prof. Dunton's career as a penman has 
not been confined entirely to scrip penman- 
ship, hut very considerably to that of a 
pen-artist, in which capacity he will rate 
second to none. Among his noted works 
of this typo may Tie mentioned a piece, in 
eommemoraticm of the opening or com- 
pletion of the Union Pacific K.E., executed 
in isee or '67, and presented to Dr. Duran, 
who was then president of the road. Tliis 
piece was 4x5 feet in size, and for the 
planning and execution of which Professor 
Dunton received $1,000. Another of his 
masterpieces was one designed and executed 
for Harrison Do Silver, of Philadelphia, a 
photograph copy of which tho writer lias 
in his possession, and is finer than any 
steel engraved work ho ever examined. In 
this jiieoc is a portrait of Mr. I)e Silver, 
which is in every respect as fine and per- 
fect as a photograph, and yet it was exe- 
cuted entirely with a steel-pen. His last 
effort of this kintl has just been comjileted, 
and considering that ho is now seventy 
years of jige, is very remarkable, for it is 
fully equal to any of Ills previous works. 
This is a commemoi^atlve piece in honor of 



Thomas Sherwin, Esq., of Boston, who 
was headmaster of the Boys' High School 
in that city for thirty-five years. The por- 
traits of Mr. Slierwin, Dr. Lolhrop, who 
ivas chuirman of the high school for twenty 
odd years, and John D. Phillirick, Esq., 
who was superintendent many years, are 
worked in the cap -piece with the pen. 
Among the specimens still in his own po.s- 
session is a picture of himself, worked en- 
tirely with a pen, which is s^rcely inferior 
in any particular, to a photograph. Heads, 
faces, flowers, wreaths, fruits, aud all kinds 
of ornamental work have been, and ari! still, 
executed by him, which work is equal, in 
every particular, to tho finest and most 
delicate steel-engraving. 

As a teaohor of plain, fancy, and orna- 
mental penmanship. Prof. Dunton has been 
a success from first to last. Ho lias not 
only fonncd classes of his own in nearly all 
of the Now England St.ales, most of the 
Middle and Smithern, and many of the 
Western, States ; hut in nearly nil of these 
he has been employed in tho institutes and 
colleges as a professor of penm.aiiship, to 
teach this beautiful .art. When conducting 
private class or a public school Ills man- 
Br is such and he throws so much enthu- 
asm into his work th.at it is a very dull 
head, indeed, that docs not improve. It 
has been the writer's privilege and pleasure 
to examine and criticise many specimens 
of pen-work which have been e.Kecutcd by 
pupils while under his instruction, and tliey 
are always of a superior jirder of workman- 
ship. 

But I cannot do justice to the subject of 
this sketch without making mention of the 
professor's ability as an expert or detcrtive 
of disputed signatures In fact, anything 
and everything which comes under tho 
touclt of a pen or pencil he is faniifiar 
with. As an expert on disputed paper he 
rarely, if ever, makes mistakes. He comes 
to conclusions. a« to tlie genuineness or 
otherwise of signatures submitted to lii;ii, 
without any regard to which side of the 
case he is employed by, or what conclusions 
others may have arrived at. 

For many years past Professor Dunton's 
teaching has been confined to advanced 
students and t<i teachers of the art, al- 
though he has taught a few classes in his 
native and surrounding towns, and while 
these lines nre being penned he is in Bos- 
ton, giving instruction to toachera and to 
the schools. Without detracting anything 
from others who have done a noble work 
in the same field of labor, it may truly bo 
said that Prof A. R, Dunton has been the 
great pioneer of penmanship in the Eiisl as 
Prof P. li. Spencer has been iu tlio West. ' 



Reliable, Standard, and Complete. 

On the occasion of delivering an educa- 
tional address, President Garfield very aptly 
designated the Spencerian as " that system 
of penmanship which has become the pride 
of our cuntry and mo.lel of our schools." 

lis latest complete American edition, pre- 
pared for the Journal by tho Spencerian 
Brothers, is a reliable and popular publica- 
tion for self-instruction. 

It is not sold to the book-trade, but mailed 
direct to students, accountants, merchants, 
hankers, lawyers, and professional men gen- 
erally, on receipt of $1. 

The work embra 
course, in plain style: 
their direct applicati 
correspondence, book-keeping, etc., etc. 
If not found superior to other styled si 
instructors in writing, the purchase price v 
be refunded. 



a comprehensi 
'riting, and giv 



Fact. 



IDd (111 Ibelr big imrode. 



AH I JOIKNAI. 



^^fe^r 



Educational Notes. 

for tliis Department may 



Culumbia College has 1,857 students. 

The Nortliwestera Uaivereily, EvauBton, 
111., last year enrolled 8(il, and graduated 
170. 

Most devoutly wished for: "A school- 
house on every hill-top and no saloon in 
the valley." 

The sales of Webster's Bpelling-boolt, 
from its first publication to date, aggregate 
75,000,000 copies. 

The Fresbuian Class at Amherst numbers 
(i5; at Smith College, 70; at Yale, 70, 
and at Harvard, 185. 

By a recent decision of the University of 
Bombay, women are hereafter to be admit- 
ted to the learned professions in India. 

Cornell claims that she employs the only 
professor in the Uuited Slates who devotes 
his time exclusively to American history. 

Cornell University has made arrange- 
ments to give instruction hy direct corres- 
]iondence between instructor and instructed. 

St. Paul's School, Garden City, is believed 
to be the finest educational structure in the 
world. It has accommodation for 500 pupils. 

A large river, hitherto unknown to geo- 
graphers, has been discovered in Alaska. 
The Indians say it is more than 1,500 miles 
to its source. 

There were fifty candidates for the medi- 
cal degrees of the College of Physicians of 
Dublin, the other day, of whom two were 
girls. One of these, a daughter of the late 
Dr. Kenealy, excelled all other competitors. 

lo the Greek language every letter stands 
for a number. G stands for 3, L for 30, A 
for 1, D for 4, S for 200, T for 300, O 
(short) for "0, N for 50, and E (long) for 
8. The sum of these numbers is ecti, 
which is the mystical number assigned in 
the Apocalypse to the Beast. 

Prof. Cohn, of Breslau, believes that 
slates lead to short-sightedness, and would 
substitute pen and ink, or an artificial white 
slate with black pencil, manufactured io 
Pilsen. Black or white is proved by ex- 
periment to stand out most clearly to the 
eye. The Zurich School Board forbids 
slates. They are noisy, and invite dirty 
habits in erasure. 

A writer iu the North American Review 
saya that "out of one hundred boys and 
^girls who go to the primary schools only 
about fifty go any further up the educational 
grade. About thirty advance as far as the 
grammar schools, while not more than three 
of the original one hundred who began at 
the bottom of the ladder ever reach the top 
aud enter the high schools. 

The following are the amounts from the 
Peabody fund distributed in the several 
States in the past year for public schools, 
normal schools and colleges, teachers' insti- 
tutrs, Nashville scholarships, etc., Alabama, 
$5,755; Arkansas, $4,050; Florida, $2,- 
025; Georgia, $5,950 ; Louisiana, $2,125; 
Missiaeippi, $4,400; North Carolina, $8,- 
H50; South Carolina, $4,225; Tennessee, 
$12,600; Texas, $I3,(J00; Virginia, $4,- 
125; West Virginia, $3,100. Total, $71,- 
J75. One hundred Normal scholarships 
have been established in the Nashville Uni- 
versity. 

Th« Kentucky superintendent of schools 



A recent circular of the Bureau of Edu- 
cation shows that of sixty principal coun- 
tries, Ireland heads the list, with an average 
of tweuty per cent, of her population of 
5,159,82it attending school. The United 
States comes second with a percentage of 
nineteen and three-fifths of a population of 
50,155,783. The next in line is Germany 
with fifteen and nine-tenths of a population 
of 45,149,172. England and Wales are be- 
low even Switzerland. liussia sends but 
one and oue-half per cent, of her population 
of 78,500,000 to school. 

France spends $5 for war every time she 
spends thirty-five cents for education I 
That is a great deal worse than Prussia, 
where $5.49 is for war against $2.20 for 
education. But little Switzerland makes 
the best showing among European powers, 
where $4.84 is expended for public defence, 
against $4.10 for educating the people. 
Russia is worse than France, the figures 
being six cents for education to $5,08 for 
war, and no other nation stands in as unen- 
viable light. No wonder that absolutism 
can be sustained in Russia. 



Educational Fancies. 

[ In every iuBtance where the source of any 



this departmeii 

IB given. A like coiiriesy from 
others will be appreciated.] 



fun 



Of 






hundred of the Slate's population, fifteei 
cannot read,, Of every one hundred whites 
over ten years old, fifteen cannot write. 
Of every one hundred negroes over ten 
years of age, fifteen cannot write. Of 
every one hundred men over twenty-one 
years old, seventeen cannot write. Of 
every one hundred negro men over twenty- 
one years old, seventy-five cannot write. 
The whole number of men over tweuty-ooo 
years who cannot write forme an array of 
76,221. 



A. B. in a lady's diploma — " after bach- 
elors." — Educational Secord. 

A Boston girl was recently asked a ques- 
tion in Greek and she did not understand it. 

The fallowing is extracted from a smart 
boy's composition on "Babies": "The 
mother's heart gives 4th joy at the baby's 
Ist 2tb." 

A little girl being asked on the first day 
of school how she liked her new teacher, 
replied: "I don't like her; she is just as 
saucy to me as my mother." 

A woman placed four pounds of cold 
meat and eight slices of bread before a 
tramp. At the end of twenty minutes how 
mijch was \ek1— Detroit Free Press. 

A primary teacher who asked one of her 
pupils the difference between goose and 
geese received this answer : "One geese is 
a goose and a whole lot of gooses is geese." 

Jack: " Look here. Bill ! if one of them 
HarristocratB was to tell you to mind your 
P'$ and I's what would you tell himt 
. Bill: " Well, I should tell him to mind 
his I's." 

If a generous but ugly boy give his 
younger brother "60" for stealing one of 
his apples, and that night the apples give 
him "sixty "2, how many apples did the 
younger brother receive f — Danbury News. 

The editor of an Iowa paper offers to 
send his photograph to any female teacher 
who will send him the news from her town- 
ship ; another Iowa editor advises the teach- 
ers to take up the offer, as the picture will 
do to scare bad schoolboys. 

Scene in a chemistry recitation. Profes- 
sor: Mr. , please give the non-atomic 

list. Mr. : Mercury, cadmium, zinc, and 

— and — [faint whisper from fellow-student, 

"harrium"] Mr. , triumphantly : "Bay 

rum." — Roanoke Collegian. 

In a San Francisco school the other day 
the question, "Who was Iho father of his 
country?" was answered by one-half the 
children, "George Washington." The 
other half yelled, "Dennis Kearney." This 
shows that Kearney's infiuence is declining. 

A housewife sold a coat to a peddler for a 
vase worth nine cents, a pair of boots tor 
a china dog worth six cents, and a vest for 
a glass bottle worth four cents; how much 
did she receive for all, and how much over 
$9 clear profit did the peddler make? — 
Detroit Free Press. 

Noah Webster was a celebrated author. 
He was a quick and ready writer, aud iu one 
of his inspired moments he dashed off a dic- 
tionary. He took it to several publishers, 



but they shied at it, saying the style was 
dull, dry, turgid, hard and uninteresting, 
and, besides that, he used too many big 
words. But at last Noah succeeded and the 
immortal work is in daily use propping up 
babies at the dinner table. 

An Austin young lady, who has enjoyed 
the advantages of a classical education at a 
Northern female college, happened to be at 
home when her aged grandmother was 
stricken down with a fatal illness. The en- 
tire family gathered around the death-bed of 
the old lady, who, in a feeble voice, said : 

" Good-by to you all, I am gwioe ter peg 

" Grandmother ! " exclaimed the young 
lady, in a tragic tone of voice, "please 
don't say that. Don't say you are gwine to 
peg out. Say you are going to expire or 
that you contemplate approaching dissolu- 
tion. It sounds so much better." — Texas 
SiJ tings. 

Here is a boy's composition on Fall: 
This is fall, because it falls on this season 
of the year. Leaves fall too, as well as 
thermometers and the price of straw hats. 
Old topers, who sign the pledge in summer, 
are liable to fall when a fall of cider-making 
opens, for straws show which way cider 
goes. Husking corn is erne of the pleasures 
of fall, but pleasure isn't good for boys, I 
don't think. Old men want a little fun; 
let them husk. A husky old man can go 
through a good deal of com sometimes. 
Digging taters is another of our fall amuse- 
ments. The way I like to dig taters is to 
wait till they are baked nicely, and then dig 
them out of their skins. Most winter 
schools are open in fall. The best winter 
school I ever went to didn't open until 
spring, and the first day it opened the 
teacher took sick aud the schoolhouse was 
locked up for the season. Once in a while 
we have a very severe fall, but nothing like 
the fall of Adam and Eve in the garden of 
Eden. Summer is misnamed. It sliould 
be called Pride, for doesn't pride go before 
fall t " 

Scholarly Penmanship. 

By Paul Pastnoii. 
The eomidaiut that comes from the long- 
suffering compositor and proof-reader of the 
illegibility of the so called "scholarly" style 
of peumanship should have, it would seem, 
some recognition at the hands of those 
against whom it is directed. That the 
complaint is well founded and just every- 
body knows who is at all familiar with the 
style of haudwriliug adopted by almost all 
scholars and men of letters. It is a style 
which grows, naturally enough, out of 
mental preoccupation and the rapid and 
engrossing How of thought. Business men 
and ordinary correspondents, a part at least, 
of whose attention can easily, and without 
detriment to the work in hand, be devoted 
to the mechanical part of their writings, do 
not suffer the same disability. And, iu fact, 
it is nart of the necessity of business hud 
all record writings to bo attractive in form. 
But scholars aud writei's must concentrate 
attention and energy upon the thought 
which they arc pursuing — often to the en- 
tire excluaion of every other present matter; 
and thus, while it is true they do form a 
certaiu definite style by practice, still it is 
not apt to be a careful and precise and 
beautiful style of penmanship. They have 
necessarily grown into the habit of 
abridged aud rapid penmanship, to suit 
the requirements of prolonged composition ; 
and the fault is apt to grow worse with 
time, and very much worse with success in 
literary work, so that at last, with many of 
them, penmanship comes to he little more 
than a convenience for jottiug dowu their 
private iuipressions in iriystic characters 
known only to themselves. Some writers 
have to have at the case their trained inter- 
preters — compositors who by long famili- 
arity with the manuscripts have come to be 
nearly as well acquainted with their peculi- 
arities and suggestions as the writers them- 
selves. This was true of the great editor,, 



Horace Greek-y, :tnd is still true of hun- 
dreds of the editorial brotherhood who will 
never bo known to fame. 

Admitting that this style of penmanship 
is a fault, and a recognized fault, the ques- 
tion arises, Can it bo corrected f and if so, 
how? 

Many writers, driven to desperation by 
the complaints of their publishers, and the 
mangled condition of their productions 
when finally gotten into print, have at- 
tempted to cut the gordian knot by the use 
of the newly invented type-writer, or cali- 
gniph. But, in spite ot protestations to 
the contrary, the fact remains that difficult 
composition cannot be carried on while 
strumming upon the staring key-board of 
this machine. It is entirely out of harmony 
with the genius of thinking. One who 
composes as an artist paints, putting words 
together like bits of color, must see what 
he is doing ; must see what has gone before, 
what is the connection, and how every 
sentence reads and fits in with the one be- 
fore and after. No leading writer, so far as 
I know, composes his best productions by 
the aid of the type-writer. This solution 
of the problem, then, is not practicable. 
How shall the difficulty be overcome? I 
answer, it can be overcome only hy willing- 
ness on the part of scholars and men of 
letters to cultivate, systematically and 
earnestly, the art of penmanship. I do 
uot believe that any style is s-i irrevocably 
formed that it cannot be changed by, say, 
six months of faithful practice in accordance 
with the best models. Of course, it would 
be best that every scholar, every student, 
every person who inteuds to follow a pro- 
fession when the pen must be constantly 
used, should form a good style of penman- 
ship while young— though this is very sel- 
dom done; but still, it is never too late to 
improve, even to change altogether, one's 
handwriting. It would be somewhat of an 
embarrassment at first, no doubt, to havf 
to give a large share of one's attention to 
the merely mechanical part of the task; 
but the habit would soon fee formed, and, 
once formed, would be invaluable to the 
writer. Besides, there is an undoubted 
satisfaoUon in seeing fair thoughts put by 
the hand into fair form. There shoubl he 
something of the pride of the artist in a 
handsome manuscript. It is to be hoped 
that many of our scholars, and constant " 
contributors to the periodical press, whose 
haudwriliug is now a trial to the pro.'f- 
reader and the editor, and a discouragement 
to the compositor, will learn wisdom from 
the vexations to which they are in turn 
subjected, and make some detiniie effort to 
form a legible and agreeable stylo of pen- 



Thb Libraries of Europe.— Vienna 
has 577 libraries, containing altogether 
5,500,000 volumes, without counting manu- 
scripts. Next to Austria is France, which 
boasts five hundred libraries, containing 
4,350,000 volumes ; and next, Prussia, about 
four hundred libraries and above 2,500,000 
hooks. Great Britain is reported as hav- 
ing only two hundred libraries, hut they 
contain nearly a quarter of a million more 
printed books than Prussia. Tho largest 
is that of Paris, with over two million vol- 
umes; the British Museum comes second, 
but a long way behind, with oue million ; 
Munich third, with 800,000; then Berliu, 
with seven hundred thousand; Dresden 
with five huudred thousand; the Vienna 
has only thirty tliousaud printed books, but 
is very rich in valuable manuscripts, the 
total of which is twenty-five thousand. 
The most celebrated and largest of the uui- 
versity libraries are the Bodleian, at Ox- 
ford, and that of Hoidolhorg, each possess- 
ing about five hundred thousand volumes. 
— Scholar^s Companion. 



Remember, you can get the Journal 
one year, and a 75-cent book free, for $1 ; 
or a $1 book and the Journal for $1.25. 
Do your friends a favor by telling them. 



_HX\PK N M AV S 



Vki Joi KVVI 



A Condemned Sentinel. 

A cold, etwrmy night, in the month of 
March, 1807, Marshal Lefebtre, with 
twenty-B6ven thousand French troops, had 
invented Dantzio. The city was garriaoned 
by seventeen thousand R-iasian and Prus- 
Btaa soldiers ; aud these, together with 
twenty or thirty thousand well-armed citi- 
zens, presented nearly double the force 
which could be brought to the assault. So 
there was the utmost need of vigilance on 
the part of the sentinels; for a desperate 
sortie from the garrison, made unawares, 
might prove calamitous. 

At midnight Jerome Dubois was placed 
upon one of the most iinportaut poata in the 
advanced line of pickets, it being upon a 
narrow strip of land raiaed above the 
marshy flat, called the Peninsula of Neh- 
rung. For more than an hour he paced his 
lonesome beat without hearing anything 
more than the moaning of the wind and the 
driving of the rain. At length, however, 
another sound broke upon his ear. He 
stopped and listened, and presently he 
called, "Who's theref" 

The only answer waa a moaning sound. 
He called again, and this time he heard 
something like the cry of a child; and 
pretty soon the object came towards him 
out from the darkness. With a quick, eui- 
phatic movement, be brought his musket to 
the charge, and ordered the intruder to halt. 
"Mercy!" exclaimed a childish voice. 
"Don't shoot me I I am Natalie. Don't 

" Heavens) " cried Jerome, elevating the 
muzzle of bis piece, "is it you, dear child f " 

"Yes; and you are good, Jerome. Oh, 
you will come and help mamma? Come, 
she is dying." 

It was certainly Natalie, a little girl only 
eight years old, daughter of Lisette Vail- 
lant. Lisette was the wife of Pierre VaiU 
lant, a sergeant in Jerome's owu regiment, 
and was in the army in capacity of nurse. 

"Why, how ia this, my child f" said Je- 
rome, taking the little one by the arm. 
"What is it about your mother?" 

" Oh, good Jerome, you can hear her 
now. Hark ! " 

The sentinel beat his ear, but could hour 
only the wind and the rain. 

" Mamma is in the dreadful mud," said 
the child, "and is dying. She is not far 
away. Oh, I can hear her crying ! " 

By degrees Jerome gathered from Na- 
talie that her father had taken her out with 
him in the morning, and that in the even- 
ing when the storm came on, her mother 
came after her. The sergeant had oflered 
to send a man back to camp with his wife ; 
but she preferred to return alone, feeling 
sure tliiil she should meet with no trouble. 
The way, however, bad become dark and 
uncertain, and she had lost the path, and 
wandered off to the edge of the morass, 
where she had sunk in the soft mud. 

"Oh, good Jerome," cried the little one, 
seizing the man's hand, " can't you hear 
her? She will die if you do not come and 
help her." 

At that moment the eeutinel fancied he 
heard the wail of the unfortunate woman. 
What should he do ? Lisette, the good, the 
beautiful, the tender-hearted Lisette, was in 
mortal danger, and it m 



Itv 









,'ith- 



ngs of the child. He could 
id return to his 



J the 



post without detection. At all events, he 
could not resist the childish pleader. 

"Give me your hand, Natalie. I'll go 
with yon." 

With a cry of joy the child sprung to the 
soldier's side; and when she had secured 
bis hand she hurried him along towards the 
place where she had left her mother. It 
seemed a long distance to Jerome, and 
once be stopped as though he would turn 
back. He did not fear death; but he 
feared dishonor. 

" Hark ! " uttered the child. 

The soldier listened, and plainly heard 
the Yoice of the suffering woman calling 
for help. He hesitated no longer. On he 



hastened, through the storm, and found 
Lisette sunk to her armpits in the soft mo- 
rasa. Fortunately a tuft of long grass bad 
been within her reach, by which means she 
h«d held her head above the fatal mud. It 
was no easy matter to extricate her from the 
miry pit, as the workman had to be very 
careful that he did not himself lose his foot- 
ing. At length, however, she was drawn 
forth, and Jerome led her towards his post. 



" Who c 

the gloom. 

" Hoavei 



3 there? "called ( 






gasped Jerome, stopping 
and tremblmg from head to foot. 

" Who comes tbere f " repeated the voice. 

Jerome heard the click of a musket-lock ; 
and he knew that another sentinel had been 
stationed at the post he left. The relief 
had come while he had been absent. 

"Friend, with the countersign !" he an- 
swered to the last call of the new sentinel. 

He was ordered to advance, and when he 
had given the countersign he found himself 
in the presence of the officer of the guard. 
In a few hurried words he told bis story; 
and had the officer been alone he might 
have allowed the matter to rest where it 
was; but there were others present, and 
when ordered to give up his musket he 
obeyed without a murmur, and silently ac- 
companied the officer to the cainp, where 

On the following morning Jerome Du- 



The time fixed for the execution ol Du- 
boise was the morning succeeding the day 
of his trial. The result of the interview 
with Marshal Lefebvre was made known to 
him, and he was not at all -disappointed. 
He blamed no one, and was only sorry that 
he had not died upon the battle-field. 

"I have tried to be a good soldier," he 
said to his captain. "I feel that I have 
done no crime that should leave a stain 
upon my name." 

The captain took his hand and assured 
him that bis name should be held in respect. 

Towards evening Pierre Valliant, with 
his wife and child, were admitted to see the 
prisoner. This was a visit which Jerome 
would gladly have dispensed with, as his 
feelings were already wrought up to a pitch 
that almost unmanned him; but he braced 
himself for the interview, and would have 
stood it like a hero, had not little Natalie, 
in the eagerness of her love and gratitude, 
thrown herself upon his bosom and offered 
to die in his stead. This tipped the Crim- 
ing cup, aud his tears flowed freely. 

Pierre and Lisette knew not what to say. 
They wept, and they prayed, and they 
would have willingly died for the noble fel- 
low who had been thus condemned. 

Later in the evening ca 
who, if he lived, would at 
to Jerome's boyhood home. First, the con- 
demned thought of his widowed mother, and 



Tipanion 




The above cut was pkoto-engraved from an oru/inal pen-and-ink JlourUk executed hy 
Prof. P. R. Spencer, of the Cleveland ( 0.) ISatinesa College. 



hois was brought before a court-martial 
under charge of having deserted his post. 
He confessed that he was guilty, and then 
permission was granted him to tell his own 

This he did in a few words; hut the 
court could do nothing but to pass sentence 
of death j but the members thereof all 
signed a petition praying that Jerome Du- 
bois might be pardoned ; and this petition 
was sent to the general of the brigade, and 
through him to the general of the division, 
by whom it was indorsed and sent up to the 
Marshal. 

Lefebvre was kind and generous to his 
soldiers, almost to a fault; but he could not 



■erlook 



the 



which had been committed by Dubois. The 
orders given to the sentinel had been very 
simple ; and foremost of every necessity 
was the order forbidding him to leave his 
post until properly relieved. To a certain 
extent the safety of the whole army rested 
upon the shoulders of each individual senti- 
nel, and especially upon those who at night 
were posted nearest the lines of the enemy. 

"I am sorry," said the gray-haired old 
warrior, as he folded up the petition and 
handed it back to the officer who presented 
it. I am sure that man meant no wrong, 
and yet a great wrong waa done. He 
knew what he was doing — he ran the risk 
—he was detected— he was tried and con- 
demned. He must suffer." 

They asked Lefebvre if be would see the 
condemned. 

"No, no," the marshal cried, quickly. 
" Should I see him, and listen to one-half 
bis story, I might pardon him: and that 
must not be done. Let him die, that thou- 
sands may be saved." 



he sent her a message of love and devotion. 
Then he thought of a brother and sister. 
And finally he thought of one— a bright- 
eyed maid— whose vine-clad cot stood upon 
the banks of the Seine — oue whom he had 
loved with a love such as only great hearts 
can feel. 

"Oh, my dear friend!" ho cried, bowing 
his head upon his clasped hands, "you need 
not tell them a falsehood; but if the thing 
is possible, let them believe that I fell in 
battle 1 " 

His companion promised that he would 
do all he could; and if the truth could not 
be kept back, it should be ao faithfully told 
that the name of Jerome Dubois should not 
bear dishonor in the minds of those who 
had loved him in the other days. 

Morning came, dull and gloomy, with 
driving sleet and snow; and at an early 
hour Jerome Dubois was led forth to meet 
his fate. The place of execution had been 
fixed upon a low, barren spot towards the 
sea; and thither his division was being 
marched to witness the fearful punishment. 
They bad gained not more than half the 
distance when the ^ound of some strange 
commotion broke upon the wintry air; 
and very shortly an aid-de-camp came dash- 
ing to the side of the general of brigade, 
with the cry : 

" A sortie 1 A aortie ! The enemy are 
out in force. Lot this thing bo stayed. 
The marshal directs that you face about aud 
advance upon the peninsula ! " 

In an ioslant all was changed in that di- 
vision ; aud the brigadier-general, who bad 
temporary command, thundered forth his 
orders for his countermarch. — The gloom 
was dissipated; and with glad hearts the 
soldier turned from the thoughts of the exe- 



cution of a. brave comrade to thoughts of 
meeting the enemy. 

" What shall we do with the prisoner?" 
asked the sergeant who had charge of the 



ird. 

' Load him back ' 



• the < 



replied 



The direction was very simple, but the 
execution thereof waa not to be so easy; 
for hardly had the words escaped the cap- 
tain's lips when a squadron of Prussian 
cavalry came dashing directly towards them. 



The di^ 
hollo 



of the 



■as quickly formed into four 
, while the guard that held 
prisoner found themselves 

s name," cried Jerome, '' cut 



"In heaven's 
my bonds and le 

The sergeant quickly cut the cord that 
bound the prisoner's elbows behind him, and 
then dashed towards the point where his 
owu company was stationed. The rattle of 
musketry had commenced, and the Prus- 
8i,ins were vainly endeavoring to break the 
squares of French troops. Jerome Dubois 
looked about him for some weapon with 
which to arm himself; and presently he 
saw a Prussian oflicer, not far off, jeeling 
in bis saddle as though he bad* been 
wounded. With a quick hound he reached 
the spot, pulled the dying officer from his 
seat, and leaped into the empty saddle. 

Dubois was fully resolved that he would 
sell his life on that day— sell it on behalf of 
France —and sell it as dearly as possible. 
But he was not needed where he was. He 
knew that the Prussians could not break 
those hollow squares; so he rode away, 
thinking to join the French cavalry, with 
whom he could rush into the deepest danger. 
Supposing that the heaviest fighting must 
be upon the Nehrung, he rode his horse in 
that direction ; aud when he reached it he 
found that he had not been mistaken. Up- 
on a slight eminence towards Hagelberg 
the enemy had planted a battery of heavy 
guns, supported by two regiments of infan- 
try; and already with shot and shell im- 
mense damage had been done. 

Marshal Lefebvre rode up shortly after 
this battery had opened, and very quickly 
made up his mind that it must be taken at 
all hazards. 

"Take that battery," he said to a colonel 
of cavalry, "and the battle is ours." 

Dubois heard tlie order and saw the ne- 



cessity. He 



I be the first i 



the fatal 
le leader 



L storm of 



and, determined 

battery, he kept as near U 

as he dared. Half the distant 

gained, when from the hill can 

iron that plowed into the ranks of the 

French. The colonel fell, his body literally 

torn in pieces by a shell that exploded close 

against his bosom. 

The point upon the peninsula now 
reached by the head of the assaulting col- 
umn was not more than a hundred yards 
wide ; and it was literally a patli of death, 
as the fire of twelve heavy guns was turned 
upon it. The colonel bad fallen, and very 
soon three other officers went down, leaving 
the advance without a commissioned leader. 
The way was becoming blocked up with 
dead men and dead horses ; and the head of 
the column stopped aud wavered. 

Marshal Lefebvre, from his elevated place 
saw this, and his heart throbbed painfully. 
If that coluum was routed, and the Russian 
infantry charged over the peninsula, the re- 
sult might be calamitous. 

But— see! A man in the uniform of a 
French private, mounted upon a powerful 
horse, caparisoned in the trappings of a 
Prussian staff officer, with his head bare, 
and a bright sabre swinging in his hand, 
rushes to the front, and urges the column 
forward. His words are fiery, and his look 
is dauntless. 

"For France and for Lefebvre!" the 
strange horseman cries, waving his sword 
aloft, and pointing towards the battery, 
"The marshal will weep if we lose the 

The brave troopers, thus led by one 
who feared not to dash forward where the 



Vl{ I rJOlIKNAI. 



shot fell tlie tliickeet, gave an answeriaK 
shot, ami ])ro«scd on, caring little for the 
[>ain uf death »o loog as th(*y had a livicg 
h-ader to ftiUow. Hojung that he might 
tuke the battery, and yet courliog death, Je- 
rome Duliois spurred oii ; fiually, the trnop 
came upon the battery wiih irresistible 
foroe. 

It was not iu tlio i)ower of the cannoa- 
ecrs to withslaud the fhui-k, and the Ku8- 
siaD iufantry that cainf to their support 
were swept sway like chaff. The battery 
u-H!j i{iiickly captured; and wheu the guns 
had been tiirued upuo those who had shortly 
before been their inaeters, the fortune of the 
day was «lecidcd. The IluFsians and the 



PruBi 



IS- Ik 



foot i 



inch 



as were not tnkeii prisoners, inadt^ the best 
of their way back into Dantzic, having lost 
much more than they had gained. 

Jerome Dubois returned to the guard- 
liousf, and gave himself up to the officer in 
charge. First, a surgeon was called to dress 
several slight wounds which he had re- 
ceived. Next, his colonel was called to see 
what should be done with liim. The col- 
onel applied to the general of brigade,, and 
the general of brigade applied to the gen- 
eral of ilivision, aud the gent;ral of divisiou 
applied to Marshal Lefebvre. 

"What shall we do with Jerome Du- 

" God bless him ! " cried the general-vet- 
eran, who had heard the whole story. "I'll 



eral lesBoos of the school. The 



'flchei 









' I'll pro- 



!id Jerome Dubois 
tu see the loved . 
1 he went he woi 



A Letter and Reply. 

— , Oi:l. lih, IStfJ. 

riEOF. C. H. ri:ij;ci:. 

Keokuk, luwa. 

Dear Sir: — I am at present leaching pen- 
niauship iu the public ^chuuU at this place, and 
a<i i[ ia my firet expi-iieilce iu graded echoolf, 
and knowing that you have had considerable 
fxperience iu thia line, would like to intrude 
on your good nature by asking your opinion on 
a few pointB penaiuiiig to this kind of work. 

First. At what ag*- do you Ihiuk advisable 
111 begin the use. of pen and ink? Second. 
What 19 the beet way to interent beginners? 
Third. I have fonie trouble to kvep them at 
work. Fourth. At what age do you think it 
practicable to begin ilie use of muscular or 
combined movement ? Some of my pupils think 
ihey can never learn to wriie wilh muscular 
movement. Fifth. The teaohers before me 
have used a variety of methods iu teaching — 
bome using copy-books for all ; others, for only 
a part of the school. I preler tlieui for the 
lower grades only ; wliat think you T 

If not too much trouble please answer me 
and greatly oblige, Yours, very truly. 



Most certainly I. will anev 
oblige you, but every readei 



of the Joua- 



I confess that I cannot tell just what I 
wish through this medium, yet am wilting 
to inalce the attempt, and possibly prevent 
others from groping in the dark. I virtu- 
ally have answered all these questions dur- 
ing th« past two years, yet am willing to 
tell iny story again and again. 

First.—Ax what age do you think it ad- 
visable to begin the use of the petf and ink t 
Ans. Crtaiuly not as soon as is usually 
the rule. Blots, daubs, tracks, scratches, 
scrawls and hieroglyphics can all be 
avoided. To attempt to write with ink too 
floon is to attempt an impossibility; i.e., 
if iuk and pen are used too early the very 
poor results usually attaiued must be ex- 
pected — that is, blots, daubs, etc, are the 
necessary effect of blind stupidity in the 
use of pfiu aud ink before the proper lime. 

If other branches of an Erigiish educa- 
tion were as poorly taught as pouuianship, 
the cry would go up, "Cursed be the 
^ schools of uur country ! " 

As it is, what is learned ia penmanship 
by nine-tenths of the children in our public 
schools is due to their perceptive faculties, 
and a force of nocosaily iu wriiLug the gen- 



are not to blame for any progress made, nor 
are they to be censured for an almost total 
ind fference in the subject taught. As soon 
as a pupil can do the work of programme 
"A" with a lead-pencil and double-lined 
hook or paper, reaaonably well, tolerably 
well, with a degree of satisfaction, then 
with dmible-lincd paper begin the use of ink 
(and pen, similar to 404 Gillott), aud re- 
view the identioal work with closer cuiicisiii. 
The age playa no part in the answer to the 
original (luestion whatever. If the per- 
son taught were W.) years old, aud iu no 
way knew more about the subject-matter 
than a child with equal muscular develop- 
ment, I would most assuredly counsel the 
use of a lead-pencil for two reasons: Jirst, 
to avoid biota, daubs, etc., which invariably 
produce discouragement to a beginner; 
second, to increase the chances of success by 
lessening the labor attempted. 

A child can neither bold a pen nor pencil 
coia'ectly. A pencil held incorrectly will 
write much belter than a pen held incor- 
rectly. 

Thfe natural weakness of the fore-finger 
of a child, together with the use of short 
slate jiencils five-sixths of the time, is cause 
enough for the general imperfect holding of 
the pen. While wo concede the fact that 
correct penholding by the average child is 
impossible, it can be vastly improved by the 
use of covered slate-pencils that will not 
break when let fall. 

It is beyond reason and good sense to ex- 
pect a child to do the work usually as- 
signed at all creditably with a short, blunt 
slate-pencil. The preci:*ion with which ad- 
vantage is taken in the proper presentation 
of general subjects taught, and particularly 
with the classics, to accomplish the very 
best results and highest aims, is absolute 
proof of the weakuesa and slipshod manner 
with which this subject is treated. 

Carelessness generally is proven by see- 
ing the miserable results. All through the 
period of the child's use of the long slate 
and lead pencil the finger will be growing 
stronger while the work will have been 
}>rogres8ing, and in due course of time the 
adoption of pea and ink will be the prize 
gained for having at-ci'ruplished certain re- 
sults. 

The use of pen and ink indiscriminately 
with any class, simply because they should 
know how to use them, or because they are 
old enough and ought to know how, is ar- 
gument too weak to be coiintennnoed by 
the intelligent. 

With the projter training from the begin- 
ning ( which is six years), the child can bo- 
gin the use of pen and ink at nine years, 
and it is npt objeciionabJe to begin later. 
The llimsy argument, that "the sooner the 
better," is uttered only by the ignorant. 






3 valuelei 



right, it 



general op 
gress. It is nut proper— it 
is not justice to the pupil to 
pencil to pen, ink and paper. 

Impossibilities should m.t be attempted 
with grown persons, much less with chil- 
dren. If the child has no expression ia the 
matter, it is but justice to exercise the 
proper judgment in its behalf. 

Au experience worthy of consideration 
lays down the law thus : Use slate-pencils 
(covered ) and ruled slates until fair execu- 
tion is reached in Noe. 1, 2, 3, in Programme 
"A"; then, as a prize for certain profi- 
ciency, allow only those the use of lead- 
peaciis and double-ruled hooka wlto attain 
certain results. 

The varic 

{ 1 ) The 
pencil. 

(2) The use of paper (double-ruled) 
and lead pencil 

(:i) The use of paper (double-ruled) 



steps are as follows: 

i of slate (double -ruled) and 






(4) The 1 



pen. 



3 of paper (single line) and 
) of paper (single line) and 



(5) The 
fine pen. 

The use of the tools employed has always 
been a secondary ooosideration. I deem it 



even mure essential than the proper classifi- 
cation of the subject-matter. They un- 
doubtedly should go hand in hand, and one 
should not be sacrificed at the expense uf 
the other. 

In conclusion, to the answer of this ques- 
tion jjermit me to say, Doa't be in too big 
a hurry to have pupils begin the use of pen 
and ink. 

Second. — What is the best way to inter- 
est beginnerst By introducing the sim- 
plest possible work, aud never attempting 
to go beyond the power of each individual 
to perform. Individual ad 
only true advancement; In 
tion is the only 
struction is necessary, and often more effec- 
tive, not only for beginners, but any set of 
pupils. 

This question has been asked by every 
teacher in the profession, and will continue 
to be asked as long as the error committed 
is on the part of the teacher. Rapid strides 
have been made in teaching numbers, read- 
ing, etc., but writing is yet pursued in the 
old beaten track, yielding the usual results: 
poor writing, on the part of the pupil, and 
indifference and disgust on the part of the 
teacher. If necessary, I stand ready to 
prove that carele&sness, indifference, and 
poor results, on the part of the pupils, are 
indirectly the faults of the teacher, and di- 
rectly the fault of the general mode of pro- 
cedure that has for its base class instruction 
and general advancement. 

Any set of children, with the proper 
materials, and a systematic course of instruc- 
tion properiy applied to individual needs, 
supplemented with class explanations and 
drill, each advanced upon his own merit, 
cannot 'fail to win the highest possible re- 
Beginners are as easily interested as any 
other class, Apply the proper remedy, and 
the care must follow as the result of law. 
Children taught bow to make figures ( the 
digits) properiy need comparatively little 
instruction in the formation of letters. 

Children become interested the mom_ent 
they are conviucid of the practicability of 
any work. The figures are practical : 
they are used thousands of times every 
week, and the better they are formed the 
more accustomed will the eye become to 
points of beauty, and the hand perform 
that which good t^ste demands. 

Third. — "I liave some trouble to keep 
them at work." You always will have, so 
long as class instruction is made the main- 
spring, and work given beyond the calibre 
of a majority in the class, the guide for ad- 



Fourth.— *' At what age is it practi- 



cable 
bined 
think 


begin the us 
- movement t 
they c-iD neve 


of muscular u 
Some of my 
r learn to wri 


pupils 

e wilh 


prepa 
ticabl 
arm) 


lar mo 
ation h 
to beu 
and coi 


enrent 
8 been 
n the I 
bined 


" When 
made I th 

{ forearm 


the 

nk 
cula 
lud 


proper 
t prac- 

( fore- 
finger) 



movement, at ages ranging from twelve to 
fifteen years. Fifteen, the rule~-twelve, the 
exception. But if the proper preparation 
has not been made I most assuredly would 
agree with the children that they cannot, 
with any satisfaction, do the work required. 
Never has no meaning, coming, as it usually 
does, from school-children. 

I question the advisability of teaching 
"Movement" (as usually defined) in our 
public schools when the pupils are not di- 
rectly instructed by a special teacher, or 
where but two lessons of one- half hour each 
are given each week by a special teacher. 
Considerable time must be given movement 
to gain any tangible results. If the time 
cannot be given, why attempt au impossi- 
bility t Even should it be possible to de- 
vo'e one-half hour to the writing-exercise 
each day, under the guidance of a special 
or expert teacher, I queatiou the advisabil- 
ity of teachiag movement at all indiscrim- 
inately, as is too often attempted. 

(Kemabk. I will volunteer to be one of 
two to dis'-usd this question iu the columns 
of the JouiiNAL.) 



Fifth.—'' The teachers before me have 
used a variety of methods." I ask, Why? 
Let this also be discussed. Has not some 
plan yet been discovered that will prove the 
Balm of Gilead? Is darkness yet upon the 
face of the mighty deepT Has no way yet 
been defined that will serve as a model T 

One idea iu this matter, viz., teachiug 
will defeat all results possible to 



bee 



The average graduate iu penmanship of 
a business college is unable to take charge 
of the penmanship department of a city 
school. This accounts for so much theory, 
and so little common sense in the general 
treatm-nt of this subject. Half views are 
worthless, and so long as an excellent hand- 
writing is the principal requisite for a posi- 
tion, so long will these and hundreds of 
other questions bo asked as to all points 
pertaining to the most successful treatment 
of the subject. 

WuAT Constitutes a Good Clerk. 
— A good clerk must be thoroughly alive 
to the intrinsic value of the wares he has 
to sell, must not only bo thoroughly con- 
versant with what they are composed of, 
how they are manu actured and all about 
them, but ho must be convinced in his own 
iiiiud that the goods lie has to dispose of 
cannot be excelled in quality for the prito 
by any other store in the town. He must 
bave implicit faith iu the hou*e he is selling 
fur, that ihey and they only, are the parties 
who crtu supply the wants of a customer to 
advantage. Must be a good judge of human 
nature, know when and bow to take n cus- 
tomer; iu fact, with the good clerk human 
nature must be a study. Have a joke for 
the joking cnstomer, a laugh fur the laugh- 
ing customer, a story for the talking custo- 
mer, aa well as occa^ionally put on the 
sedative to please the thinking customer. 
Iu short, he most bo everybody's baby, 
take aud give hiin whatever happens to 
come uppermost. He must uever take re- 
buffs unkindly, but .-tssume that everything 
is well meant, nor permit his temper to get 
ruffled with a customer, no matter bow 
great the provocation. He must start out 
in the morning with a determination to sell 
goods irrespective of how much patience 
aud labor it may require; must avoid any- 
thing approaching low and vulgar language. 
Ho must be high-toned, obliging, courteous, 
straightforwfinl, and uever think it a. trouble 
to show goods, and (eel confident at all 
times that he is doing the very best that is 
possible to do by his customers, as well as 
endeavor to persuade them that ho has 
done so. — American Grocer. 



The Penman's Art Journal, edited 
and published by D. T. Ames, '2(1'. Broad- 
way, New York, is a sixteen-page folio 
journal devoted to the interests of good 
penmanship. Its typographical appearance 
is extremely neat, and it is handsomely il- 
lustrated with portraits and views and fine 
examples of caligrapby by American pen- 
men. In addition to the interesting aud 
pithy items of eeueral news of the craft it 
contains writing-lessons with novel illustra- 
tive diagrams.— /^onrfon Paper and Print- 
ing Trades Journal. 



ToiiACCO—" Whore did 'baccy come 
from, Corny If " inquired Mary, 

"Wby,trotn 'Meriky; where elsef'hc 
replied — "that sent us the first pitaty. 
Long life to it for both, say I." 

"What sort of a place is that, I won- 
der?" 

"Meriky, is it i They tell me it's 
mighty sizeable, Moll, dariin." I'm told 
that yuu might roll England through it, 
an' it would hardly make a dint in the 
gn)und. There's fresh-watfr oceans inside 
u( it that you might rlhround Ireland iu 
and'save Father Matbow a wonderful sight 
of trouble; an' us for Scotland, you might 
stick it in a corner of one of their forests, 
aud you'd never be able to ffud it out ex- 
cept, it may bo, by the smell of whisky. 
If I had only a thrifle of money, I'd go au' 
sock my fortin'." 



The Three-cent Stamp, 

WUn olb^n iKlted you gamely .tuok, 

Owl-by. oW itamp. good by.' 
Wilh nurioiu phUM (miiglit— 



il«'8 ngrelful Mgli, 
d-by, uld iliiinp, guixlby ! 



d-by, old ■lamp, good by I 



• of artick- 



The Garfield Memorial. 

An- Intehestikg Room in tub Cleve 
LAND Howe. 
It is known by every one iliat lie Geutral 
was ihe recijiient of a large nuuiber of to- 
kens ol eftei-m aud respeot during his ill- 
ucss, and that Mrs. Garfield received many 
iimrks of eondolence after tbe spirit of the 
Buffirer had taken its tiight. It was under- 
Mt'Kjd that Mrs. Garfield had set apart a 
r.M.iu iu her recently purchased home ex- 
chifiively for these many tributes-. 

For the purpose of viewing these articles 
aud enuiia-r'rtiiug them f.-r the beL>eiil of the 
public, a reporter called last week at the 
Garfield rciideuce on Prospect Street and 
wag received by Harry Gardeld, who ush- 
ered hiui into the memorial-room. This is 
on the second floor at the top of the stairs 
on Ihe right. Mrs. Garfield stated that she 
had not yet oonipleted her arrangenieuts in 
1, aud a very large nuin- 
e yet f-tored away which 
she hHs not had time to unpack and place in 
position. 

The room at present contains a laye 
number of resolutions adopted at the death 
of the President by the various Bocielies to 
which the General belonged, by military 
organizations, city councils, and meetings 
of citizens in different places throughout 
this and other countrieB, which were sent to 
Mrs. Gartiel.l as tokens of esteem for the 
man whom all loved and honored, and to 
demunstrate in that manner the sorrow felt 
at the loss of one who but a short time 
before bad moved so majestically among 
them. The greater part of these resolutions 
are beautifully designed and placed in mas 
Hive frames of gill and black. Those sent 
from ciiicB across the ocean are very elabo- 
rate, and furuish lasting and beautiful me- 
mentoes of a sorrowing world. The walls 
of the room are thickly covered with the 
framed resolutions, and three marbletop 
tables occupy the centre. Upon these are 
placed the more artistic souvenirs in rich 
and delicate cases. These are all very 
beautiful and attractive. The first among 
them to be mentioned is the tribute of the 
citizous of Belfast, Ireland. It is placed in 
a case of rich, dark wood, upon whicii on 
four sides are four silver shields. Upon a 
silver pUte in the centre is engraved, 
"From the citizens of Belfast, Ireland, to 
Mrs. Garfield." Inside the case is a volume 
bound iu black leather, with a/ monogram 
of the General's initials upon the cover. 
The volume cootaios the printed resolutions 
of condolence adopted by the citizeoB of the 



a public meeting 
of the President's 



above- mentioned place 
held soon after tbe new 
death had reached them, 

K(|ually as beautiful is tbe token of re- 
spect from Kingston-upon-Hull. The ac- 
tions of a citizens' meeting, held there in 
September, J 1^81, are printed and inrloaed 
iu a binding of heavy black velvet. Upon 
the cover is a monogram of J. A. G. Ac- 
companying this is a poem, each line of 
which is written upon a scroll. The ends 
of tbe scroll are so shaped as to form a let- 
ter, the whole spelling "United States of 
America," aud the first letter of each line of 
the poem forms " President Garfield." 

Occupying a table by itself is a large 
handsome case containing the marks of rev- 
erence from the New York Mining Stock 
Exchange. The resolution adopted by that 
body may be road through the plate of thick 
glass, which is encircled with a band of sil- 

lu a large album, with dark Russia bind- 
ing and gold claspjis printed on the first page, 
'* Resolutions of respect tendered to the 
family of James A. Garfield by the Ameri- 
can and sympailiizmg friends in Santiago, 
Chili." The resolutions cover some half- 
do/en page?, and are followed by a long list. 

The poem which is engraved upon the 
Boldiera' monument at Racine, Wis., was 
sent to Mrs. GarfielJ worked in red letters 
on a piece of heav^ white silk, together 
with the American and British H^gs aud a 
s|.rig of evergreen, by Mrs H. S. Duraud, 
Racine. 

An excerpia from the minutes of a special 
meeting of the Maritime Assttciation of the 
P..rt of New York, held September 20ih, 
18dl, in respect to the dead President, is 
veiy handsomely printed and inclosed iu a 
black Russia leather case, iipon which is the 
monogram J. A. G. 

The Grand Lodge of Iowa Masons en- 
closed their expressii^ns of sympathy in a 
hook with flexible covers upon which is 
printed: "A memorial preSeott-d to Mrs. 
Garfield from the Grand Lodge of Iowa." 

Upon opening a rich wine-colored velvet 
cabinet may be seen a letter (rom the Miiy.tr 
of Boston, as follows: "In behalf of the 
City of Boston I ask you to accept the ac- 
companying volumes. They contain ihe 
otficial tribute paid by t)ur citizens to the 
memory of your late husband, aud express 
their adinirarJou aud esteem ; Samuel A. 
Green, Mayor," and a copy of Mrs. Gar- 
field's reply: "The heautilul volumes for- 
warded by you in behalf of the City of 
Boston are received. The tribute to the 
memory of General Garfield, as an expres- 
sion of love felt by him iu tbe old family, i^ 
to us most precious. We return to the citi- 
zens whom you represent our very sincere 
thanks." The volumes are bound in rare 
wood, and contain a steel engraving of the 
late President and the action of the city 
government in reference to the national be- 



When to Subscribe. 

For several reasons it is desirable, that, 
80 far as is practicable, subscriptions should 
begin with the year, yet it is entirely op- 
tional with the subscriber as to when his 
subscription shall commence. Those who 
may be specially interested in tbe very prac- 
tical and valuable course of lessons just 
closed by Prof. H. C. Spencer may secure 
all the numbers of the Journal contain- 
ing these lessons, except that of January, 
1883,— fifteen numbers inall — for $I.2.'»; 
single nutubers, 10 cents. 



Beautii'iil Answers.— A pupil of the 
Abbe Sicord giivo tlie following extraordi- 

"What is gratitude T" — " Gratitude is 
the iiieinury of the heart." 

"What is hope?"— "Hope is the blos- 
som of happiness." 

"What is the difference between hope 
and desire t" — "Desire is a tree m leaf, 
hope a tree iu llower, and enjoyment is a 
tree with fruit." 

" What is eleruity f "— " A day without 
yesterday or to-morrow, a line that has no 
end." 

" What is timet "—"A line that has two 
ends -a path which begins in the cradle 
and ends in the tomb." 

"What is God f"—'- The necessary be- 
ing, the sum of eternity, the mechanist of 
nature, the eye of justice, the watchmaker 
of the universe, the soul of the world." 



A writer of poetical puff paracraphs lately 
sent ati offer to a stylographic jieu manu- 
facturer to invent for him a rhymiug adver- 
tisement. Tbe reply he received was prompt 
and witty : 



is wront:"— a fact of which he very likely 
was as well aware as bis teacher. 

"Careleii IVrltinff will alwayt prevent progreat." 

Points to de G.uned. 
1. Form. 
'i. Arrangement. 

3. Spe«d in single figures. 

4. ProiniBciious figures. 

't. Speed ill promiacuoUB ligures. 
6. Habitu eatabliahed. 

Author Oeiiler, IVhcher. 

PROGRAMMK. 

L Fig.irea— 1— 0— G-4— 8-5— 3— y-'J— 7. 



5. Worda from short leltere : 



6. Semi-extended letters: t — d — p — ij. 

_7. Words from sam^: tent, tow, dipper, 



—y~ 



Extended op loop letters: h— k— I— h 



-z— f. 



>, that, 



The tribute of the Law Class of J881 of 
the National Uuiveraity of Washington oc- 
cupies an entire table, it being a very large 
volume, containing the resolution adopted 
by the Class on October 30th, 1881. On 
the cover of the book is printed, "Tribute 
by law students." 

Of the framed resolutions, those adopted 
by the Cleveland City Council occupy a 
conspicuous position on the north wall of 
the room, and form a most beautiful and 
appropriate memento. 

Beneath it is hung the resolutions of 
Columbia Arch Chapter No. 1, of Wash- 
ington. This is probably the most highly 
iiibelliBbed design which adorns the walls. 
The frame is of ebony, and the resolutions 
and tbe members of the committee are 

.rked in black on a white silk Masonic 
apron. The latter is ornamented with 
heavy gold fringe and cardinal ribbon.— 
Cleveland Herald. 

A tack p.duts heavenward when it 
means the most mischief. It has many 
human imitators. 



Writing in the Public Schools. 

By Arthur Oehler. 
The trials and difficulties of the writing- 
teacher in our public schools are many and 
of a varying nature. In fact, they are but 
little understood by Boards of Education 
or the public in general. One reason may 
be, tliHt writing-teachers, as a class, are as 
tightly shut up within themselves as a 
clam, which fact has often been a source of 
wonder to me. Tiiey most assuredly need 
very little to mind the sneers of the average 
professional pemiian, or teacher of penman- 
ship in more advancetl institutions having 
material of conespouding age; for, were 
some of the latter placed in the former's po- 
sitions and circumstances, a large number 
of them might possibly cut a rather sorry 
figure. I make this statement with due 
deference H) their respective methods and 
theories, and cheerfully acknowledge that 
among the professionals with whom I have 
had the pleasure of becoming a'-iiuainted 
there is not uue from whom I did uot learn 
something. I do, however, emphatically 
say that it is very ea!*y to ridicule the 
teaching of penmanship in the public 
schools, aud quite a iUfferont thing under 
existing circumstances— to do, oh ! so much 
better. That a better day is dawning- 
seems positive to my mind, and if the 
teachers of this hraoch, he they epecial or 
regular, would only interchange views 
through the Journal, it would cerii.iuly 
hasten the day and result in positive good. 

I have used the following programme for 
some time with excellent results. The 
same is hast-d upon the Peirceriun plan of 
individual criticism. Actual trial in the 
cla-B-room convinces me that good figures, 
presented in their order of simplicity, be- 
fore letters, is the thing for the schoolroom. 
The strong point iu the individual plan of 
criticism is, that tbe teacher can show each 
pupil wherein he failed in any effort, and 
uot, as is usuaUy done, simply toll him "it 



y. Words from same: yes, join, 
all, of, thought, pretend, awkward. 
CAriTAT.s. 

10. Direct oval letters: 0, E, D, C. 

11. Words from same : Oacar, Olivia. Edith, 
Eilgar, David, Dover, Cyrus, Carrie. 

12. Reveraed oval letters : X, W, (J Z V 
V. Y, I, J. 

1:J. Woids from same: Xingu, Webeter, 
Quaker, Zaebary, Vicksburg, Uiica, Yauktoii. 
I»aac, Jeasie, 

14. Capital stem letters: A, N. M, T, F H 
K, S, L, G, P, B. R. 

15. Words from same: Alniira, Alfred, Na- 
than, Mark, Tbomaa, Felix. Helen, Hu^h, 
Keokuk. Sydney. Sophia. Lewia, Lottie, Ger- 
trude, Galesburg, Pedee. Patrick, Betsey, 
Buffalo. Ralph, Rockfor.i. 

td/al of (lit Utile Ikint/s." 

More may follow on the above at some 
future time. Meanwhile I shall be ready 
to explain anything not clear on the above 
programme, and again appeal to my 
brethren iu the public schools to exchange 
ideas, for I feel sure the editors of tbe 
Journal will gladly jdaco a little space at 
their disposal. 



How to Write for the Press. 

It would be a great favor to editors and 
printers should those who write fur the 
press observe the following rules. They 
are reasonable, and correspondents will re- 
gard them as such : 

(1) Write with black ink, on white paper, 
wide-ruled. 

(2) Make the pages small — one- fourth 
that of a foolscap sheet. 

(.'i) Leave the second page of ea-^h leaf 

(4) Give to the written page an ample 
margin all round. 

(5) Number the pages in the order of 
their succession. 

(6) Write in plain, bold hand, with less 
respect to beauty. 

(7) Use no abbreviations which are not 
to be put in print. 

(8) Punctuate the manuscript as it should 
be printed. 

(D) For italics, underscore one line; for 
small capitals, two ; capitals, three. 

(10) Never interline without the caret to 

(11) Take special care with e-ery letter 



» that 



in proper names. 

(12) Review every word 
uone is illegible. 

(I'S) Put directiona to the priuter at l 
lifad of the first page. 

(14) Never write a private letter to] 
iditor on the printer's copy, but always 
* separate sheet— 'JVorjH a f Teacher. 



The Hand - book ( in paper ) is now 
offered free as a premium to every person 
remitting $1 for one year's subscription to 
the Journal. Or, handsomely bound iu 
oloth, for 25 oeuts additiuual. 




And TEACHERS' GUIDE. 

Piibli«hed Monthly at »1 perY 



Spwlm^ii ocplea fhrelnhwl to A^nta free. 

ADVERTISING RATES. 



LIBERAL INDUCEMENTS. 









Inndard Praoiieal PeomBiuhlp," n 

S^Xr. remirdng'''#r'« oholo» of . 
e Cenl«unial Piotnre of Progreu 

BonodiDK Stag.-.'--!.. .!...! 

Lord! Prayer 

Garteld Memorial 

Family Record 

Marriage CertiBoale 

iM ol «aob of theRe works, by mail, 
oioe, if ordered willi their iubacriptio 






•oriptioBi and 112 n 



PENMAN'S ART JOURNAL, 
LONDON AGENCY. 



New York, Nov 



Our Next Course of Lessons. 



,Qticipate pre- 
senting, in the 
January number, 
to the patrons of 
the Journal the 
first of a series of 
miouB, inter- 
esting and effect- 
ive lessons in prac- 
i e«l writing, by Mr. A. H. Hinman, of Wor- 
cester, ftlass. Mr. Hinman has been for over 
twenty years an earnest and independent 
student and teacher of peninaDehip, and, aa 
the result of long research and original 
thiokiug, has developed a host of novel 
ideas and methode of illustratiug and teach- 
ing penmanship. 

Having had a large experience in teach- 
ing penmanship in the leading business col- 
leges, city and county public schools, as 
wel aa tb« organization and instruction of 




classes, the coining course of lessons will 
be unusually productive of rare and praoti- 
ca,l ideas, of great value to learners as well 
as teachers. In view of the value of these 
lessons it is our purpose to spare no pains 
or expense in furnishing illustrations liber- 
ally. We are confident that those who 
know Mr. Hinman, and his methods of 
teaching practical writing, will look for- 
ward to the coming course as of many times 






ulserip.i. 



the 



Journal. 

Journal we can give the most positive 
assurance that for practical value and in- 
terest to lovers of penmanship the Jour- 
nal for the coming year will be greatly 
superior to the past, and fully maintain its 
position as the chief of penman's papers. 



Good Writing and Bad Spelling. 




been wasted, 
and our patience harassed and exhaust- 
ed in the often vain endeavor to de- 
cipher the hieroglyphic scrawls of possi- 
bly some would-be defamer of the orthog- 
raphy of good writers, we have been 
prompted to exclaim: O scrawls! any- 
thingsl Glorious mantle of uncertainty! 
Under thy a?gis how futile are accusations 
of false orthography ! for who cau determine ? 
'Tis an a. e, i, o, u, x, y, z, or anything 
fanoy can conjure; aud apart from context 
is as meaningless as are the brokeo threads 
of a last year's cobweb." That good wri- 
ters often spell badly we admit; but that 
they do so more frequently than do any 
other class of persons we disbelieve ; but 
errors in plain writing are more noticeable 
from the distinctness of the letters. In 



fact, 



I beli€ 



ters would be found to be better spellers 
than are bad and awkward writers ; for the 
same qualities of mind and habit that lead 
one to acquire and maintain a good, plain 
style of writing, will tend to produce excel- 
lence in other attainments. Yet one, if not 
the chief, requisite for good spelling is a re- 
tentive memory; good judgment, and the 
highest order of reHective faculties, which 
powerfully aid in other attainments, are of 
little, if any, avail in spelling, so that it 
often occurs that men of great mental power, 
and of large and varied attainments, are bad 
spellers. A person with a very reteutivt 
memory, though otherwise weak-minded, 
may be a superior speller, while another, 
endowed with extraordinary judgment and 
great reasoning power, yet possessed of a 
less retentive memory, may be an inferior 
speller. We well remember when a lad, 
and attending a district school in a rural 
town of New England, of two boys who 
were so weak-minded as to never outgrow 
the care of a guardian, and who never 
comprehended the first principles of arith- 
metic, grammar, or composition, and yet 
would be the last to go down at a spelling- 



The King Club 

For this month comes from W. P. Worm- 
wood, of the Western Normal College and 
Commercial Institute at Shenandoah, Iowa, 
and numbers twenty-five. The Queen Club 
numbers fourteen, and was sent by A. W. 
Woods, of the Springfield (111.) BusiDess 
College. 

The last observations indicate that wo 
arc distant from the sun about y2,70a,(K)f) 
miles. These are the figures obtnined us 
near as may be from the observations of 
the last VenuB transits. 




B Will Case," which 
I tried in Jersey City, 



1 have been \ 



eoby, 



A Noted and Interesting Case 
ot Forgery. 



ROBABLY DO 

legal oontrover- 

thi8C0untry,dur- 
ing the last de- 
cade, in which 
the genuineness 

has been called 

in question, that 

■xTl has attracted 

than did the " 
was a few years 
N. J. 

In 1877 there died in Hoboken, N. J., a 
wealthy bachelor, leaving a will which, 
after the payment of a few small legacies, 
conveyed his entire estate of more than a 
million of dollars to the United States Gov- 
ernment, to be applied to the payment of 
the national debt. But when the will was 
presented for probate, a pretended widow 
appeared t 
quently presented 
which she alleged 
(then deceased) justice of the peace who 
performed the marriage ceremony between 
her and Mr. Lewis. Experts were called 
who pronounced this certificate a forgery. 

In the December number of the Journal 
will be given a full history of this case, its 
origin, trial, and disposition, illustrated with 
plates showing the writing of the forged 
certificate; also, that of two other certifi- 
cates, made up by the experts, respectively, 
from letters and words cut from the writing 
of the forger, and that of the justice of the 
peace who was alleged to have written the 
certificate. These made-up certificates, 
when compared with the alleged marriage 
certificate, proved it to be in the handwrit- 
ing of tlie forger, and not of the alleged 
justice of the peace. The history of the 
trial, and the handwriting exhibits, will be 
very interesting. Single copies of the 
Journal will be mailed for ten cents. 



Why Good Professional Writers 
are not Good Business Writers. 

T IS asked by a corre- 
spondent. Why are good 
professional writers so 
frequently bad business 
writers? Writing tliat 
IS at all accurate in its 
construction, requires to 
be thougbifully and cure- 
fully executed, and per- 
sons who write thus soon 
establish a certain rate 
of speed, at which they 

rate style of professional 
writing, and their hands sonn become 
habituated to that certain style and rate 
of speed ; and if from any emergency the 
hand is forced to accelerate its motions much 
beyond its accustomed speed, it breaks, as it 
were, and not being able nnder the pressure 
to perform in its wonted way, it is forced 
to adopt a new mode of action, which re- 
quires to bo mastered by practice as much 
as did the former one, and, until it is so 
mastered, all the motions of the hand are 
more or less awkward, and produce, cor- 
respondingly, imperfect and erratic forms. 
A hand that has been trained by long prac- 
tice to write well thirty words a minute, if 
forced to record fifty words, might be able 
to do little more than to make the veriest 
scrawls, like a horse that trots safely and 
gracefully at 2.25, if forced another second, 
breaks and goes into the most awkward 

It is one thing to have a hand trained and 
habituated to a certain style and speed to 
produce accurate and aitietio writing, and 




writing ; 



ave it trained for business 
B not often that a hand 
me, execute a delicate and 
beautiful professional, and a really good 
and rapid business, hand — each style re- 
quiring a certain kind of training and priic- 
tice peouliar to itself. 



Good ^Vriting Not a Gift. 




of natural enduwmcnt, and that those 
most fortunate in this respect will most 
excel, is too obvious to admit of question ; 
but that this is more true of writing than of 
most other attainments we have not the 
slightest belief. That anyone specially excels 
in any direction is most frequently due to 
some circumstance that has tended to direct 
attention to, and awaken an interest in, 
that special direction. Circumstances bring 
a man into the association of artists, and he 
naturally becomes interested in art, pursues 
its study and practice, and excels. Others, 
from similar or other causes, have their at- 
tention directed to mechanics, architecture, 
chemistry, law, medicine, or other profes- 
sion, and excel according to their ability. 
One- of the most conspicuous elements of 
success in any department of knowledge or 
discovery is stick-to-itiveness ; and this is 
specially true of writing. Its acquisition 
requires both patient study and practice — 
study, to acquire a correct mental conception 
of that in which good writing consists ; and 
practice, to impart the manual dexterity for 



Initial Letters. 




EATTIFUL ini- 
titil letters consti- 
'mte an important 



thi 



c pen-work. On 
aud the next 



- •._> several, which 
o -,-, — contained in 

■3 new alphabets pre^ 

sented in "Ames's New Compendium o 
Practical and Artistic Penmanship." 



the 



Dickens on Flourished W^riting. 




subject with Hourishes, 
embellish copy-books and ciphering-books; 
where the titles of the elementary rules of 
arithmetic diverge into swaus, eagles, grif- 
fins, and other caligrapbic recreations, and 
where the capital letters go out of their 
minds and bodies in eoataoies of pen and 

An English writing-master once pub- 
lished an arithmetic, the pages of which 
were extravagantly illustrated with all man- 
ner of such flourishes as are described by 
Dickens, aud to which he alludes in the 
above quotation. 



PirSJMA.NS 



^-C^PJ. /PJc/^-l ?/-}^^Z^J 



Abbreviated Capitals. 




present 




'\ 



nirably adapted for tlial purpuse. The 
same coostitute a part of the department 
of practical writing in "Ames's New Com- 
pendium of Practical and Artistic Penman- 
Bhip" — now ready to mail to any address 
for $5. ^_ 

Why so many Bad Writers ? 



ROBABLY no other at- 
taiuiiient is subject to so 
luany ridiculous notions 
as the acquisition of what 
may he termed a good 
liftudwriling. We are 
rnustanlly met with the 
remark that good writ- 
ing is a gift— "To some 
it comes perfectly natural"; while "others 
never can learn to write well." To us 
thb is sheer nonsense. We believe that 
any person possessed of average common 
senae and a good hand can learn to write, 
with fair facility, a legible style of writing, 
and that this is as certain as it is that be 
can acquire a practical knowledge of arith- 
metic, grammar, geography, or other branch 
of education. 

Tbo chief difficulty of the masses in 
learning to write has been the indifference 
manifested by teachers and school officers 
respecting the instruction of writing in our 
public schools. In all other branches, 
teachers recognize the necessity of, and 
school-boards demand a certain standard of, 
quali6cation ; but the instruction of writ- 
ing is loft to take care of itself— the teacher 
scarcely conceiving it as among his neces- 
sary qualiGcations, while his employers 
have not deemed it of sufficient importance 
to question his capability either to practice 



KTltit 



Bdilubl. 



Thin being the fact, ia it any wonder that 
pupils should be indifferent, and at length 
come themselves to regard it as of slight 
importance whether or not they write a 
good handf 

A teacher who himself is a good writer, 
and is alive to the value and importance of 
good writing, will seldom fail of awakening 
an interest in, and securing, that earnest 
•tudy and practice of writing which will 
secure to his pupils a good handwriting. 



Home Study and Improvement. 

N another page 
- will he found 
"* «Ti article upon 
ll K' above sub- 
ject, by Mary 
L. Martin, that 
deserves the 
thoughtful at- 
jpecially the fe- 
JouRNAL. Few 
much of valuable in- 
y useful aud grati- 
ay bo acquired by a 

ome and it is a 
the organized effort now 
and encourage 
provements. 
fact that with most ladies 
d even literary, improve- 
rs with their schooldays, or at 
marriage. Domestic- affairs, or 




all educational, 



light, useless reading absorbs their time, 
and very soon the brilliant and scholarly 
schoolgirl, who has been the pier, if not the 
superior, of her male classmate, is quite 
distanced, and is, comparatively, his inferior 
in nearly all departments of human know- 
ledge. The young men, by their more 
practical and extended range of observa- 
tion, not only utilize, but continually 
through life add to their school attain- 
ments; while the young lady, in her lim- 
ited sphere of thought aud observation, eel- 
dom finds occasion even to recall her former 
studies — to say nothing of extending them. 



lookii 



the 




The Common-sense Binder. 

This convenient receptacle f.ir holdi 



mg 



and preserving the Journal should b 
jKissession of every subscriber. It is to all 
intents iiuti purposes a complete binder, and 
will contiiin all the numbers for four years. 
Mailed for $1.50. ^ 

Many life books are bound in calf. — ^x. 



couragement of original or continued effort 
for advancing the standard for home culture 
of ladies we bid God-speed, 



EPORT of the United 
States Commissioner of 
Education, for 1881, has 
i iiat been received. It 
■■■mtains much valuable 
^f^' information respecting 
the edocational systems 
of this country and the world, and their 
results. 

The number of teachers employed in 
public schools in the States and Territories 
is 289,1.^9. Salaries for men range from 
$2r).J5 in South Carolina to $y'J,50 in Ne- 
vada; for women, from $16,84 in Vermont 
to $74.76 in Nevada. Alabama, Florida, 
Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, 
New York, North Carolina, Tennessee, 
Now Mexico, and Wyoming make no dis- 
tiuction of sex in reporting salaries. The 
lowest salary reported in these is $22.25, in 
North Carolina; the highest $60-23, in 
Wyoming. In the New England Slates 
the excess of the salaries of men above 
those of women ranges from $10.86 to 
$47,05; in the Middle Atlantic States from 
$3,93 to $18.39; in the Southern Atlantic 
States from 07 cents to $20 ; in the North- 
em Central States from $4 to $11.20; in 
the Southern Central States from %h to 
$6.44; in the States of the Pacific slope 
from $10.54 to $24.74; in the Territories 
from $7 to $29.86. West Virginia reports 
average salaries for women in excess of 
those for men by 74 cents. 

The t<ital amount expended for school 
purposes is ^85, 1 1 1 ,442. The amount ex- 
pended for each pupil ranges from $1.71 in 
North Carolina to $21.43 in Colorado. 



There are 3G2 universities and colleges 
having (>2,435 studenta and 4,361 iastruc- 

Of scientific ecboola tbefe are 85, having 
12,709 studenta and 1,019 instTuctors; 144 
schools of theology having 4,693 students 
and 624 instructors; 47 law schools having 
3,227 students and 229 instructors; 126 
schools of medicine, dentistry, and phar- 
macy, having 14,536 students and 1,746 in- 
structors ; of commeroi»l aud business col- 
leges there are 202, having 34,414 students 
and 794 instrnctore ; 57 institutions for the 
deaf and dumb, with G,740 students and 431 
instructors ; schools for the blind number 30, 
and have 2,148 students and 593 instructors. 



Our Canadian Agent. 

J. B. McKay, of Kingston, Ontario, 
duly authorized to act as agent for tl 



College Currency. 



OMEt 







informed by the 
Uuited States 
authorities that 
the designs for 
college currency 
which we had 
been printing 
were regarded 
lilitnde of the na- 
a violation of the 
U. S. statute, and falling upon us to desist 
from printing the same, and to surrender 
our plates aud stock of currency on hand 
for destruction, which we did. We then 
prepared new designs for currency, which 
we submitted to the then United States 
attorney for this city, who pronounced them, 
in his judgment, unobjectionable, and so 
we clearly believe them to be ; but it seems 
that the solicitor of the United Slates 
Treasury thought othenvise, and, accord- 
ingly, caused us to be notified, a few 
months since, that we must distmntinue the 
printing and sale of currency from these 
plates, as it was deemed by him to be in 
violation of the United States .statute. 

In order that there should in future be no 
question respecting the legality of currency 
we might offer for sale we have prepared a 
a set of designs which we have submitted, 
through Mr. James L. Brooks, chief of the 
Secret Service Division of the United States 
Treasury at Washington, D. C, to the 
United States Solicitor, who returns the 
designs, with the following communication : 

U. S. TREAfltmv Depahtment, 

Skcukt-Service Division. 
Office of Chief, 
Washington, D. C, Oct. £Sd. 1883. 
Mr. D. T. Ames, 

Broadway, N. Y. City. 
■Sir .- — I have Bubnulted your three designs 
for notes, for college use, to J. H. Robinson, 
ABsistant-BoIicitor of the Treasury, and he finds 
no objection thereto, provided they are printed 
in carbon, on a wliite ground, with plain backs. 
In modifying or changing the deeigoB in any 
manner, you must avoid imitating geometric 
lathe work ; also avoid the use of the following 
words in the notes, to wit: " Preaident," 
"Cashier," "currency," " doIlarB," "cents," 
"money," "Bank," "Pay on demand." 

There muet be no countera, vignettes, or any- 
thing bearing resemblance, in whole or in pari, 
to any currency authorized by CongreBs, or is- 
sued by the General Ooreniment. 

I recognize your earnest desire to conform 



to ibe requirements of the Department for the 
protection of the uneducated in financial mat- 
ters, and I believe the designs herewith re- 
turned. If used for college purposes, cannot, 
should they fall iato dishonest hands, be used 
in lieu of the genuine isaues of National Banka, 
or of the United States Treasury. 
Reepectfully, 

Jamks J. Brooks, Chief. 



1 the abo- 



icationTlwillhe 
purpose of the. 



observed that it 
United States Treasury officials to tolerate 
nothing in the form of college script that 
bears the remotest resemblance to actual 
money; and it has been with no little per- 
plexity and study that we have been ena- 
bled to prepare designs tiaving any fair 
degree of artistic merit, and yet be within 
the rules laid down by the UuiKd States So-* 
licitor. We believe, however, that we have 
succeeded in originating an unobjeclionable 
style of currency wliicb will admirably serve 
the purpose, while it will possess consider- 
able artistic merit, and, under the circum- 
stances, prove highly acceptable for all 
school purposes. 

Perfect drawings for photo- engraving 
will be completed, and plates engraved, bo 
that duplicate cuts or currency may be sup- 
plied by the middle of December. The 
currency will be priuted on hank-note 
paper, in the uni^denominations of 1, 2, 5, 
10, 20, 100, 500, and 1,000; of the frac- 
tional denominations, 1, 5, 10, 25, and 50. 
This currency will he constantly kept in 



stuck, and fur 


uisbeil at 


M 


rice 


defy com- 


petition, and 


will be 




Je 


s attractive 


as iB poBBible 


under the 


se 


rare. 


but proper, 


reatriotions set forth in 


til 


e ab 


3ve letter of 


Mr. Brooks. 












H R 1 S T M A S 

number of the 

Journal will be 

attractive 

interesting 

sued. It will cer- 
tainly be worth 
the price 
8ub- 
iption to any- 
) in any way 
interested in penmanship. Single copies, 
10 cents. As a medium for advertising it , 
will be specially valuable, as we guarantee 
a circulation of over .'10,000 sixteen-page 
copies, - limited number of select advertise- 
ments will be accepted at the regular rates, 
as given on the first column of the prei-ed- 
ing page. 

Back Numbers of the "Journal." 

Every mail brings inquiries respecting 
back numbers. The following we can send, 
and no others: All numbers of J878; all 
for 1870, except May and November ; for 

1880, copies for months of January, Feb- 
ruary, April, May, June, August and 
December only remain ; all numbers for 

1881, and all for 1882, except June. It 
will be noted that while Spencer's writing 
lessons began with May, the second leaeon 
was in the July number, so that the senea 
of lessons is unbroken by the absence of 
tlie June number. Only a (ew copies of 
several of the numbers mentioned above 
remain, eo that [)er80QS desiriug all or any 
part of them should order quickly. All the 
51 numbers, back of 1883, will ba mailed 
for $4.00, or any of the Dumbera at 10 cents 



/<; TH E ;Pe".\ M.-vl^l 











ce^r 



it wiUconlai,, m,m.™„. „.™ J . 7 T ' 1 "^ comm.roal de.ignB, .ngroKed r™olmi™,. m™„ri.U, CBrlificMe., till, pag.s, .tc, e,o.: iu .h„.l. 



In 
last 



Autograph Exchangers. 



vith 



nbtr, 



I the 



following-named perflunn 
have signified their willingnsM or desire to 
exchange autographs, upon the Peircerian 
plan, as set forth in the August number of 
the Journal : 
C. C. Cochran, Central High School, Pilts- 

liurgh. Pa. 
J. M. SI.ephcrd, I.a Grange, Mo. 
C. J. Wolcolt, Sherman, N. Y. 
It II. Maring, Columbus (Oh 

College. 
Wilson M. Tjlor, Marshall Soi 



0) Ru 



, N. Y. 






J. W. lirose, Keokuk, loira. 
J. W. Tisher, Brunswick, Me. 
0. J. Hill, DryJon, .N. Y. 
L. H. Shaver, Cave Springs, Va. 
W. I). Strong. Oltumwa, Iowa. 
J. H. W. Y.)rk, Woodstock, Ontario. 
Charles Hills, 234 11 th Street, Philadelphia. 
W. E. Erust, Sherw..ud, Michigan. 
E. C. Bosworth, Business University, Roch- 
ester, N. Y. 
D. C. Griffiths, Waxahachie, Texas. 
C. W. Slocum, ChiUiuoiho, Ohio. 




And School Items. 



T. B. Boss in teaching writiug-clai 
Colorado. 

T. P. Pluck is leaching writing in tl» 
schools ol" Cedar Falla, Iowa. Mr. Fli 
penman of rare skill. 



The Bryant, .Straiten & Sadler Business 
College, Baltimore, Md., held its Nineleeulh 
Anniversary Exercises on the 3d insl. 

The Chrittenden Col'ege of Philadelphia, 
Pa , conducted by Prof. Groesbec. is e- joying 
more than its usual degree of prosperity. 

The Delaware {Ohio) (lazelU paye G. W. 
Michael a high compliment for his successful 
work as a teacher of writing, at Oberliu, Ohio. 

Ill the October number of the Joi'R.NAl, we 
uieutioned .1. B. Campbell as a teache'r of writ- 
ing, at the Greenwich ( Coim. ) Academy, which 
was a mistake, as he is principal of the Bay 
\ lew Busines* College, East Greenwich. R, I. 

Fred. P. Judd, who, for some time past, has 
been in charge of the Commercial Department 
of the Jennings College, at Aurora, III., has a 
position in Soudei-'s Chicago Businesa College, 
llts brother, H- S. Judd, succeeds him at Au- 

H. W. Plickinger's Writing Academy, lately 
opened in Association Hall, Philadelphia, Pa., 
is already full to overflowing, and the Proles- 
sor is looking for new and more spacious 
i|uarler». Such is the inconvenience of well- 
deserved popularity. 

The Writing Department of the Oberlin 
( Ohio ) College, in charge of Uriah McKee, 
has lately occupied new and commodious rooms 
in the Hoyce Block, Nos. 13 and I3j College 
Street. The fine specimens of improvement 
made by pupils in this department are mdica- 

llie 1 incejivea {Ind.) Commercial Bays ; 
•' W. L. Beema.i has entered inlo a co-part- 
ihip_ will, Prof. W. E. Shaw, iu the manage- 



Duriiig a lale visit lo the City of Brotherly 
Love we had the pleasure of a visit to the 
Hryaot & Stratton Business College, con- 
ducted by .1. E. Sould. which we found in the 
enjoyment ot an unprecedented tide of prosper- 
ity. The college-rooms have lately been en- 
larged and refilled in the most convenient and 
elegant style. 

S. W. Christie, who, fur the past eight years, 
has had charge of the Banking and Office De- 
partments of the Eastman Business College, 
at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., is about to establish a 
business college at Lock Haven, Pa. Mr. 
Christie is the author of a guide-book lor «tu 
dents, which has proved an invaluable aid to 
beginners. Says the Poughkeepsie jVeioj 

■' It is no more than bare justice lo say that 
no member of the faculty has contributed more 
than Mr. Christie lo elevate the Eastman Col- 
lege to its present high grade among the edu- 



euls and industry deserve." 

Baylies' CommercW College, at Dubuqui 
Iowa, held its Tweuly-fifih Anniversary i 
October. The Milivaukee Sentinel says ; 




of the V 

college baa been mo 
commodious cptartere. corner Secc 
seron Streeu, over Markee's drug 
Beeman is a fine penman, and 
highly recommended a. an exD-li. 
■fc 



BnsinesB Cullege. Tie 
■re oenlral « 
d and B 



livered hv 
thefoundei 
remarks, s 



'as engaged 
e in this citj 
P. C. Spenci 






t' ■ ' I" '- - l> .M. Barllelt. of Cinuinii 

o iw piijl living, and is gladdened at the 
nilerful sucoesa achieved by his project. 
. Spencer prophesied a great achievement 
business eduoutiou during the next twenly- 



C. H. Peirce, Keokuk, Iowa, a letter. 
M. W. Cobb, PainsviUe, Ohio, a letter, 
.1, W. Ki.her, Brunswick, Me., a letter. 
J, B. MoKay, Kirigsloli, Ontario, a letter. 
Cariie L. McConi, Hampton, la,, a letter. 
A. M. Hesrne, Los Angeles, Cal.. a letter. 
C. L. Smith, Purl Collins, Colora.lo. a letter. 



N. E. Ware, Sharon, Ga., a 1 
shell bird. 
H. W. Shaylor, Portland, Me, 

C. J. Woli 



I ele. 






Sherman, N. Y., a lell 
1, Lynn, .Mass., a lell. 
herwood. Mich., a lell, 



W. L. Bow 
card speciuiei 

W, E. Ern, 
flourished ipi 

Pred. P. Judd. of Sender's Chicago Busin. 
College, 207 Weal Madison Street, a letter. 



AH I JOIJKNAJL 



-"^W^^F 



It II. Mariiig. Colunibn* ( OUio ) Businest 
Collfgp, 3 Iett«<r. 

J. W. PalUiD, uf Gaakt-Il's Jvney City Bu«i- 
a«»» ColUgn, a, )«lt«r. 

A. W. Woods, of the Springfield ( III.) Bubi- 
neKii College, a letter. 

W. Heron, Jr., Maoclieater ( N. 11.) Busi- 
ne»8 College, H letter. 



C. E. Gregg. Lanionl, Mitl.., a letter and 
Hpeoimen of Kouriiibing. 

J. M. Holmea. Wilkin* Kuii. Oliio, a letter 
and I1>mriahei) (•peciincn. 

A. K. PecJt. Hi-li-l penman. Dallas. Texaa, a 
letter and a eel of capital''. 

C. W. Tallraan, HilUdale, Micb., a lelter 
and speuiiueQB of ttourlshlng. 

R. S. Boneall, of tlie Carpenter's B. &. S. 
College. St. Lonis. Mo., a letter. 

Cliailes IlilU, Pliiladelphia, Ph., a letter 
and a )>ackHge of elegaDtly-writteii uopy-slipe. 

T. W. Brose, Pelice's Businesa College. Keo- 
kuk, TowB, a letter and ppecfuieuB of nourish- 
ing. 

C. N. Crandle, Penmanship Department of 
the Weatern Normal College, at Bu^huell, III., 
a letter. 

O. J. Hill, dry-gooda merchant, Dryden, 
N. v., a lelter antl good apeciineiie of biiBineBS- 
writing. 

J. V. Stubbletixld, pennmti at ihe Ohio Com- 
mercial College, at Hamilton, a lelter and card- 
fpecimena. 

W. P. Worm wood, of Western Normal Col- 
lege and Commercial Int^titute, SlieDaudoali, 
Iowa, a letter. 

G. W. Ware, South West Cilj. Mo., a lelter 
and Bpecimens of lettering nud driving, all 
very creditable. 

S. C. William-. Bpecial tem.-h.-r of penman- 
ahip and book-keeping in the Loi-kpi>n ( X. Y.) 
public boIiooIb, a letter. 

W. C. Gilbert. Oawego, N. Y.. a photograph 
of an sDgiaved 8et of reeolulioud, the lettering 
of which ix quite creditable. 

W. 0. Hawonli, New Market, Tenn,, apeci- 
meti of DouriBhing executed Willi the left-hand. 
He eaje; "The Jui'ieXAi, aida me greatly; it is 
the beat peumaiiV paper publiithed." 

J. H. W. York, Woodstock, Ontario, a le^ 
ter. Mr. York aays; "Though I have never 
met Prof. S| eucer, it Heems like parting from 
an old friend and intimate acrjuaiulance when 
I read his laat leaBOu on practical writing in 
tlie Jid-ltNAL. Vitur paper is doiug a grand 
work in popularizing peumanBhip." 



Handy with his Pen. 



a cuiild be duoe with a c< 
' II looks like engraving, d 
' So that's what they call i 



t writing." 
profeeaional 



"Well, I'll be darned." It was on 
We»t MadisoD sear HaUted street, and a 
group of men, women and children stood 
around a "professional card-writer," who 
exhibited not the slightest emoiiou on hear- 
ing all these encomiunis bestowed upon 
himself. One woman, done up in frowsy, 
nickel-store finery, and with a most diabol- 
ical cast in her eyes, put her iace almost up 
to the busy peuuiau's and abked him if he 
would like her order aud {-ollect his pay at 
her hou8e. The man was annoyed. 

"Which one of your eyes did you look 
at me with, ma'tn T " he said with impertur- 
bable savf/ froid. The crowd roared, the 
womau clunk off, very much offended, and 
in half a minute there was nobody around 
the table. 

" Rather curious profession that of yours, 
is it uutt " said the reporter hs he began a 
conversation with the man of the skillful 

" Well, yts, 80 it is," he admitted ; "but 
it has its upa and downs, its advantages and 
its dii>advantagps, like any other calling. 
You want me to «ive you some details 
about the kind ..f Iif.t we pr..fe.'^.'i.iu»l caM- 
writeih lead ^ So be it. There are not 
many in this city— not many iu the whole 



I country, for that matter. There are only 
' two perambulating card-penmen in Chicago 
! just now. There are a few more prufes- 
! sionals in the hotela — one at the Sherman 
House, one at the Cnmmercial Hotel, and 
1 one at the Palmer. The man who used to 
be at the Grand Pacific has made a trip to 
I San Francisco, together with the Knights 
Templar, and he ia coining money like dirt 
there, I understand. Interesting incidental 
I Oh, cerlainiy, if I could only call them to 
mind. You see, I ain a regular graduate, 
i and I took to this life just for a starter; I've 
I been on the road just nne year, and I'll get 
I out of the busiuesa pretty soon. I'll tell 
you why. One makes big money and has a 
good enough time traveling all over the 
country. One easily makes acquaintances — 
and very nice ones, too, sometimes — but 
this migratory, vagabond life ia apt to spoil 
a man for any serious pursuit if too long in- 
dulged in. . I had a desire to see this great 
country of ours, and by following this pro- 
fession I have my wish gratified. But ii ia 
not all fun, let me assure you. Since May 
Ist, this year, I have written not less than 
.'}'2,000 cards. I keep an account, and this is 
the truth. I had a partner with me. He 
used to take orders for me, and that's the 
way we do in winter. After September, 
when the fairs are all done, we retire from 
the open air. Two work together from that 
time forth: one solicita orders by going 
through private and business houses, while 
the other one is at home and does the work. 
Oil, it pays well enough ! There is my 
cash-book. See, I stayed in Detroit four 
weeks, and earned SJI.5; in Saginaw, one 
week, Sfi.'j. Bay City, one week, $70; 
Grand ICapids, ten days, $!)U; Kalamazoo, 
one week, $55; Pittsburgh, three weeks, 
$172; and Chicago, dve weeks, S:i(i(). 
That's doing well enough, ien't it f Aud 
yet my prices are not high. They range 
between ivventy cents and sixty cents |»er 
dozen. That's according to the quality of 
the card, not the writiug. The writing is 
all the same, no matter what style is de- 
sired. It seems funny, though some days 
one makes *I0, and even $15; and then 
again there are days one doesn't earn his 
salt, and everybody passes by. Thai's 
rather discouraging, you say. So it ia, but 
one soon gets over that feeling and learns 
to take things as they come." 

" And do you make no one place your 
particular home?" 

" No, sir, I follow the old Latin proverb, 
" Ubi bene, ibi patria." You see, I haven't 
quite forgotton my college training. There 
are funny characteristics, though, about 
every phice one comes to, and one soon 
learns to take them into account. What 



abo 



. Chie 



igo : 



the 



number of cross-eyed women. Why, it's 
horrid. A few days ago, there was a whole 
string of these queer-eyed beauties drawn 
up in front of my table here. I don't like 
'eiu and I plainly show it. How do I pro- 
ceed when I get to a new place ? Very 
simply; I look up a much frequented thor- 
oughfare, and then I obtain permission to 
put up my table aud chair in front of some 
store, or some new and unoccupied building. 
I epread out my samples on the table aud 
then I'm ready." 

"Tell me something of your customers." 
" Not much to tell. There are more men 
than women. Reapectable eirls and women 
dislike to stop in front of my table and 
give orders, because a crowd collects at once 
aud then every one can see their names. 
The way I fix thein ia to advise them to 
give me their order and to call around again 
after an hour or so for the cards. There 
are lots of women, though, in Chicago and 
everywhere else, who court notoriety in- 
stead of objecting to it." 

" See, this ia a style of card much in 
voeue with women generally. It's a beau- 
tiful card-board and is in shape of a slipper, 
with raised rim. We sell them at thirty 
cents a dozen. I leave Chicago Sunday or 
Monday morning, and am going t(t the fairs 
jn the country. Que makes more money 
there, because people go there to apend 



money and are more willing to pay good 
prices for our work. I have been very busy 
here the last few days. Last night I wrote 
5U0 cards and was at work uutil eleven 
o'clock. But I made about $20. 

At the Sherman House another specimen 
of the genius ''professional penman" was 
found. He waa a very genteel young man. 
He said : " I am the only professional pen- 
man permaueutly located iu this city. I earn 
more money by engrossing resolutions, di- 
plomas, etc., and by executing orders for reti- 

! dent stationers than by writiug cards. It is 
not so easy aa some people think to become 

1 a professional penman. One must be regu- 
lar iu one's habits, neither driuTt nor smoke, 

I else the hand loses its firm yet light touch. 

: One must be able to have half a dozen 
styles at immediate command, besides wri- 
ting fiueutly and rapidly a faultless bus- 
iness hand. Hut it pays to be a professional 
penman. I pay quite a high {irit^e here for 
the privilege of putting my staud in the 
hotel rotunda, but then I earned ^SiSriO last 
year, as my books will show. Let me give 
you an idea of the profession here in the 
West. Aa yet little ia known as to styles 
in cards aud card-writing. In the East, 
they use a large-size card for the ladies, 
and a smaller one for the gentlemen. Here 
it ia juat the opposite. There ia a paper 
published in the East on that subject that 
always contains valuable hints. The bev- 
eled cards are going out of style, either 
plain or gill. What is just now the most 
tasty and fashionable thing in cards is a 
heavy, wedding Bristol -board and quite 
plain. As to the writing, there is no par- 
ticular style in vogue just now. 01 neces- 
sity, the writing must he neat and plain, 
with no fiuurishes or other chirogra[jhic 
eccentricities. The particular style is a 

.matter of taste, however. Ladies' script ie 
out of date, too. But if no specific instruc- 
tion is given me, I follow no particular sys- 
tem of writing. Symmetry and natural 
taste in arranging the letters on the cards is 
all that is required. Yes, the angular sys- 
tem so long affected by the ladies, is rapidly 
disappearing, too. The trouble with that 
kind of writing was that it was not plain. 
One could not distinguish the small "u" 
from the "n." My prices vary between 

fifty cents and $1 per pack of twenty-five 

cards; so you see they are just about what 

the better kind of printed cards cost." 
" What do you know of your competitors 

"They are not competitors of mine. 
They have their cuatoinera and I have mine. 
Their bold, pretentious style of writing 
would not do for my customers. Mine 
have better taate, and want their cards just 
as plain as if they had written them them- 
selves. One advantage of written cards is 
that they are not so monotonous as printed 
or engraved cards are. Iu writing a pack 



jf cards, 



diffcrt 



styles of writing, and that is what many 
people like. Cards, wedding invitations, 
and all manner of other invitations to 
parties, etc., are all getting very fashion- 
able in writing. In my opinion this evin- 
ces a better taste, lor it shows an apprecia 
tion of handwork, which is always more 
individual aud original than the mechanical 
work. It's just as men prefer hand-made 
shoes and clothes to machine-made ones. 
The East is ahead of us, though, in this 
reaped. A man I knew recently paid $5,- 
000 to another man in Boston as a bonus to 
him for the privilege to exercise professional 
card-writing in a certain (.tore. That shows 
that penmanship has become a regular pro- 
fession, and that it pays." 



^A^^iting- Ruler. 

The Writing-Ruler has become a stand- 
ard article with those who profess to have a 
suitable outfit for practical writing. It is 
to the writer what the chart and c^mpna.' is 
to the mariner. The Writing-Ruhr s a re- 
liable penmanship chart and compass, sent 
by the Jooenal on receipt of :J0 cents. 



Curious Facts of Natural 
History. 

A siudo hous«-tly pf.<iuces in ou- s -..m-u 
20,000,320. 

Some female spiders produce nearly 
2,000 eggs. 

Dr. Bright published a case of an e^g 
producing an iuaeut' eighty years after the 
egg must have been laid. 

A wasp's nest usually contains 15,000 or 
IG.OIIO cells. 
' The Atlautic Ocean is estiinated'at three 
miles, aud the Pacific at four milec deep. 
There are aix or seven generations of 
gnats in a summer, and each gnat lays 2.^0 
eggs. 

There are about 9,000 cells in a squai'- 

foot of honeycomb; 5,000 beea weigh one 

pound. 

A awarm of bees contains from 10,000 to 

I 20,000 in a natural state, and from 30,t)00 

^ to -10,000 iu a hive. 

I Th.) bones of birds arc hollow, aud fall. .1 
: with air instead of i 
Fish with four 
seas of Surinam; two of thorn on horn. 
! which grow on the tops of their heads. 
Two thousand nine bundreil silkworms 
proiloce one pound of silk; but it would 
require a7,000 spiders, all female, to produce 
one pound of web. 

Capt. Beaufc»rt saw near Smyrna, in 
18J2, a eloud of locusts 4(> miles long, and 
300 yards deep, containing, as be calculated, 
ltiU,0L0,()00. 

With a view to collect their webs fur eilk, 
4,000 spiders were once obtained, but they 
soon killed each other. Mauufacturea and 
war never thrive together. 

Spiders have four papa for spinning their 
threads, each pap having 1,000 holes, and 
the fine web itself the unirm of 4000 
threads. No spider spins more than four 
webs, and when the fourth ia destroyed they 
seize »m the webs of others. 

A pound of cochineal contains 70,000 
insects buile.l to ileath, and from 000,000 to 
700,000 pounds are annually brought to 
Europe for scarlot and crimson dyes. 

A ijueen-bee will lay eggs daily for 50 or 
00 days, aud the eggs are hatched in three 
days. A single queen-bee has been stated 
to i)roduce 100,000 bees iu a season. 

The quantity of water discharged into the 
sea by all the rivers iu the world Ts esti- 
mated at 3(J cubic miles in a day; hence il 
would take above 3,500 years to create a 
circuit of the whole sea through clouds and 

River water contains about 2t) grains of 
solid matter to every cubic foot. Hence 
such a river as the Rhine carries to the sea 
every day 145,000 cubic feet of sand or 



Mole 






d by an 

outer arch impervious to rain, and an inter- 
nal platform with drains aud covered ways 
ou which the pair and young reside. The 
molea live ou worms and roots, and bury 
themselves in any soil iu a very few min 



A Cipher. 

A lady in England requested a " Cipht 
of a well-knowu clerical gentlemau, aud 
ceived the following ; 



( A cipber you «lgli for, I t\^\\ Jor tbt 
Oli; Migh for no tijiher, Ijiit, oil! Higb 
Ytt lliy sigU for my eigli. h.r odo« 1 ( 
Till you ileci|>tier the olplier. j-ou «1glj 

The lady's reply is equally as witty 



■wgo. 






Remember, that if you renew, or send, 
your subscripiiou to the Journal, with 
$1, you will get a 75 oeni book free, or a 
91 book for 25 cents extra. 



VU I 'JoliKN.VI.. 



About Autographs. 

Iudejion<Icntly of the curiosity which at- 
taches itself to the writing of all celebrated 
iiien, there is, perhaps, in the knowledge of 
autograpbe a new science; in fact, there is 
known to us au expert amateur, who, by 
the aiinplo examination of handwritiug 
traced by a dozen people whom he has 
never soon, can, with a rare exactitude, 
give their characters, passions and habits 
with a truth and precision most startling. 
There are no great collections of auto- 
grapa in America. In Europe they exist, 
and are valued at fabiilous prices, the most 
rare and curious being in France. Among 
the richest we may cite those of Madame 
Lefevre, the late Baron Dubin, senator, and 
that of the gifted Count d'Armanou. It 
is the latter's collection to which we would 
most specially refer, the treasures being se- 
cured by a gentleman of New York, an 
enthusiastic amateur, who had to compete at 
the auctiou sale of these relics in Paris with 
such distinguished rivals as the Duke of 
St. Mark and many of the most celebrated 
collectors on the contiuent. As a part of 
the real treasures thus secured, we purpose 
describing simply an album of the Count 
d'Armanou. The bulk of the contributions 
to this elegant — we might almost add price- 
less — bowk were made between the years 
184.5 and 1848. The Count had an idea to 
create a treasure for himself and family, and 
strange indeed were the changes transfer- 
-ring it to New York, lie said, in effect: 
" Ancient autographs are expensive, rare, 
and very difficult to find. I will make a 
collection of my contemporaries." And this 
album to-day, says the authority, Charon, 
" is the richest of its nature to be found in 
the world." 

The first part is of a religious character, 
-most richly ornamented with designs in 
water-colors, and the writing and signatures 
of the two Popes, Gregory XVI. and Pius 
IX., sixty-four cardinals and two hundred 
and sixty bishops and archbishops. The 
second part contains autographs, original 
poetry and thoughts, commencing with 
verses by the zealous Count, addressed to 
bis future contributors ; and then on a 
strange pilgrimage through France he went, 
knocking at every illustrious door, begging 
a line here, a thought, word or a signature 
there, and all the doors opened ; the harvest 
was abundant. Authors, artists, ministers, 
diplomats, academicians were confounded 
and established (»n au equal footing in the 
) polyglot panorama. 



The Grandeur of Nature. 

We live pearoably on the earth, while 
oceans of fire roll beneath our feet. In the 
great womb of the globe the everlasting 
forge is at work. How dreadful must an 
earthquake be, when we are told by Pliny 
that twelve cities in Asia Minor were swal- 
lowed up in one night! Not a vestige re- 
mained — they were lost in the tremendous 
maw forever! Millions of human beings 
have been swallowed up while flying for 
safety. In the bowels of the earth Nature 
performs her wonders at the same moment 
that she is firing the heavens with her 
lightnings. Her thunders roll above our 
heads and beneath our feet, where the eye 
of mortal man never penetrated. In the vast 
vortex of the volcano the universal forge 
empties its melted metals. The roar of Etna 
has been the knell of thousands when it 
poured forth its cataract of fire over one of 
the fairest portions of the earth, and swept 
into ruins ages of indubtry. In the reign 
of Titus Vespasian, in the year 70, the vol- 
cano of Vesuvius dashed its fiery billows 
to the clouds, and buried iu burning lava 
the cities of Herculaneum, Stable and 
Pompeii, which then flouriahed near Na- 
ples. In the streets once busy with the 
hum of industry, and where the celebrated 
ancients walked, the modern philosopher 
now ■ stands and ruminates upon fallen 
grandeur. While the inhabitants were un- 
mindful of the danger which awaited them ; 
while they were busied with plans of wealth 
and greatness, the irresistible flood of fire 
came ro.ring from the mountain, and 
shrouded them in eternal night. Seventeen 



centuries have rolled over them, and their 
lonely habitations and works remain as 
their monuments. They are swept away iu 
the torrent of time; the waves of ages have 
settled over them, and art alone has pre- 
served their memory. Great Nature, how 
sublime are all thy works ! 



BOOKSIIMII 



Free. NEW YORK BOOK F 



The Centennial Picture of ■ 
Progress. 

When we announced, a short time since, 
the exhaustion of our supply of those pic- 
tures, of a size that could be afforded free 
as a premium, it was not our intention to 
to re-publish the work, but so frequent and 
earnest has been the demand for copies 
that we decided to have new plates made 
(22x28 inches), and shall hereafter mail 
copies free to all who may desire them as a 
premium. The new plates are very much 
superior to the old ones, and hence the new 
prints will bo much more desirable than 
those formerly mailed. Large prints, 28x 
40, will continue to be mailed for 25 cents 



H. W. FLICKINGER'S 

SELECT WRITING ACADEMY, 



Penmanship Instruction Charts. 

le only app»mtu* it. oiliteac« for teaphiog and il 
AGKNTS WAKTBD. 

^ J. H. REED. Lancaster, Wis. 



V lowing rates : Spennerian Bnript. 35 cW. ^t doa— $2 

50 ct«.; pen-flouriibed. ja. Sample*. 35 cU. Nothing 
free. B. F. KSLLSY. 305 Broadfray. New York. 

WISITINO CARDS.— Finy rxtra dne plaio (vhlta or 



SPECIMEN AUTOGRAPHS. 

n receipt II f 15 cent*, before January next, I will* 
jral Bpeoimen autographs Tor praetioe. 

W. P. COOPER, 
1-2 KingsviUe, Olii-: 



ARTISTIC PENMANSHIP.- 
Elm Street, UUoa, N. Y. 



r 


ffSV^^-^inbudneh'c 


11 xl8 inchM, eie- 

eral terms to afrenl*. 

ollege. Springfield, 111. 


ri 


e Northwest. Address, 


d business college lo 


n 


thing eqaal lo it. Send '. 


Busmses Coi-LBOB, 



AMES'S •■ Hand-book of AHistic Penmanship "— a 3 



A white boy met a colored lad the other 
day and ashed him what he had such a 
short nose for. " I spect's so it won't 
poke itself into other people's business." 

Extra Copies of the "Journal" 

Will be sent free to teachers and others who 
desire to make au effort to secure a club of 
Bubscriben. 




DANIEL T AMES.AUTHOR S PUBUSHER.EOS BROADWAY NElVrORK. 

&ilErT(I.dcCDrifin2loAdDlCnn?TOS.lnlheuuria8Z.tnjDaniElTAniE5.7filhEOiriceorth8UlwianarConEres5,a1W 
? cut it th< iitU-page of Amtt't " Hand-book of Artistic Penmanship," a copy of whirk. in paper covers, is tfiven. fre 
every subscriber to the "Journal." Substantially bound in cloth covers, for £5 cenU extra. The book alone is worlt 
person the price of a subscription, whUe the "Journal" is invaluable to every teacher or pupil of writing. 




i 



^ ;:;■;' 'J!sui^^^^^\ -:>L >/ 



• "Mr. MadaraBZ does more t-ard-work tbau 
Koy other penmuD. ainl I hope he will receive 
ft liberal pKtrunage. Ilif card-wurk is really 




Whose fino pcnmanshii) goes to all parts 
of thf country, will write your name, in the 
style which has made Madarasz famous, on 
twenty-five cards, and inclose same in a 
haudaomc Russia-Leather Cahd-Case, 
ou receipt of $1. 

Brilliant Black Ink 

Sent by express for $1.80 per quart. Re- 
ceipt for its manufacture, 30 cents. 




On receipt of $1 and ten l-cent stamps I 
will send you the following, prepaid, viz. : 
2 Seta of Capitals, dillerwiit . . . worth ..'jO 

1 Brilliant Black luk Recipe . . " .^0 

2 Specimens of riouriching . . " .r>0 
Caids witii your name .... " .50 

Total worlli ... " §1,80 

I will give you my very best work. 




Three Complete Sets of Off- 
hand Capitals, 

No two alike, only 5U cents. Single sets, 
20 cents. To students and others desiring 
a variety of the latest styles of Capitals, 
these will he found to he the finest pen- 
and-ink work executed hy any penman in 
the world. 

On receipt of ten 1-cent stamps samples 
of cards will he sent, showing the most 
wonderful command of the pen. 




Professional penmen often inquire what 
pen is used by Madarasz that he can make 
such fine hair-lines and hold shades. The 
identical pens will he eeut to any address 
for 50 cents per box, and for the very finest 
quality, 60 cents per box. After five years' 
constant use these pens cannot he too highly 
recommended. 

Poor writing made good, and good writ- 
ing made better, by using tho improved 

Patent Oblique Penholdep. 

Mailed to your address for 20 




Money.- 



WANTED. 

A good, live agent, in every school, to 
solicit orders for written cards. Sample- 
hook, contitining superb samples, with 
redoocd prices, sent for 'do 1-ccnt stamps. 
Students in commercial colleges make 
money handsomely, canvassing at the rates 
offered. 

All orders promptly and carefully filled. 
Canadian script oniy accepted, U. S. post- 
age-stamps taken for any amount hy 

L MADARASZ, Penman, 

P. O. Box, 2105, New York City. 

Please mention the JOURNAL. 



The Disparagement 
How ahsurd does it seei 
money, as if it were something sinful and 
dangerous. As well disparage maie-power, 
steam-power, or any other power. As a 
force money is neither hurtful nor beneficial, 
neither bad nor good in itself. All depends 
on the way in which it is used or directed. 
Gunpowder can blast a quarry and bring 
forth stones with which a hospital may be 
built ; hut the same gunpowder in the 
bands of the Russians or Turks ean blow 
thousands of men into eternity in a single 
day. A rich man, if he be unselfish, has 
in his wealth the power of making bis fel- 
low-creatures less coarse, less depraved, 
and, as a consequence, less miserable. 
From the vantage-ground of high position 
he can fight a chivalrous battle for the 
afflicted and him that bath no helper. His 
good example will have far more effect than 
that of a poorer man. His influence, if 
directed to good and merciful objects, is as 



powerful for good as that of the selfish ricli 
man is for the reverse. " Nobody should 
he rich," said Goethe, "but those who 
understand it." But when a man owns 
gracefully and usefully, what good may he 
not do in the way of opening a path for 
others and giving them access to whatever 
civilizing agencies he may himself possess. 
Therefore we can understand how both re- 
ligion and philanthropy may treat with re- 
spect and even with reverence the motto 
"Put money in thy purse." May we not 
even say that it is the desire to "get on" 
and to become rich that prevents our sink- 
ing into harha-rismJ— Chambers' Journal. 



The negro's definition of bigotry is as 
good as that of Webstei-'s Dictionary. " A 
bigot," says be, "why he is a man that 
knows too much for one man and not 
enough for two." 



Special Announcement 

TO BOOK-KEEPERS AND TEACHERS OF BOOK-KEEPING. 

The publishere of American Counting-room (formerly The Book-kerper) are pre- 
pared to furnish a few complete files of The Book KEiiPEK, which include all nuniberB from 
July, 18«0, to July, 18S3. ( eix votumes,) handaomely bound in half-RuBfia, poBlpaid. for $SM). 
Some of these numberB have become very Bcarce, and as they were not electrotyped cannot be 
Bupplied except in complete aete, and of these iherfl are now only a limited eiipply. 

Tbese BIX volumes of The Book-Keepeu, comprising about 1,000 pages, form a store- 
house of most valuable information for accountants and commercial teachers. These books con- 
tain many complete and practical treatieeB and a large number of interesting discnssious upon 
the practice and theory of accounts not found in any olher work. 

The Book-keeper for 1882 (Vols. IV. and V.) will be sent for 5I ; or bound in half- 
Russia, for S2. All numbers of Vol. VI. ( January to July, IB-iS.) will be sent, postpaid, for 
50 cents. The last thr«e volumes, viz., IV., V.. and VI., uiibouud, postpaid, $1 50; or bound 
in half-KuBBia, $3. Address 

COUNTING-ROOM COMPANY. 

29 Warren Street i P. 0. Box 2126). New York. 

VS^The American Counting-room, f.i.50 a year. SubseriptionB received before December 16th 



oill s 



r October, November and December numbers fre 




Style A — Plain 

-Bevel Kold edife. 



wedding Bristol.. 



AUTOGRAPHS.- For 35 ceol. I will Mod ycur naoia written on 12 onrdi in u many different .tylw a 
AGENTS WANTED— Iwant anient io every tomi Id tliaUDll«d Slates to take orders for my writi 

STEEL PENS.-Dakln's Favorite, for bmmesa writing:, per i groa^ 45 oenti; for card wriling, 
DAKIN'S CARD INK H, "Uhoal a doub^ the best ink for card wrltmR In tbe world, as it is Jet l>leok, a 

"*""' GET YOUR FRIENDS TO ORDER WITH VOU, aud obtai 

either my caid ink recipe, or 1 gross of my favorite pen for card wnting. For a 
nn excellent photo, of myself and one dozen cards, Style C- Fur an order of $.1 
Borap-boob. Addreni, A. W 



iintiDg to $i, 1 will 
"'lare*'JJd^h"nd 




PhfllD-Enqravinq-?^PhDta-LithnqraphL|. 

U.T. Ames. priK BBD&nyntsx: 



GENUINE 

WATER BURY WATCHES 

TO BE GIVEN AWAY 
FREE! FREE! 

PREMIUM 

GOLD-MOUNTED 
REVOLVERS 

TO BE GIVEN AWAY 

FREE!__FREE! 

SEND TO 

N. E. CARD COMPANY 

FOR THEIR 

SPECIAL INDUCEMENTS TO 
BUYERS OF CARDS. 

We offer you a choice of twelve new 
100-page books, which retail for 25 aud 50 
cents (each book beiug fully described in 
our new price-list), to every person sending 
us an order for $1 worth of cards, one of 
tlie twelve books, and also have the best 
cards iu the market. 

Orders may be made up from our price- 
list in the September issue of this paper. 
A few of our books cousiat of, " The Stu- 
dent's Manual of Phonetic Shorthand" (re- 
tails for 50 cents); "The Young Ameri- 
can's Letter-writer"; "The Standard Book 
J " Guide to Boxing and 



The very latest cards are now made from 
8-ply Bristol, Plain Bevel, at $3 50 per 
1,000, or 50 cents per 100 — regular sizes 
and oblong. 

I^Send us an order for 200 and we will, 
in addition to the cards, send one of the 
above books. 



I:^^IvS. 



We 



ifor 



Worden's Celebrated Inks, 

In the folliiwiDg culurs ; 

SATIN GLOSS BLACK, 

VIOLET, 

BRILLIANT RED, 

BLUE GREEN, 

PINK, 

PURPLE, 

BLUE. 

CARMINE, 

DARK GREEN. 

WHITE, 

10 oente per bottle, $1 per dozen. 

GOLD AND SILVER INK, 
20 cents per bottle, $2 per dozen. 

PERFUMED INK, 

( Three Colors, Sis Odors,) 

BLACK, VIOLET, PURPLE. 

New-mown Hay, Jockey Club, West End, 

Yang- Yang, White Rose, and Violet. 

15 ots. per bottle, $1.5U per doz. 

BLACK, RED, GREEN, and WINE 

BRISTOL CARDS, 

$1,75 per One Thousand. 

^^-Any person sending us an order for 
$15 worth of cards we will make a fac- 
simile of their autograph ; or, if $75 worth 
of any goods we have for sale, we will 
make their portrait. 

NEW YEAR CARDS. 

25 cents per pack of 25 cards, or 75 cents 

per 100, post-paid. 

Regular pize BEVEL-EDGE CARDS, 

$2.50 per 1,000. 

Regular size GOLD-EDGE CARDS, 

$125 per 1,000. 

WITH PREMIUM. 

Do not buy a single card from other 
dealers until you have examined our stock 
and the special premium we offer to buyers. 

Address 

iv: M CA.Rn CO., 

75 Nassau Street, New York. 

{ Late W<toNSoCKET, R. I.) 10-1 



Ah I ./OUKNAlJ 



A Chapter on First Things. 
TIk- "l't"st Ixiok Iinnwn to be extflut, 
which has the niiino of the place where it 
was printed, and tlmt of the printfr, to- 
gether with the date of the year when it 
was executed, is a beautiful edition of the 
Psalms in Latin. It was issued at Mentz, 
by Faust Si. Schoeffer in 1457, just four 
huudred yeara ago. The most perfect copy 
Itnown is thiit iu the Imperial Library of 
Vienna. It is printed in folio on vollum, 
and is a superb specimen of printing. A 
second edition of the work was issued in 
1429, un<lor the patronage of the St. Al- 
bans and Benedictine Monks, which con- 
tained, probably, the first printed 
the Atbanasian Creed. 

The earliest printed book, containing 
text and engravings, is called the Hi 
of Joseph, Daniel, Judith and Esther, 
printed liy Joseph Pfister at Bamberg, in 
14(>2. It is ani.iDg the rnrest typographi- 
cal rurtosiiics in oxisliMicc, there being only 
two known cni.iesof i(— .me at the Royal 
Library at Paris, and another in the col- 
lection of Earl Spencer. The entire text 
of the Bible with similar cinhcllishments 
app'jared in 147."J. 

Giittenbcrg invented, and first used sep- 
arate letters or movable types, in 1442. As 
early ns 1423 he had printed with lines cut 
ill wood, but this was only a small mechan- 
ical advance on what liad been done for 
mmiy years. 

The first engraving on wood, of M'liich 
there is any record in Europe, is that of the 
ancient " ActiitDS of Alexander," by two 
C,n,;n>., ,-v^,.„i^,1 in the year 1285 or 128(i. 
TIm . ■■, r I -- .Ml- eight in number, and 

ill" ■ .'■ it incdies by six. 

S'iiim1\ih [iiiiini;,' was introduced into 
London by Wiiaon in 1804. 

The first tragedy iu English was " G<irbo- 

duc, or Ferrox and Povrex," in lob'l ; and 

the first, eomody, tlie "Supposes," in I(!6(i. 

The first recorded novels are the Milesian 

tales of Aristides. 

The first almanac in the English lan- 
guage was printed at Oxford in 1G73. 

The first printed music was in 1503. No 
more than forty tunes had been published 
in any one book before 1594. 

The first printing-press set up in America 
was "worked" at Cambridge, Mass, in 
1629. 

The first book printed in America was 
the "Bay Psalm Booh," published at Cam- 
bridge. 

The first books of Music published in 
America were issued in 1714 and 1731 — 
the former by the Rev. John Tufts of New- 
bury, and Jlio latter by the Rev. Th. 
Walter, of Rosbury. 

The first paper-mill erected 
was at Elizabethtown, New Jersey, which 
William Bnidford, royal printer of New 
York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, pur- 
chased » 1728. In 1730, the second 
into operation at Boston, the Legislature of 
MassachuKetts granting aid. 

The first newspaper printed in the New 
World was published in Boston, under date 
of September 2.'i, KilH). A copy of tliis 
paper is preservr-d in the Colonial State 
Paper Cilice, London. It is about the size 
of a sheet of letter paper, and one of the 
pagett is blank.— Boston Transcript. 



Children should be taught to do riglit be- 
cause it is right to lU, riglit. and not from 
any hope of reward or punisliment. "Vir- 
tue is its own reward." This is a pretty 
good principle to govern grown people 



It should be distinctly understood that 
the editors of the Jouknal are not to be 
held as indorsing anything outside of its 
editorial columns j all communications not 
objectionable in their character, nor devoid 
of interest or merit, are received and pub- 
lished; if any person differs, the columns 
are equally open to him to say so and tell 
why. 








OK COLOR 


PI.OWISG 
U DUKABIL 


QUALITIES, 


m.nded in 
Ih. penm 


u.ed by m 
n ii> Ih. Un 


ted State.. 


b"'hi. 


n.a.li,i. ,,111, .„mpl. „f ink. „riit,n 

WORTHINOTON. 


WEEDSPORT, N. Y. 
n UAnnfootory, Chlo.^, IU. s_i.j 



I price*! HolcomD PublUbloK i 



Astonishing Jugglery. 
In Delhi, Inilia, we saw the celebrated 
basket " trick," which is amneliiiifa poorly 
imitated by professioDal jugglers in this 
. country. A native profluced a basket and 
ft blanket, and after permitting ub to see 
that they contaiDed nothing, inverted the 
basket ou the groond and covered it with 
the blanket. We f&ul no attention to his 
iooanlationR, but kept our eyes tixed on the 
basket and the epace around it, resolved 
that no boy should be smuggled into it or 
out of it ftithout seeing hi>n. What made 
the trick still more wonderrul vras the fact 
that the performer stood iu a clear spare, 
and we could look rfown upon him as he 
proceeded. He went ihnmgh the customary 
act of thrusting a sword through the inter- 
stices of the basket, when the cries of a boy 
were heard as if in mortal pain issuing from 
the basket. Turning it over, there was a 
boy apparently unhurt and seemingly enjoy- 
ing the fnn. liestoring the basket, with the 
blanket over it, to its former position, with 
the boy under it, the juggler went through 
the same incautatiuns, and then running his 
sword under the blanket, tossed it away 
from him. Turning over the basket, no boy 
wad to be spen. So f*r as anything could 
be observed there was no possible place in 
which the little fellow could be concealed. 
Another feat quite astoniahiog we saw per- 
formed in the streets of Constantinople. 
An itinerant magician showed us a cane 
which had the appearance of being wood 
and very knotty. This he tossed in the air 
as high as he could, and when it touched 
the ground it took the form of a live serpent, 
with blazing eyes and rapid movement. It 
looked like a dangerous sppcimeu, and one 
which no man would like to approach. 
Catching up this monster the fellow coiled 
it round his neck and foudlfii it, while it 
writhed and exhibited the most vetfomous 
finalities. Tlirowing it up in the air it fell 
to the ground the same cane which we 
handled at our ease. — Selected. 



The 1 



lluctuatioui 
its Creator 
to elevate 
of what is 1 



The Fixed Stars. 

rs are the landmarks of the nni- 

lid the endless aod compUcftted 

f our system, seem placed by 

guides and records, not merely 

miods by the contemplation 



, but t 






his works. 



actions by what is immutable 
It h, indeed, hardly possible t 
ciate their va-lue in this point of view. 
Every well-determined star, from the mo- 
ment its place is registered, becomes to the 
astronomer, the geographer, the navigator, 
the surveyor, a point of departure which 
can upver deceive or fail him — the same for 
ever, and in all places, of a delicacy so ex- 
treme as to be a test for every instrument 
yet invented by man, yet etiually adapted to 
the most ordinary purposes; as available 
for regulating a town clock as for conduct- 
ing a navy to llie Indies; as effective for 
mapping down the intricacies of a petty 
barony, as for adjusting the boundaries of 
transatlantic empires. When once its place 
has been thoroughly ascertained and care- 
fully recorded, the brazen circle with which 
tliat Useful work was done may moulder, the 
marble pillar totter on its base, and the 
astronomer himself survive only in the grat- 
ilnile of posterity; but the record remains, 
and trauiifiiseB all its own exactness into 
every determination which takes it for 
;i grouud-work, giving to inferior instru- 
ments, nay, even to temporary contrivances, 
and to the observations of a few weeks or 
days, all the precision attained originally at 
the cost of Bu much time, labor and expense. 
—Selected. 

How to Remit Money. 

The best and safest way ia by Post-office 
Order, or a bank draft, on New York ; next, 
by registered letter. For fractional parte of 
a dollar, send postage-stamps. Do not stud 
personal checks, especially for small sums, 
nor Canadian postage -atampg. 



A/\/ INCREASING DEMAND. 
A NEW EDITION JUST PUBLISHED. 

SADLER'S 




-A neTV, im.pi^ovccL cltlcL pi^ogresaiva woj^Jz 07i. JBtisvness CalculcLtioixs , 

specially pj^epared. cts a. prctcttcal tcsit-book. for bzzsuiess 

colleges, JvigJx sclzools, a.ca.d.eni.ies cuuL vuxtvei^sttLas. 



THE NEW EDITION 

Juat published ( 512 royal octavo pages ), has been reviaed, and improved by the addition of many new and valuable plates, together \ 
correction of all typographical errors inciduut to the publication of new books. 

In addition to the publication of the work in a complete editiuii, for ibo convenience of patrons it is also published in two separate ( 

.PART FIRST 

> pages, beginning with the introduction of Aritlimelic, and nxtendiiig to the eubjftt of Percsntage, The mt-tl 
many novel featuren, 

PART SECOND 

aces a ihormigb. exliauxtive, and pre-puiiiien(ly practical treatment of the various aritl 
publi«hp.I in Sppteniher. IStiO. 



Begins with the subject of Percpnteffe, and embracps a tli 

topics in a systematic and natural order. 

This portion of the work (358 royal octavo pages) 
Its success was quick and complete, and the dentani 



Each Edition is now published WITH or WITHOUT ANSWERS. 

As may be desired on the pari of the patron, 
. honestly b»*Iieved, presents such features of improvement atid progress as justify the claim 



1 any similar work now before the public 
18 a text-book for business colleges ami ecbouls, altent 
niy, who have tested the work in their respective class 



lials which have bet 



Specimen Pages will be sent to any address on receipt of stamp. 
^ KEY, 



Containing the solutions and answers to tbi' problems, will be funiiwhfd/n 
The following exceptionally tow retail prices have been adopted : 

Pai-t I., 75 cents; Part Tl., ©l.-'JO; Coi 
Copies of either edition will be sent post or express paid on receipt of price. To ten- li 
of the complete edition, for examination with a view to adoption, will be sent, charges prepaid, 
by Post-office Order, Draft, or Registered Letter. 

SPECIAL RATES TO BUSINESS COLLEGES AND 



ANSWERS TO PROBLEMS. 
For the use of teachers and private pupils, a work, contair 



I all schools adoptintj the work. 



D all the problems in tbe Complete Edition, ' 
mailed on receipt of 25 cents. 




BRYANT, STRATTON & SADLER BUSINESS COLLEGE. 

Nos. 6 and S NORTH CHARLES STREET. BALTIMORE, MD. 



Penmanship and Art Department 

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The Lewis Will Contest. 

A Conspiracy akd Detebmised Fioht 

FOR Over a Million of Dollars— A 

Forged Marriage Certificate. 

It ie prob»bIe that no legal contest iu this 

country during the laat dncade, in which the 

geDiiiuenc'88 of handnritiug has been called 



OthH 



did 



"Will Case," wM.-h heiran 
inthe co.irlB of Jersey City, N. J., in 11^77, 

TreDioo, N. J., in March, IgSO, with the 
convifliioD and imprisonment of »ir pereooR 
who, in various capacirief», had been en- 
gaged in the conspirary. 

Joseph T. Lewis, a miserly old mulatto, 
died at Huboken, N. J., in 1877, aged up- 
ward of eighty-seven yearn, leaviug a will 
by which, after Bpecifyiog several compara- 
tively small legacies, ho beq-ieathed the re- 
sidue of his estate (amouutiog to over a 
million of dollars) to the Uuited States, to 
be applied to the payment of the national 
debt. So far as was kmnvo at the time of 
his decease he was a bachelor, and had no 
Dear relative iu this country — he being a 
native ot Jamaica, West Indies. Little 
has been made known of Mr. Lewis's life 
or how he amassed his great fortune, except 
that he began life as an engineer, and af.er- 
ward made shrewd and eucces&^ful inveat- 
mentB iu Wall Street. From a sketch of 
his life, published in the New York Sun 
during tha will contert, we abstract the 
following incidents illustraiive of his eccen- 
tric habits of life: 

lie dressed in well-fiiiiog clothes, ami 
was PcrupulouBly neat. In one hand he 
earned a cane. Und. r his left arm was in- 
variably a black umbrella on fiue dais in 
winter, and a yellow one in moderate sum- 

r weather. A tiower usually decked his 



He 



had a few intimate friends, among them the 
geullemen he named as hi-i pxccuiori", and 
Herman IJaljer of New Y.uk, and Geu. 
Hatheld, a resident of H.,boken; but he 
was a mystery to iliem all. His conversa- 
tion showed that he bad traveled in Europe 
and in Suulh America. He displayed some 
familiarity wiih art, «as a member of the 
National Academy of Design, and was de- 
lighted to do amateurs (.mail favors in the 
way of tickets. He waa simple in his 
tastes and habits, but was not averse to let- 
ting it be known that he could be a eonr- 
-nand on occasion. H.s opinions, shrewd 
and generally sound, were always atrungly 
and sometimes testily maintained. His iu- 
veslmenu were almost uniformly succesi-ful 
because he was earelu! and methodical, and 
never epeculaud. He never bought real 
estate. Hii whole fortune at his death, 
over a million and a half of dollars, could 
be carried in hU hat. Beloro the day ar- 



rived for clipping his coupons, he bad 
always provided for investing the proceeds, 
and he never kept money iu a bank where 
it would not draw interest. He deeply 
sympathized with the Union cause at the 
outbreak of the war and in the emancipa- 
tion of the slaves, and he said as he whs 
too old 10 go into the army he would help 
the Gi'vernment in bis own way. This 
wa<» to iuvest largely in United States bonds 
as eai'h liiHii WHR ..rt'med, These, and solid 
i.e.-Mnn,.s hk.. ,.,,. „..-bs and New York 
Ceiii,:.i, ^^:r. !,,^ <l,i,-f iuvestioents. He 
aili\:r,.] 1.., l^iiv 4 uni) ,l.^r«ft wf Central in a 
lump fiMMi tU.j i.Jd Commodore, whose 
death interrupted the negutiatioD. 

About ie:;() Lewis moved to Hoboken, 
and not lung aflnrvvard got into several law- 
suits, whitli he folltjwed up with a pertina- 
city and bitterness which illustrate his 
character. A man named Hulsemann, an 
engraver, who had formerly been iu his 
employ, offended him on a Hoboken ferry- 
boat, and was accused of cheating iu turn. 
Hulsemann had hiin arrested on a Saturday 
niiiht, BO that he cuuld not find bail. The 
couniy seat of Uargen County, from which 
Hudson County had not then been set off, 
was in Hickensack. The warrant was is- 
sued by Gil Merritt, a free and easy Justice 
in Hoboken, and it whs executed by Con- 
stable Ike Underbill. Nelson Chase, famous 
through the Jumel will case, was Hulse- 
mann's New Ynrk lawyer, and the late 
ConiiresBinan Wright acted iu that capacity 
in H'fboken. Mr. L'-wis tried to get them 
all indicted for couFpiracy. and they got him 
iudicted for peijory iu making the affidavit. 
On the trial of perjury iudictment, Mr. 
Wright swore that he had been " hired" by 
Hulsemann, and Charles Conor's in- 
vective is siill remembered, iu which he 
denounced the "drunken Justice, the bully 
uslable, and the 'hired' 






Mr. 



Lew 



iiqnitted. 



to offer him. Everybody to him seemed to 
be guided by siaiater motives. He kept 
Joshua Benson, of Hoboken, on the tenter- 
hooks for years. Benson was too poor to 
buy a hou.-e. Mr. Lewis loaned him the 
monev. and got him to buy the one next to 
his. From that time Benson did almost a 
valet's service for him, going his errands, 
reading to him, and humoring all sorts of 
ill bequeathed 



. Bei 



, and a haudsi 



„ .__ John 

Henry Anlhou, f..rty years ago, for alleged 
misapplication of immeya intrusted to him 
for iuvestment. was a celebrated case. He 
employed I). Graham and Cbas. O Conor, 
and pursued Mr. Anthon vindictively for 
years. Among bis papers is a brief of 
an afgu-nent which he made himself on 
this snl.j»;ct before the late Vice-chancellor 
MtCouu, in which he traced his aotiuaint- 
auceship with i'\Ir. Anthon from lliU(> to 
Ie40. He won the f.uit. 

But the man who did not scruple to spend 
thousands to gratify his animosiiiea or de- 
fend what ho fancied to be his rights, who 
had paid several visits to Ejrope and af- 
fected knowledge of art and the pleasures 
of the table, was parhimonious, mean and 
niggardly at home. He lived most of the 
time with only an old housekeeper in a 
modest house in Hoboken, and she com- 
plained thai be half starved her. At other 
limes, when he lived in a boarding-house, 
he was always suspicious that bis landlady 
was stealing from hiin, or that she wanted 
to poison him to get his money. He 
seemed to take a cynical delight in en- 
couraging people to believe that they would 
be remembered in his will, and he would 
take whatever favora their hopes led them 



wife and chihli 
which fact he took care to let Joshua know. 
All at once he became auspicious of Benson, 
revoked the bequesia, and deipanded the re- 
turn of the money he loaned birn. Indeed, 
the testimony in the will case leaves little 
doubt that the old man was a kleptomaniac 
himself. He would pick up little articles iu 
grocery stores or in neighbors' houses when 
opportunity offered. About bis own house 
he was slipshod. At the basement window 
he would be seen reading his newspaper, 
wearing a white nightcap, covered by an 
old straw hat, and with an old duster over 
his shoulders. The boys threw dirt at the 
window and shouted : " Hey! old bachelor !" 
till be sallied out and chased tiiem away. 

The old man was proud of his vigorous 
constitution, and attributed it to his temper- 
ate and prudent habits. Mr. James, of the 
Manhattan Bank building, who used to in- 
vest money for him, describes him as coming 
dancing into the office shortly before his 
death, at 87 years: "A-h-h! Eighty-seven 
last Tuesday," he critd. "Teeth sound; 
firm on my legs; appetite good. Temper- 
ance ! " and the old man chuckling, would 
slap hia breast like a crowing cock. 

AlthouKh, as we have said, Mr. Lewis 
had always been known to his friends and 
neighbors as a bachelor and without near 
relatives, greatly to the surprise of the ex- 
ecutors of hid will when tliat instrument 
was presented for probate, there appeared, as 
contestants, an alleged widow calling her- 
self Jane H. Lewis, and one Thomas Lew- 
is, who alleged himself to be a son, and two 
other persons, named John and Martin 
Cathcart, claiming to be nephews of the 
deceased mdlionaire. Then began a most 
determined and bitter contest of the will 
between the United Slates Government, as 
proponents, and the alleged widow and 






Among Lewis's papers left at the M; 
hatlan Bank in New York, where he 1 
for many years transacted his business t 
kept his papers and securities, w( 

Jamaica, W. I., and among them 
dressed " My dear Sir," and signed 

Mr. Lewis's will had been drawn in tho 
office of ex-Altorney-General Gilchrist of 
Jersey City, and he was engaged on behalf 
of tho executors tosusUin it against these 
atticki. £. De It. Gillmore, a clerk in his 



loph 



office, was despatched to Jamaica to investi- 
gate as to Mr. Lewis's relatives. The same 
steamer carried out John CathcArt, one of 
tlie alleged nephew?, of New York, who 
had come from Ireland, but he and Mr. 
Gillmore were unknown to each other, Mr. 
Gillmore's first step on landing in Jamaica 
was to engage a lawyer uaTned Nathan, 
who knew tho Johnsons and Graces, named 
in ]\[r. Lewis's correspondence as relatives. 
He also directed Mr. Gillmore to a very old 
black wuman, who was fiimiliar with their 
early: history. Gillmore and Nathan went 
together to see the old black woman. She 
told the fidlowiug story, as it was produced 
in court : Joseph Lewis's father, she said, 
M'as a Jew named Jacob Levy; his mother 
was Jane Wright, a mulatto woman, whose 
mother was a full-blooded negress, and with 
whom Levy had lived, but whom he did not 
marry. Levy took his hoy to New York, 
so that nobody could discover his parentage, 
and changed his name to Lewis, and after 
keeping him at fchool a while, bound Bim 
apprentice loan engraver. The old woman 
said she was told abou' this last circum- 
stance by Charles James, another illegiti- 
mate child of Jane Wright by another 
I iher; she had also heard that Francis 
Grace and Magdalene Johnson had been re- 
ceiving mouey regularly from this long- 
absent half-brother in New York. 

After listening to the story of the old 
black woman, which he took down in wri- 
ting, and making a caref.il searoh of the 
records of marriage, Mr. Gillmore satisfied 
hiuiself that there were no legal heirs of 
Mr. Lewis in the West India Islands, and 
also that tho reputed nephews of New York 
bore uo relationship to him. 
The Widow. 
While Mr. Gillmore was thus pursuing 
his quest in South America the putative 
widow was pressing her claims before 
Master-in-Chancory See, iu Jersey City, to 
whom the Chancellor had referred the mat- 
ter, to take testimony. The executors said 
that they bad never heird of the million- 
aire's marriage ; but she told her story with 
minutenefS and confidence, and produced a 
genuine-looking 

Maiiriaoe Certificate 
to verify it. This purported tti have beeu 
drawn Nov. 18, 1858, by Ethridge M. 
Fish, who was well known To have been a 
Justice of the Peace in Huboken many 
years ago George K. Bradfttrd, whose 
uumo appeared on the certificate as a wit- 
ness to the ceremony, went upon the stand, 
and testified that he had duly witnessed 



the marriage c*rtificate. One Schmidt, 
who claimed to have been a cominiesion 
merohaiit at 181 Pearl Street, swore that he 
had heen iu Mr. Lewis's house in 1859, and 
had been there introduced to this lady by 
Mr. T>ewie as his wife. Elijah Caldwell, 
a lawyer in New York swore, that he also 
had frequently visited Mr. Lewis at his 
house, and had seen Mrs. Lewis there, and 
eveD testifie<l tliat he had at one time taken 
proceedings fur a divorce on behalf of Mrs. 
Lewis against Joseph L. Lewis, which wore 
speedily settled by the parties in his nUice. 
The alleged widow seemed to make a 
strong case. Indeed, Mr. K. W. Ilueeell, 
counsel for Jamaica claimants, admitted, and 
evidently with perfect sincerity, that he was 
convinced lier standing could not be shaken, 
and that ho believed her to be an estimable 
woman. ''When she first met the old 
man," he said, " he was more than seventy 
years of age, and she was about twenty. 
He was twenty years younger in appearance, 
and was as erect and agile as a man in the 
prime of life. To conceal the evidence of 
the trace of negro Idood in his veins he 
shaved off his kinky hair and wore a wig. 
The dark tint in his cheeks he artfully con- 
cealed by a few touches of rouge. He 
courted Miss Hastings, who was handsome, 
attractive, and well educated, most assid- 
uously. She came of noted families iu 
England on both her father's and her 
mother's side. She was left an orphan at 
an early age, but she grew up with a strong 
pride in her ancestry, and her great ainbi- 
tioD was to visit England. She once re- 
jected Lewis's offer of marriage, hut he 
persisted in his suit. He concealed from 
her his doubtful parentage, and represented 
that he, too, was of an old English family. 
He told her that he had visited England, 
and bad been presented at Court. Finally, 
when he offered to take Miss Hastings to 
England iu search of her ancestors, and to 
devote himself and his fortune to the grati- 
fication of her wishes, she agreed to marry 
him. Why, he even made her believe that 
he possessed literary tastes. He used to 
copy poetry out of books, and pass it off on 
her as his original composition. 

" They lived together," Mr. Enssell con- 
tinued, " for six months, and then she went 
away from him, a broken-hearted woman. 
In regard to his treatment of her, more will 
appear hereafter. One instance will give 
you an idea <»f her life. The old man came 
into her room one day and found her in 
tears, with a packet of letters from her par- 
ents and their pictures before her. In a 
rage, he swept letters aud pictures into the 
fire, saying, 'These writings make you 
morbid.'" 

Puzzled. 
The executors and their counsel were 
puzzled by this mysterious widow, who 
seemed to have sprung op from from the 
earth. She was tall, light- complexioned, 
modestly dressed in black, about forty years 
of age, self- possessed, and evidently a 
woman of experience. She declined on the 
stand to give her residence, and the execu- 
tors put defectives on lier track vainly for a 
time. At last one succeeded, after she liad 
led him through a puzzling chase on her 
way home after giving her leatimcny. He 
awore that she crossed to New York by the 
Desbrosses Street ferry, then took a West 
street car to the Staten Island ferry, which 
she crossed, and returned on the same boat; 
then visited the Astor House and a number 
of other places, fetching up at last in No. 
J I St. Mark's place, which the detective 
ascertained to be a boarding-house. Her 
further movements were watched steadily. 
In the month of August it was declared 
that she made about thirty visits to pawn- 
shops with small articles which she pawned 
in the name of Jane Holhrook. It was de- 
clared by the detectives that she was seen 
to associate with Marcus T. Sacia, who had 
been repeatedly charged with forgery. The 
Palisade Insurance Company of Jersey City 
did business for a time on bogus securities, 
and Marcus Sacia'a father, Charles Sacia, 
was indicted for his agency in^t. 










/rs-i: 






In the above cut is a fac-sitnile representation of the written portion of the forged marriage certificate pro- 
ilticca Ijy the pretended widow of Mr. Lewis. Around this certificate was an elaborately engraved border. 







JES7. f ^ 

The above cuts represent, first, the certificate as manufactured by the expert from words aud letter" cut froiL 
Sacia's writing, and jtaBted upon cardboard, so as to represent a .■ertifieate as it would have appeared if written by 
Sacia, the alleged forger. Tlie eecmA out is the same, with the lines representing the patchwork removed. 







-i^f.^p>n^ a^^ "^pSi, xf-tj^ t^^lie-ncjiy 0<f //'M-^, /2^?-« 

T-.i ■ 1 '''''?, "^"^i' cuts represent, ^r»(, the ocrtiflcato as made-up from words aud letters cut from tlie writiug of 
litlindgo M. Fish, the Justice of the Peace, wlio, it was alleged, performed tlie marriage ceremony, and wrote aud 
sigucd the marriage certificate. The ammd represents the same, with the Hues of the patchworlt removed. 



Ani'ther asiiociste, to wlioiu, as alleged, 
ahe ji&iil furtive visits, was one Dr. Park. 
The detectives naid ihut, uuiler pretence of 
writing an article on J«iseph Lewis for 
Harper's Magazine, Dr. Park succeeded in 
gteaniog from Joebna Ilensou of Hoboken 
tbe inogt miniito particulars of Mr. Lewis's 
life. This, the executors claiuied, might 
explain the ^widow's seeming familiar 
knowledge uf the old man and his habits. 

Tbe alleged marriHge certificate was 
shown to a sou of Ethridge M. Fish, who 
flwore that he believed the signature" to be 
a forgery. His father, he said, was not a 
Justice of the Peace at the date of the cer- 
tificate, Nov. I8lb, 1858, but in Jt<5H cr '59 
went to Iowa. The executors sought in- 
telligence of him there, and were told that 
he was dead, and that the man most likely 
to be engaged in the alleged forgery of his 
signature was Mark Sacia, who had been 
associated willi hiui in Iowa in various 
Iranftactioua. Sacia had been euiployed in 
the oflice of the Kecorder of Pocahoutas 
Couuty, and a large quantity of his writioga 
were found there, including several county 
books. County officials who had long 
known both Sacia and Fish came on from 
Iowa, bringing and identifying these writings 
as Sacia s, and after examining the marriage 
certificate swore that, in their opinion, it 
was written by Sacia. They had observed 
his intimacy with Fish in Iowa, and had 
seen liim imitate Fish's signature by hold- 
ing a4)a|ter against tbe window and tracing 
over it with a pencil. They swore that 
Sacia had engugfd in several culpable 
transactions in Iowa, and had finally fled 
the State, secreted in a dry goods box to 
escape punishment for the forgery of Lyons- 
County bonds. 

It was ascertained, through the aid of the 
Chief of the Bureau of Engraving at Wash- 
ington, D. C, Mr. Casillear, that the en- 
graved blauk upon which the alleged 
maj^riage certificate was written could not 
have been in^ exffiteDceat tEe^tinae of IKe 
alleged date of the certififiate in 1858, as 
the plate from winch it was printed under- 
went very material alteration in 18G2, and 
that, therefore, no such blanks could have 
existed until after that date. Although this 
fact seemed conclusively proved, it was 
sought to overthrow it by the production of 
other uiarriage certitirates of even a prior 
date, written upon a blauk printed from the 
same plate, and that, therefore, tbe testimony 
concerning the plate was insufficient to es- 
tablish tlie forgery. In order to accomplish 
this a olergyman was offered to prove tbe 
register of St. Ambrose Church in New- 
York, by which it appeared that certain 
persons had been married on the 2Sth of 
August, 1859, and this having been proved, 
two other marriage certificates were pro- 
duced purporting to have been made in the 
years 1858 and 1859. 

Frank Fleet was the peraon wbo was 
married according to one of these certifi- 
cates, and William Aruoux was the witness. 
Frank Fleet, Arnoux, and Elijah J. Cald- 
well swore to the genuineness of those cer- 
tificates, and to their knowledge of the 
circumstances of the marriages, in positive 
terma, going into minute' circumstances of 
the transactions to show that these certifi- 
cates, precisely like that of Mrs. Lewis, 
wore really made and signed at about the 
same time as that which purported to be the 
marriage certificate of Jos. ph and Jane H 
Lewis. 

It was. however, subscijuently proved 
conclusively that those certificates woie also 
forgeries concocted for the special purpose of 
bolstering the original forgery. An expert 
upon handwriting was now called by the 
proponents, who pronounced the marriage 
certificate a forgery, and on comparing it 
with Lewis's writing declared his belief that 
the body of it was in Sacia's undisguised 
baud. Comparing it with the writing of 
Fish, which bad also been proved, ho satd 
the signature, " Eth ridge M. Fish," ap- 
pended to the certificate, was in Sacia's ! 
handwriting and an imitation of the writing | 
of Fish. He than set about making a eon- ' 



elusive demonetration of thi 
bis conclusions. To do which he caused a 
large qaantiiy of the writing of both Sacia, 
and Fish to be photo-lithographed, and from 
thesfl printed copies be cut out words and 
parts of words corresponding to those of the 
forged marriage certificates, and arranged 
and pasted them upon a cardboard in the 
same order as in the certificate — tbuei mak- 
ing up two certificates: one from the actual 
writing by Sacia, and another by Fish. 
These two ceriificates were then compared 
with the forged certificates, which made 
it at once apparent that the body of the 
same was in tbe almost undisguised writing 
of Sacia, while tbe signature was a close 
imitation of Fish's but likewise forged by 
Sacia. Fac-similes of these three certifi- 
cates are herewith given, together with 
their form, es made up from the clippings 
from the writings of Sacia and Fish. 

In the latter part of the year 1879 Frank 
Fleet, one of the parties to the marriage 
certificates produced in confirmation of the 
original certificate, became very ill and was 
apparently about to die, made a lull confes- 
sion that he bad been persuaded to swear 
falsely as to these certificates. In the mean- 
time tbe Government detectives, under the 
direction of Special Agent H. M. Bennett, of 
Newark, N. J., had fully satisfied themselves 
that these two marriage certificates were 
forged by the same person who had con- 
cocted the original conspiracy; and after the 
confession of Fleet, three of the persons 
who had proved those certificates were 
brought forward and examined on behalf of 
Government and thoroughly exposed the 

At this period of tbe case Mrs. Lewis 
found it necessary, as she afterward stated in 
her confession, to furnish some material evi- 
dence of the fact that she had lived with Mr. 
Lewis as his wife. She was urged to do so 
by her counsel, who felt the force of the 
fact that thus far no article or relic remained 
aa ft memento of token of her married life. 
She stated with great minuteness bow this 
was done. Mrs. Isabella Harper testified to 
the finding of an old pillow-case containing 
a considerable quantity of old laces, silks 
and other articles, which she alleged had 
been left by Mrs. Lewis in ber house in 
lfiU2 at the time slie boarded there; that 
Mrs. Lewis had used the pillow-case as a 
rag-bag, and in moving from tbe house bad 
left it behind; that during the examination 
before the Master Mrs. Lewis had come to 
her house and learned of the fact of this 
pillow- case having been left by her with 
Mrs. Harper, and requested her to produce 
it before tbe Master and testify to the cir- 
cumstances and to the fact that it had been 
there in her possession since 18G2; that on 
being opened they found among the old ar- 
ticles in the bag two old yellow receipts for 
hoard signed by the daughter of Mrs. Har- 
per, saying that they were receipts for the 
board of Mrs. Jane 11. Lewis. The pillow- 
case was found to be marked "Joseph L, 
Lewis" in what was alleged to be bis own 
handwriting. 

This piece of evidence was naturally 
deemed very important on the part of tbe 
alleged widow, in contradiction to the over- 
whelming testimony adduced against her, as 
to the plate from which the marriage certif- 
icate was made; but in her late confession 
she explained fully that it was contrived 
under the direcliou of Dr. Park the chief 
conspirator, who sent her the pillow-case, 
and who must have procured the name of 
Lewis to have been forged upon it. She 
thereupon put the old articles into it, and 
carried it to Mrs. Harper, and requested her 
to produce it before the Master, and testify 
to its having been there sioce 1862. This 
was her last effort. 

About this time it had been ascertained 
that Mrs. Lewis, the alleged widow, had in 
1874 personated a Mrs. Jennie Hammond 
in proceedings for a divorce from a pre- 
tended husband in order to blackmail a 
gentleman with whom she had been im- 
properly intimate. District - Attorney 
Kcasby went to Washington, D. C, in I 



order to secure the attendance of the gentle^ 
man in question to identify Mrs. Lewis aa 
Mrs. Jennie Hammond. Mr. John U. Dos 
PasBOB, a lawyer of good character in New 
York, bad been employed in this case on 
behalf of the gentleman in question, and 
had had several interviews with the eo- 
callcd Jennie Hamnioad. He, together 
with the gentleman from Washington, came 
to the office of Mr. See in Jersey City and 
fully identified Mrs. Lewis as Jennie Ham- 
mond- 
Mr. Dos Passos and bia brother and 
clerk were called as witnesses ; produced 
letters written by the alleged widow while 
personating the character, and alleging that 
she was Mrs. Jennie Hammond, and made 
the matter so clear that it was impossible 
for respectable counsel to continue longer 
to maintain her claims. Within a short 
time thereafter she filed a formal 
tion of her claim as widow, and her 
was ended. 

Further testimony was taken on behalf of 
the executors to establish the competency 
of Mr. Lewis and hie capacity to make a 
will. This was proved by many bankers 
and others in New Y'ork who had known 
him during a long course of years. The 
will case was then closed. 

Some conception of the length and per- 
sistency of this contest may be formed when 
it is stated that about three thousand pages 
of testimony were taken relative to the al- 
leged marriage alone. 

Immediately after the filing of her re- 
nunciation Mr. District- Attorney Keasboy 
brought the matter to tbe attention of the 
Grand Jury then in session at Trenton, and 
obtained an indictuiect against nice persons, 
viz., Andrew J. Park, Jane H. Lewis, 
Marcus T. Sacia, Henry T. Baseford, Frank 
Allison, George K. Bradford, Mary J. Rus- 
sell, George N. Westbrook and Frances 
Helen Peabody. These were the persons 
whom Mr. Keasbey's long investigation into 
the details of this conspiracy had led him to 
believe were the contrivers of the plot. He 
had had conclusive evidence against many 
of them in bis hands for many months, but 
had abstained from taking criminal proceed- 
ings in order to avoid the imputation that 
tbe United States were using criminal pro- 
cesses to affect a civil proceeding. As soon, 
however, as tbe conspiracy was so thor- 
oughly exposed through the evidence of Mr. 
Dos Passos and others as to induce the will- 
ow to abandon her claims Mr. Keasbey pro- 
cured the indictments and cau.'^ed the arrest 
simultaneously on the 1st of February of 
most of the persons implicated. He be- 
came patisfied that Dr. Andrew J. Park was 
the chief contriver of the plot and the origi- 
ualor of tbe whole claim within a few days 
after the death of Mr. Lewis; that he bad 
knoM'n Mrs. Lewis for a long time before, 
and, taking advantage of the fact that her 
name was really Mrs. Lewis, had persuaded 
her to join him in tlie execution of the con- 
spiracy by personating the widow, and that 
he had almost immediately combined with 
Marcus T. Sacia, well known for his connec- 
tion with forged writings, and had procured 
from him the forged uiarriage certificate 
which must have been executed a few days 
after the death of Mr. Lewis. The other 
persons accused were the tools of these 
conspirators. 

Six ol the conspirators were tried tind 
convicted in the United States Court at 
Trenton, N. J., of conspiracy lo defraud the 
Government out of the property bequeathed 
by Joseph L. Lewis to the United States, 
viz., the pretended widow, Jane IL Lewis, 
who pleaded guilty and was used ae a wit- 
ness on the i)art of the Government, and 
Dr. Andrew J. Park, Marcus T. Sacia, 
George R. Bradford, Frank Allison and 
Henry T. Uaesford, whose trial began on 
the 27lh of February, 1880, and closed on 
the 10th of March, with a verdict against 
all, Bradford being reroommended to the 
mercy of the court, Mrs. Lewis, in her 
confession, having alleged that Bradford 
really believed that she was tbe widow and 
bad lost her certificate and oonsSnted to 



sign the forged one and to swear to its gen- 
out of sympathy for her. 
}urt sentenced Sacia and Allison to 
s' imprisonment, and to a pay fine 
ich ; Bradford and Bassford to 
prisonmeot, and to pay a fine 
cb. Park was sentenced to a 
iuiprisonment. 



of $10,000 
one year's i 
of $1,000 . 
long term 



What I Saw in a Brooklyn 

SchooL 

By Nellie B. Robertson. 

Sometimes I visit teachers and schools, 
and recently called to see one of the Brook- 
lyn High schools and to note bow practical 
writing was being taught there. The 
gentleman I met in charge of the classes is 
a great enthusiast respecting direct, easy 
methods of instruction, and has succeeded 
in inspiring pupils with a genuine love for 
good writing. 

. The position of the writers during tbe 
exercise was easy and graceful. 

With the part of the exercise devoted, 
first, to slow, deliberate writing, followed 
by work at a high rate of speed, I was sur- 
prised and specially pleased. 

The instructor placed his watch on the 
desk, and directed the class to make sixty 
short, slanting, straight lines in sixty sec- 
onds. As he counted, in a pleasant voice, 
the strokes were made by regular, easy 



After cautioning all to balance their hands 
lightly on the " ivory tips " of the third and 
fourth fingers, he led the exercise in making 
lines with a count of 120; next they pro- 
duced 180 lines in a minute, and finally, in a 
hot contest of speed without being led by 
couutiog, many of the class produced 240, 
and some made over 300 lines in a minute. 

An average of the work of the class was 
made on the last trial of speed, and found to 
be 2()1 lines in sixty seconds. They exe- 
cuted the capital alphabet in one minute, 
and afterwards in twenty-four seconds, and 
after making the small alphabet slowly they 
increased their speed and produced it io 
eighteen seconds. The average time of 
writing signatures, by the class, proved to 
be four seconds. 

An excellent drill, in the classes of the 
institution, is that of "translating" the 
numbers of the alphabet into letters and 
words. The class would make letters to 
correspond with the numbers called by tbe 

The numbers 16, 5, 14, 13, 1, 14, 19, 8, 
9, IG, were given, and the class readily 
united the letters corresponding to those 
numbers, and produced, in good style, the 
word penmanship. 

Tbe pupils were admonished to avoid 
spasmodicand irregular movements, whether 
wriliug deliberately or rapidly, and in the 
mental search through the alphabet for let- 
ters corresp'-ndiog with numbers, urged to 
think correctly of each form. 

The spirit of unflagging interest among 
the students, and the exhibit of first and last 
specimens showing unsurpassed progress, 
give indubitable proof of the excellence of 
the method of teaching practical penman- 
ship in the school. 

Combined tracing and writing books, also 
alphabets from the " Standard," are in use 
in the classes, and quite a number of the 
members are zealous constituents of the 
Penman's Art Journal. 



We wish our patrons to bear in mind that 
in payment for BubscriptionB we do not de- 
sire postage-stamps, and that they should be 
sent only for fractional part* of a dollar. A 
dollar bill is much more convenient and safe 
to remit than the same amount in 1, 2 or 3 
cent stamps. The actual risk of remitting 
money is alight — if properly directed, not 
one miscarriage will occur in one thousand. 
Inclose the bills, and whore letters oontAin- 
ing money are sealed in presenc* of the 
postmaster, we will assume all tbe risk. 



Tut PlEfiM-XNS UW\ 



Biographical Sketch of 
A. H. Hinman. 

By C, E. Cadv, New Voilt. 

A. II llininnil w.l. In.rn nl Ciinjon, , 
Aug. adili, I8J:I. iiiiil livcl lliciv, anil in lil- 
yria ami Ob iliii, till llic ngo uf uiiiflopii. 
He rally iiiaiiifi'Slcl llio iiinlilimi ni l.c- 
cinno u lon.liT. nii.l in li..ylu...il eswllril in 
niiiniug. jnuiiing. skiilina, sininniing. nn.l 
Dthci- nllili'tic sjicrls 'I'lin nl ilily acuniioil 
in Ihcso .linTli..ns l.ii.l Ihe f„in,lali..n f,.i' 
ll.iil b.nlily mi.l menial vigor vvlii.li lias 
been an nrurssniy r.ii- Ilic wink ..f his nnr 
turcr yrars. ami willi.ail nliirli lie ci.nl.l 
not I ave eiiJiimi llic severe st aiii to wliieli 
ot limes liis liiljcirs Imve siiLjecleil liiiii. 

At tlic age <>f eigliteeu. la'iiig tautalized 
for liis pourn-riling liy his hiolher, A. 11. 
furnifil a ilelenninalion t.. excel him, ami 
for lliat |nir|insc tm-li a cnM-sc (if lessmis at 
r. It. Spencer Sc Sous' Writing Acaileiiiy, 
ia Obe.lin. After c..mpleliiig llie cmnmer- 
cinl cinirse, ami iilsu a special cinirsc in 
peninaustiip, Iio was awanled a penmaiistiii) 
ilipl.ima liy P. H. Spencer, Sr. After a few 
months spent in tcicliiiig in Ohio, lie mi- 
gratvil Willi Ills family to Illinois. In ic'li:), 
lie toolt 11 position in Chicago as assistant 
book-keeper, at g;l 511 a week. His exeel- 
Icnt writing, attractinir Mie uoticc of busi- 
ness men, enalilej liiin to secure another 
ro..iiioii at S.'illa month, wliith hicoine was 
soon inereascil to $7.i liy teaching in tlic 
oiglit scliool „f tlio Bryant & Stnitton 
Business Col'ego. 

In J8lH, at llio ago of tiionty, bo was 
in charge of the ])cumaiisbip ilepartineut of 
the St. Liniis IJiyant & Stratton Colleire, 
where lie rcinaineil lliree years, at the same 
time giving bssons iu the Wasl.ii.piou 
miiversity, tifteu teaeliing eiglit llllmln-.l 
pupils tlaily. Not liking so close contiuc- 
meiit. ho traveled one year, giving lessons 
ia Illinois, Wisconsin ami Michigan. He 
Iliea eiitcre.l the employ of Jli.ssrs. Ivison, 
Blakeman, Taylor & To.. |mlilishe-s of the 
Spciicerian .System of l*eiiinanslii|), beiiii: 
appointed special aeoiit for tlie iiitroiluclion 
of their cnpy-ljoolis tliiongbont the West. 
-During a three years' engagement ho was 
constantly giving lessons ami leeturii g to 

schools, or iliscnssiiig willi boar-Is of educa- 
tion aud teachers the liicrits of tlio »y.-tcin 
be represented. On the completi .n of his 
engagement with the S| encerlai) publish- 
ers, lie received a liighly complimentary 
letter, comincmling his ainlity and success 
iu the work in 'yhich be had been engaged 
At this time Mr. Hinman euteied the 
house of Cowiierlbwail & Co , I-hiladil- 
phia, as ivestim agent for their publiea- 
tioiis. but soini withilrew [i-oin this w.nli to 
aree]it the position of Snpeiiiitendpiil ol 
■Writing ami Drawiai; in the Kt L.uiis 
Public Sclinols. Willi 8ever«l biindre.l 
teachers and many lliousaiid students, he 
put to test the diflereiit mothoils nitli 
which he bn.l brcunc familiar dur ng his 
yeara of expedience in tic West. Carefol 
observat on in tlii< field led to the belief 

cellent lesalls in wiitiiig «l.icli are 11"! e.\ 
idaiiied in the imMishnl system. 

After spi ndi .g two years in the St. 
Louis schools, Mr Hinioan ai'ee|.tr'd tlie 
ivsiti.m of teacher of peiinianshi|i ami en- 
gr.issev. formerly lilled by Mr Flickiiiger, 
iu the Uuloi, llu-iiiess foil ge, I'hilad.l- 
p'.iii. at a salary of ttlUIII). 'I'lie conliue- 
iiic.it and labor of this position being too 
severe, lie cstabli!.|ied a liiisiiiess Cidlegc 
iu Po-lsville, l-a., which ho coiidiicteil sue- 
eessfully for three years, then disposing of 
the colego to Mr. M. J, Gohlsmith, one of 
his slmlents who is now known as the 
£uest p.'Uman in the S.mlli. 

Again tailing the liehl. Mr Himnan 
taught wriling-elasscs in various cities and 

this work realizing Ihc hMnlsome income 1 f 
$IU;I to $li;u a week. Apiieari.ig before 
the liist Peumeirs C.mvenli.u h. New 
York, he rcceivid tlie hieheel praise, and a 
spochil voto of thanks of the CouvL-nliou. 



Following is an extract from the nport of 
Ihc seerihry of the Conveiilion, published 
ill the Pemiax's Aiit JoinxALi "Mi. 
Hinman ili.-playcd not vnily remarkable 
skill a..d facility iu blackhoard wrilins, but 
he developed tlie most thoroughly luiginal, 

selited to the C'miveulion for interesting the 
pupil, and at thesiino lime enaUliig him 

wliercin it lacked the desired excellence." 
Upon the rccommemlalion of .Mr. Pack- 
ard ami ollieis. Mr. llibbud, proprietor of 
the Boston Dryaiit & Siratton Commercial 
Scbo,.|, iiiviled .Mr. Hiuinan to lake charge 
of the higliest ■lepaitinent of his iostitiilion. 
After an engagement of nearly two years, 
which resulled in winning from Mr. Ilib- 
bard an enthusiastic testimonial of Mr. 
Iliiiman's ability, be opened his present 
very jirosperous Business College iu Wor- 

Wr. Ilinuian is well acd widely known ns 
one of the most compinionable and liberal- 
loiuded men iu bis profcssiou. His williug- 



bcing 



iine than as 



Any sketch of this life would bo incom- 
plete without, at lesst, a reference to the 
amiablo companion and helpmeet who 
shares its joys and sorrows, i'S labors' and 
its successes. Mrs. 11. is bis inseparalilc 
companion, and at the Conventions her 
absence would iustsnlly raise the question, 
'• Hiuinan, where is your heller sidf ( " The 
universal prayer of their uiiiltilude of friemU 
is for Ibcin a long cuutiuucd and happy life 
together. 



Position and Movement in 

Writing. 

The MiRnoii Slgoksti-.d as as Aid. 

By J. D. Iloi.co.MD. 

All successful teachers of penmanship 
admit the axi.jinatic fact tliat coricct posi- 
tion and easy movemenl Iio at the fouiida- 
liou of good wriling. Without tlieso two 
esseutials any high degree of iroticicucy iu 




iiess lo communicate any information rela- 
livp 10 1.13 pr..r..ssi..n, l.i. lu'iSMiml popu- 
larity mill (-.\rcnlive al.illty imMoiI to his 
s]K'i-iiil titiiopsror t1)epn<iiii<>tr. socuiol liim 
111.) clu.innaiislnp (.f the IViimoii's S<-c- 
ilnn uf Ihc Unaiiifps E-hicatorV Ass..cia- 
lit>n rf Aiiioini at its Cim-iinmli incoiing 
ill ]d8:>. niiit ill H8:t iiih<1o liini a nicinhcr 
iif llic Executive CuiiiiiiUtce uf the Assucia- 
tioii. 

Mr. Iliiiinnii lins long licon rcpngiiizcd 
ns II roaily ami able ^vritor dU llio siilije. t of 
pnniiaii^iiip. nn-i llicn-r..ic a vahiable c<m- 
tiil.ut'.r t.> lu-iiinaiisliip j..tinml9. lie cs- 
taMislieil tlio Pknman's Akt JoinsAL, 
k^suiii^' tKo fl^^t two iiuiiibri-a wliilo in 
I'oitevillo, anil has sitirc ciiiitiibutcd uinny 
hitero.Brhig articles to its colinniis. 

Wliilu ihid sketch sconis todi-pict a life 
birgcly ilcvdlcd to tlic interest h[ iiciiniaii- 
sl,i(.. it \s Ri-eaily to the credit of Mr. Ilin- 
ninn that he is uot simply n willing " mas- 
ter," ihonijh ho is a master of writing. 
Uoth his jiKlgiiiciit niul his tasto lead him 
iimrc ill tlie direciioii of ticciiunts, nml in 
hin college he delegates to uihers ns much 
as po>sil.lo the work of teaching wriling. 
while he devi.ies his atlenih.n diielly tu 
nccotints, giving a general stipervisioii to 
Ihu wTiuld, hid bkill aa an artiot-pCLiuau 



the graphic art is impossllde. If they arc 
nut recognized or assumed lo bo fuuda- 
inotitiil, iudisficnsablo rautors in tho wuik, 
the oft r.p«'ated maxim— " I'lactico makes 
Terfect "— when applied to the art t)f wr.t- 
itig, is Dot ouly iiiisleadiug but positively 
uiitruo. 

Ptt^iiion nnd movement nro very prop- 
erly given a prominent posilioo in every 
thm-uugh course of systeiinitic iuMriiction iu 
penmuuship. However, judging hy ihe re- 
sults, ns wc must, there arc grave defecls 
iu the prevailing methods of teaching 
them. 

Somewhat extended nnd careful olfscrva- 
tion proves that a very largo per cent of 
ihoso who have not paid unusual iittentioii 
to ponmansh-p iiro unable to write for any 
gieiil length of time wiih either oaso or ra- 
pidity, their position nnd movement being 
at once forced mid ininalural. Many teach- 
ers who arc ablo (o exccnto " spcciiiit'iis" 
which evince afajr degree of skill, fail most 
signally when ihey come to piMctice busi- 
ness-writing. In preparing their anmll 
8|iccimens aud copies they can rai:<o their 
pen and change their arm rest as often as 
they Avish ; but when they come to ra|>i(l 
wri.ing, cspciiatly on long lines, they liiid 
Ibnt they are sadly dcticiuut iu movemeut. 



Many who consider Ihenisclvos experts, 
and who are able to jirodnco credirablo 
work ..f a oeilaiD kind, have not a free lat- 
eral movemoDt — a movement which, as ia 
well known, is very essential to all easy, 
rapid, wriling. 

Vaiions mechanical appliances, designed 
to sec'iro tho proper po-ition of the hand 
and pen aud thus to load to Uie ncrjnisition 
of a free movement, have been invented. 
Many of thein possess features of special 
merit, aud some of thorn, as we know, have 
been use<l id particular cases with excdlent 
resnltii; but, mi tlu- wh.de, nono of them 
have rec-ived tho emphatic indoraeineot 
which an inveutiou of confeasodly superior 
merit would olct from the profession. 
There appears to be a great but rather nn- 
rcasoDHblo aversion to •'harnessing up tho 
hand'' while learning to write. On gen- 
enil priueip'es we believe it to be best to 
rely on reason and intelligent pnictico, 
rather than to resort to tho indiscriminate 
u<=e of mechanical aids, though tht-ir ju- 
dicious use can be dcft^idcd on ecienlitic 

Tlio tendency of tho times is to employ 
Object Teachine in all departments of 
school work. The senses aro the avenues 
through which we receive addi ions to onr 
stock of positive kuowlcdgo. Heoce it has 
coinc to be an accepted fact, if uot an edu- 
cational maxim, that if you multiply the 
seiisc employed in receiving inatruciiou, 
you multiply tcachiug-powor in the- same 

In tho current pystora of teaching tho 
correct jiosition of the liaud, arm and pen 
— oppeoially the former — the pupil de- 
pends largely upon the sense of feeling; 
he never sees the tips of tho third aud litile 
fingers, the lower >ido of tho wrist and the 
miisirular arm-rest, -while in position to 
wiite Ilenco the fingers are often uucon- 
sciou<;ly cramped, tho proper arm-rest is 
uot maintanied, nnd the wrist is permitted 
to roll over to the right aiid touch the desk 
or paper, thus rendering a free movement 
impoi&iblo. 

To overcome this serious difficulty -which 
IS taused in part, at least, by the loo great 
leh tuce ou one sense ( the sense of feeling ), 
wo have very successfully emplojed a de- 
vice which appeals to a second sense, the 
sense of siglit. This devhe is not pat- 
ent orl, or expensive, and it cannot possibly 
be iuj'irious to those who use it. It con- 
si>ts simp'y of a mirror about three iuchos 
in width aud six inches iu length. It is 
plnccd ou tho dcsli iu front of and near to 
tho writer, so that when his hand is in cor- 
rect writing positi.iu he can see Iho ends of 
hi^ lingers, the lower part of his wrist, and 
arm-vest. This will materially aid him in 
securing complete control of their position 
and movement. 

As already ylated, this device multi[Iies 
tho senses usually employed iu gaining a 
mastery of the arm and hand. It has al- 
ready led many to correct erroneous habits 
in peuholding aud movement which to « iQ- 
plirit i-fliauco ou tho sense of fe< ling had 
led them to beliovo were correct. Of course, 
after having once secured an easy position 
aud movement, -a penman can easily lell 
when ho falls into erroneous habits; but 
the learner to whom tho mysteries of the 
art arc unknowu should be given the bene- 
fit of all possible aids. 

" Seeii g is believing " " When we see a 
thing M-e know it." For this reason we are 
of tho opinion ttiat the mirror can be uruKt- 
ably used in the manner suggested by all 
teachers of penmanship. Its utility thus far, 
however, has ouly been tested by us ^frith 
a limited number of private pupiU. 

"Tall oaks from littlo a-oros grow"— 
nnd the i"lea bore advauccd-so far as we 
know, for tho first time— may lead to sub- 
stantial progress in our methods of teach- 
ing. 

■ Will the professional readers of tho 
JomiNAL thoroughly ^e^t the merit of tho 
mirror for the purpose snggesied, and re- 
port their couclusious through those col- 
umuaT 



Educational Notes. 

[ComiDiinicAlinns for lliix Dfpftrtm«iit 01117 
b» HddrfBited (•• B. K. KKM.KY.m'> Bruadwiiy. 
N«w York. Brief educatioual ilema solicilttd.] 



Dterod lU 






1 is the largest class that £ 



1 the Texas un 



or the I(i7 8 
Bity fi/rly are women. 

A eohool for ludiaQ cbiMren ia to be 
opened ia Philadelphia. 

Coltimhia College is to have ita library 
illumiQated by electric light. 

or all the Bludeots that euter nnr Ameri- 
can Cullegeg only one out of ten graduates. 
— Niagara Index. 

In the past eleren yearn Yale has gradu- 
ated U-l.) free traders auii \iAl prulcoiioatstB. 
— College Journal. 

Phillips Exeter Academy has, the Ports- 
mouib Chronicle says, 11 sludeut who boards 
himeelf on lourteeD cents a day. 

At Iho Univeisily of St. Petcrsburgh, 
500 etudeals have matriculated this Fall, 
makiug the total in aitendanco 2,JuO. 

Five women are candidates for the odice 
of Superintendent of Public Schools in as 
many Nebraska counties, aud all are regular 

There ia a wise movement in Oakland, 
Cal., toward the establiehment of a srhnnl 
ofiudiistriHlarts, a gifl of $laO,OaO having 
been made for that purpose. 

A cripy of the "Life of L^ither" was 
giveu to eveiy scholar iu the Protestaut 
schools of Germany at the time of the 
Luther celebration, by ordor of the Minister 
of Public luslruclion. 

More than two hundred chartered eduea- 
lional iuRlitttlions in the Uuiled $laie><, and 
OxUd, Cambridge, Durham aud L'.udun 



Uui^ 



hav 



pil tlif 



woman.— CvUege Journal 

Amherst College will hereafter give the 
degree of Ductor of Philosophy, open to 
graduates of three years' slandiug who take 

ture aud science.— Corjie/i Sun. 

Education is making rapid strides in the 
Argentine Republic. For the laot year an 
attendance of over -J-I.OOO pupils was re- 
ported iu the public schools, lluenos Ayres 
alone had KJ.UUO of those in lU'J schools of 
three teachers each. 

Out of 4 880,-531 white persons between 
ten and f-urleen years old iu the Uuion, 
570,104, IT nearly twflve per cent., were 
unable towrile; of H;i4,fi.i.5 colored persons 
of the same ago, 5oJ77i, or more than 



ixly-i 



: per 



nable 



The schnol population is, for ihirty-eieht 
Stati-P, 15C(il,li;l;fortenTerrit.)rio.-, 218,- 
2y;(; the number enrolled is, -for thiity 
eieht States, 0,7;i7,l7i;; for ten Territories, 
12:M.i7; the nuuiber in d«ily average at- 
teudamc i?, forthiity-four Slacs, 5.505.aJ'J; 
for nine Territories, GO, 027. 

The old William and Mary College of 
Virginia has finally closed ils doors, after 
nearly two hundred years of service. At 
the beginning of the present year, but one 
student was enrolled as a member of the 
present college. It was chartered in Ifi!!,!, 
and next to Harvard is the oldest college iu 
the couutry. 

The number of years Hiat a student has to 
spend at a medicjil institution before obtaiu- 
iug a dfgrce is : In Sweden, ten ; Norway, 
eight; Denmark, eeveu; Belgium, Hol- 
land, Italy and Swiizerland, six; Russia, 
Portugal, Austria and Ilinigary, live; 
France, England and Canada, four; Uuiled 
States, three or two; Spain, two. 

Sir William Hamilton furniabes n nftiblo 
example of youthful precocity. Iu his tliitd 
year he read English admirably, and had 
learned the simple operations ol arithmetic ; 
at four he look high rank al geography ; iu 
his liflh year, ho c.uld Irauslalo Hebrew, 
Greek and Latin, acd itcite ficw Uomtr, 



Milton, Dryden. aud Cdlins. Al oigbl ho 
wna a good scholar iu L^tin, French and 
Itiilian, aud at tan ttudied Arabic and San 



Educational Fancies. 



rill be apprt-ciaitd.] 

The man continually adding up columns 
of figures will not last lung. Whom the 
gods would destroy they Grst make 'em add. 

A Freshman hesitates on the word "con- 
noisseur." Professor : " What do you call a 
man that pretends to know everything t" 
Freshman : " A professor." 

A pretty AVisoonein schoolmarm, to en- 
courage promptuess, promised to kiss the 
first scholar at school, aud the big bnys 
took to roosting ou the fence all night. 

A Freshman wrote to his father : " Dear 
Par— I want a liitle change." The pater- 
nal parent replies: "Dear Charlie— Just 
wait for it. Time brings change to every- 
body." 

A man pays thirty cents for th'Ce pounds 
of evaporated Hppl<"8 and gets a $14 news- 
paper puff for seudiog them to an orphan 
asylum. Does be gain or luse. and how 
much T 

Pedagogue: "What is the meaning of 
the Lntiu verb ignonco f Tail Student (after 
all the others have f.iiled to give the correct 
definition): "I dtib't know." Ptdayogue: 
"Riglit. Go up to the head." 

Julia has five beaux and Emily has three, 
while the old maid next door has none. 
How many beaux in all, and how many 
would be Icfi if they should Rive the old 
maid half the ctow.— Detroit Free Press. 

"What is a lady's sphere t" asked the 
lady priucipal of a public school on exami- 
nation day. And a little red-hea-led u-chiu 
la the dirner equeakcd : "Micel' lathe 
dfeadful eonfiisirm that followed the freckled- 
faced fiend escaped. 

A Problem. —Two females, each thirty 
years o( age, are siliiug on the sofa. Nei- 
ther of them has a husband. Oae is worth 
$200,000. and the other teaches a district 
81-huul. Q leslion : Which is the unmarried 
lady and which is the old maid \-~Rodmter 
Post- Express. 

While a tight- rope dancer at a circus wa? 
going tliroogh his performance, a boy about 
twelve years old turned to an acquaiutanee 
if the sauie age, aud remarked: "Tom, 
don't you wi^h you could do that f " " Yes, 
I do," padly replied Tom, "but my folks 
uiako me go to school, and are determined 
that I shan't ne-'cr be nobody." 

A little bny in one of the city German 
schools, while engaged in the delightful ex- 
ercise of defining words, a few weeks since, 
made a uiistake which whs nr)t at all a mis- 
take. Hfisaid: " A demagogue is a vessel 
that holds beer, %rinp, giu, whsky, or any 
other intoxicating liq-ior." He was proba- 
bly thiukiug of demijohn, but he bit the 
truth just the same. 

A sharp student was called tip by the 
worthy professor of a celebrated college, and 
asked the question, "Can a man see with- 
out eyes!" "Yes, sir," was the prompt 
reply. "IIow, sir,'' oried the astonished 
professor, "can a man see without eyesT 
Pray, eir, how do you make Ihat oult" 
"lie can see with one, sir." replied the 
ready-witted youth. And the whole class 
shouted with dtlght at the uiumph over 
uieta]ihysics. 



' Whai 



0?" 



teacher the first day of school, grabbing a 
trembling culprit who bad just dnichari^ed a 
48 ralibie spit- ball at a girl across the aiale. 

"Abacadabra Snartuut," replied the 
trembling youth. 

The Bleru features of the irate pedagogue 
relaxed, aud a look of pity stole iuio ha 

" Thai'a all tight," he aaid, eadly. " You 



can go. You are punished enough. No- 
borly shall say I over raised my hand against 
a pupil flufftfriug wiih a name like that." — 
Cheek. __„^,^^__^_ 

The Art of Writing. 
AsViEWKri Avi> Trkatkd hytiib Father 

OK Sl'li.VCKltlAN rKX-AIANSCUP. 

Bi- R. C. Spencer. 
II[. 
Surrounded l)y aud coatendiug with the 
disadvatitHges of pioneer life under con- 
ditions exiatiog seventy-five ye^rs ago iu 
the forests of norlhoru O'lio, there was 
Dothiug to encourage aud almost everythiug 
to discourage a boy from attempiin? to 
make improvements iu the art of writing 
and methods of teaching. But notwiih- 
standiug this the lad from the Catskill 
Mountains showed unlailiutr devotinn to the 
art that.whileyota mere child, had led him 
to wed the peu thnuigh Ixve of letters aud 
their noble usps to mankind. History, 
science aud literature had, toalimiicd ex- 
tent by irregular means, begun to awaken 
iu his active and reoeutive mind profuuuder 
ngurd for the art which ho iirprovi-d ami 
beautified, and the pn-f^ssioii which ho 
honored and dieuified, by m;iny years of iu- 
tclligeH and pliiliuthmpic di-voiinn as pen- 
man. iPHdifT and author. His life at this 
early period even was an illuitratiim of the 
truth audsiguificancoofiheword* of Bryant, 
in which he saye: 



The expanding aud Impressible nature ol 
the growing btiy with a passion fur the art 
of writing was open to and full of that 
" love of Nature" which brought hiui iuto 
sympathetic communion not only with " her 
visible forms,'' but wiili her invi^ible spirit. 
The forms and the soul of beauty about him 
in forest, n.)wer, llowiug stream, the undu- 
Ihtiug w«ters of the UUe, and the trailing 
vine, of which he gradually became con- 
scious, mingled in his fruitful mind with the 
art and uses of writing. All through his 
life this blendine of early impressions of 
nature in a uiiud of decided poetic cast with 
the practical work of liis pen, his methods 
of teachiag and authort'hip were apparent, 
and gave a charm of freshness and orig- 
inality that was unlike anytliing beforo 
known in his branch of art. 

Wliile the struggle for existence went on 
in the f.irest, the soul nod genius ol tt^o boy 
were slowly ripening under the inlluencos 
of Nature for the mis^iou of his life in im- 
proviug, difiiising aud honoring the art of 
writing, which Mirabeau declared to be " the 
greatest iuvenii-»n of the tiumau iniud'' — 
"The common language of iutelligence," 
and ucxi to it the invention of money — "ihe 
common languiige of self interest." The 
my^tc ry < f uilud aud the moviugs of thought 
giving bn th \u language spoken and written 
early euliHied the interested alleuiiou of the 
boy who had already couie to regard the H't 
of writing as " aseomdary power of speech." 
The evolution of the luiod, through the 
agency of language, was to his view ia- 
separable from the pen onwhii;h permaneui 
record depends, witliout which safe aud sure 
advance cannot be made. 

AVandoriiig in summer upon the sinootli 
beech that fringed Ihe woody shores of Lnko 
Erie, with the forms and uses of written 
characters mingling iu his thought with the 
scenery about hirn, he wrote upon the eandii 
from the same impulse that led him to con- 
vert the 11/ loaves of his mother's Bible to 
use in learuiug to write and impelled him to 
spend his first penny for a sheet of writing- 
pnper. But now bo no hpuger modeled his 
forms servilely after tlmso that had been 
traneuiitlPd from earlier ages, but luetead he 
incorporated into the imagery of his illus- 
tratious iu the sands tiie lines and forms of 
nature whuh ho saw aud loved. In af er 
years these beautitied and graceful forms 
aud movements, growing in his miud and 
heart aud btcouiiug a habit of muscular 
action, were trausferred by him to the 
icbool, tocuiQiuerco and to social life, aud 



to-day give eliHraoter to the A-nerlcan hand- 
wriiiug and afl'ect the chirpgraphy of Eng- 
land aud Coutiueutal Europe. 



Want of Interest in Good 
Penmanship. 

ilfr. Fdilor:-]n i.cr-ordanro willi your 
uniico to the efi'ccl that t)i<>sc having any- 
thing to say r- liitivo to penmuusliip miybt 
s;iy it through the columns of the Jour- 
nal, I ollVr this article. 

Pcum:inslii|) may command a great in- 
terest from penmen, toaehers, cgnivers, 
raid- writers, and those professhmnlly en- 
gaged iu it. but wi h the iniijority of the 
prople go. d wri ing is never api.rcciated, 
ami is only looked iipnn as uselcs* elegnuce. 
If a inerch .ut employs a book keeper who 
wires II pliiiu aud elegiiut band, ho takes 
little In-ercst in such an Hccomj lishnicnt ; 
so tlmtthi- wiiting islciiiblcund answers his' 
imrposc- real etHyaiue is of little account. 
Nr is it tho b 'siuess mini uhme, but 
uiiniig all v]tm<^s of people there are those 
wliri take lit Iu interest iu (his beautiful art. 

Why, the writer was actually atouidhcd, 
quite recently, to hear a young miin say 
that he had never h<^ard of the Penman's 
AiiT Journal; and what was more sur- 
prising was tho fact that ho \rm r. ally a 
fair ]iouiiiau. had been a student at a large 
b iMuoss voltego. nnd been taught penuum- 
ship by a famnna professor of the art (ouo 
of tho proprietor* of tho scho 1 ). ;iud this 
young mini wua sur[ rised to find that iu- 
teiTst rnough \vm taken iu penmanship 
to sustaiii siirh a grand penmen's paper. 

dcr my own observation. Tbevo are very 
few pers<ms, however, who have not hoard 
of Si.euceiian, but even few of those know 
of ita origin, or have heard of a Spencer. 

On-! of the many trials with which a pen- 
man has t" contend are the criticisms and 
opinions of some of these somi-iutcrcsted 
piirtics wh'kso crmceit usually leads tlicm 
into eritici'ins or enmplimcuts as oxtrav- 
aL'ant aud unfounded ns are their own 
chiiuis to a real knowledge of, aud excel- 
lence iu. the pnictico of the art They tell 
you that your skill is wonderful; you must 
have been a uiitural-borii genius iu the way 
of writing, and then Hatter yuu aud your at- 
tainment. Olhers afle.t to esteem lightly, 
or despise, neything like skilled writing, 
aud speak disparagingly of lliose who ac- 
quire or practice it; but I believe tho JofR- 
NAL is doing much to overcome all this by 
popularizing good writing, which it does 
both by its precept aud example, as well 
by largely increasing the frieuds and prae- 
liccrs of good writing. 

Baltimore, Md. W. A. Wriqiit. 



Shaylor's Compendium. 



aid ll.« ».eit l^>in.er, Hi.d i.. w^ll »ordi llie 
pii.tf a-kn.l fur ii. Moiltd lor ?1, by 11. W. 
Sliuylui-, PuiiUnd. Mh. 



Standard and Complete. 

On the occasion of delivering nn educa- 
tioiial address, Pr< sideut Garfield very aptly 
dfsiguatrd the Spenccrian as "that system 
of penmanship \v\<\\i\\ has become the pride 
of our c uutry aud mod«! of our eihools." 

Its lateot ciunplete Amerl'-an utition of 
Slauilanl Praclii-nl Penmanship, prejiared 
fo/ the Journal by the Spenceriao Broth- 
ers, Is a reliable and popular publicatiuu for 

It is not sobi to the book-tradc. but mailed 
direct lo students, accountants, merchants, 
bankers, lawyerii, and professional men gen- 
erally, ou receipt of *1. 

'I'be Work emb-aces a comprehensive 
course, in ploin stjles of writiug, and gives 
their direct application in busiuesa f.rms, 
correspoudeure, boi-k keeping:, etc., ( te. 

If not found superior to other styled self- 
iusinietors iu mi.iug, lUa puichasepiice will 
bu refunded. 



AH 1 .JOIIKNAI. 



PF 



Dimock's Wonderful Pen, 

A Christmas Stobv. 
Bt Pact, Pastnok. 
Diniock was a poor writing' in aster. He 
lived ulone, aWay up in a top room of the 
largest aud tallest teaeiiieat block in the 
city — very tnucli nearer the stars than many 
a rich honae-owuor beneath, auil yet, after 
all, farther from the tender aud beautiful 
human lights nf joy and love. Diuiock was 
lonely, poor and friendless, and, what is 
more, he was discontented. One can be 
happy almost anywhere if one is but con- 
tent; but Diinock was not content. There 
was a great longing atid a great restlessness 
in his heart. He bad an aspiration — a 
strange aspiration, too, considering that he 
was now lifiy years old, aud ought to have 
settled upon his vocation for good and all. 
Dimock wanted to be an author. He loved 
to cherish the hope that his devotion to the 
pen might sometime ripen into the power 
to use it, with a master's hand, as the vehi- 
cle of beautiful thoughts and noble concep- 
tions. He failed — poor aian I — to see that 
genius, and even talent, is from within, and 
not from without. He aspired to attain by 
the instrument alone, what the instrument 
can only express, after it has been already 
attained. 

And yet, hopeless as the aspiration really 
was, Dimock did not think it hopeless, and 
it gave him a world of comfort. He was 
always saying to himself, as he settled down 
before his scanty fire, after a hard^day's work 
of copying, or teaching, or accounting : 
" Now, old fellow, cheer up! You will not 
always he tied down to this sort of drud- 
gery. One of these days you are going to 
wake up in the morning and find yourself — 
an author. It will come — it will come at 
last. God never lets a man hope all his life 
in vain. Only don't despair ! You have 
had a hard climb of it, my boy, but the top 
of the hill is in sight. Keep up your cour- 
age — don't fail now ! " 

And yet, after all, it was hard for poor 
Dimock to go on hoping against hope. 
There were times when he felt well-nigh dis- 
couraged — times when the bitterness in his 
heart welled up and almost choked him. 
And the strangest thing of it all was that, 
although Dimock confidently believed that 
he was born to be an author, he never made 
any beginnings in that direction ! His theory 
was that he was to wake up some morning 
all ready-made. There was to be no stage 
of preparatory discipline and labor, but only 
just a springing into full-fledged power — a 
being, and no becoming. This was Dim- 
ock's idea of tlie way authors come to be 
authors. They must know how to write, of 
course, and how to epell, and punctuate, and 
arrange; but as to knowing bnw to think, 
why, that is a diflerent matter. That is 
something that they come upon by ordina- 

This was Dimock's creed, and as It was 
about the only creed he had, be came to be- 
lieve in it witii an extraordinary faitb. He 
was a bachelor, and he had a good deal of 
time to think about things ; but the more 
he thought, the more his mind narrowed 
down to this one topic. It was, decidedly, 
his hobby. 

Things were at about this pass when the 
first snow began to fly, in early December, 
and the ground became stony hard, and the 
wind seemed to have a great deal of busi- 
hand, especially up .it the tops of 



the 



-hoi 



For two 



thr( 



weeks Dimook had been at work upon 
something that pleased him wonderfully. 
It was the task of copying— deciphering, 
we might say — a volume of poems, written, 
some in pencil on odd scraps of paper, 
some on the backs of letters, some on both 
sides of a sheet of note-paper, and all 
blurred and interlined and sadly defaced, — 
and yet true poems, breathing a wonderfully 
delicate spirit and lyric sweetness. The 
author — a hurried business man, and yet 
one who had found some time for study aud 
reflection— had brought them to Dimock, 
and aaked him if he thought he could have 



the patience to put them into shape. 
Dimock had eagerly assented — for was it 
not in the way of his own aspiratioas, and 
might not the task, somehow, bring him 
nearer to the realization of his own ideal ? 
Tenderly and patiently be had worked at 
the little crumpled flowers of poesy, spread- 
ing outand smoothing each folded petal, and 
setting them all in order, and binding them 
up in a beautiful borjuet of sentiment and 



! nearer, and he saw peitple hurrying to and 
fro in the streets, with happy faces, and 
bundles under their arms, and auspicious 
parcels sticking out from their pockets, he 
could scarcely bear bis loneliness aud dis- 



appoi 



No 



of the: 



I little tokens 



Lf the 



r days, 



It was on the night of the twelfth of 
December that Dimock finished his task, 
and worked out a lovely vignette for the 
" Fiois" on the last sheet, and leaned back 
in his chair, to think over what he had done 
aud what it had done for him. He had en- 
joyed the task most dearly, and for the time 
it had seemed to him almost his own; the 
poems, the creatures of his own soul, and 
all their beautiful sentiments the utterances 
of his own longings. But now that the 



3g faces, were 
The day would be to him like all otli 
only that he would be sadder au 
lonesome because of the joy of others. 

So he sorrowed at his work, aud Clirist-' 
mas Eve found him toiliug in his little attic 
room at a huge heap of diinly-writteu law 
papers. Only his hani was busy at the 
task ; his tboujjhta were far away. He was 
thinkiug of the dream of his young man- 
hood—long since, alas I faded into the dull 
atmosphere of a prosaic past. Here was a 
little cottage, embowered in honeysuckles, 
and on the porch a fair young girl silting 
with her hand in his, and a dainty little 
child's garment had fluttered down at her 



room, and came in — hesitatingly, at first 
and oh, so beautiful I "Is this Dimock t ' 
she asked, looking down upon him with hei 



brig 
arms, but shi 
seut," she said 
wonderful pen. 
who knew you 



oftly, 



^ck held . 



' to bring you this 
It is a gift from someone 
a heaveu, before you were 
born ! It will enable him who possesses it 
to write the sweetest songs and stories 
without the toil of the mind, but with all 
the joy and rapture of the feeling heart. 
Cherish it well— aud remember this; the 
first unworthy motive, or impure thought, 
i>r unholy ambition that enters the writer's 
heart, while he sits with this wonderful pen 
in his hand, destroys its virtue forever! 
Now farewell, and may God bless you, and 
grant you many a happy Christmas Eve in 
the years to come I " 

Dimock awoke with a start. Surely 
there had beeu somebody in the room he 











^^O^^T^^'Z^^'^^ 



TJu above cuU lotre pkola-engraved from pen-and-ink copy executed by Prof. A. H. Hinman. of the JVorreiter {Mas. 
In the January wwjnier of the "Journal" wilt be the first of a series of teasons in PhactiCai. WliniNc. b 
re confident that all who accrpt Aw above invitation to Join kirn in what he ia pleased to call "o stroll amony points i 
congenial and instructive companion. It will certainly pay you. 



.) Business College. 
, I'rof Binman, and 
1 penmanship " will j 



task was done, how much : 

that was actually his f Could he evei 

produce or imitate those charmiug lyri 

te others, in his own i 






which should equal them T Dimock sighed, 
as he put this question to himself; for ho 
felt, in his inmost heart, that he could not 
answer it as he wished. However groat had 
been his delight and sympathy, in the task 
which he had just completed, however much 
he had seemed to enter into the author's 
spirit and thought, yet there was still that 
intangible something which he had fallen 
short of. He knew that the poems were 
not his, and never cnuld be his, no matter 
how deeply he felt them and loved them. 
The weeks sped by, ami Christmas time 
approached. Dimock had carried the vol- 
ume of poems to their author, and had re- 
ceived a generous meed uf thanks and 
reward. The ordinary drudgery of his 
work had beeu resumed, but with a still 
more sad and downcast spirit than before. 
As the day of gladness drew nearer and 



feet. At the open window, the breeze was 
fluttering tiie leaves of a half open book, 
aud a shoet of paper, partly written upon, 
lay on a desk near by. This was to have 
been Dimock's life— it was his boyish ideal ! 
The clock struck uine, and he laid dowu 
his pen, aud flung himself into his groat 
easy-chair by the fire. Thoughts would 
come, and he did not try to keep them back. 
"Oh!" he sighed, "if I could but invent 
a wonderful pen, that needed but the hand 
to guide it, and would write out my soul, 
that has no power to write itself! " Aud as 
he mused curiously upon this strange 
thought, and watched the coals flashing iu 
the little open stove, he fell asleep. 

It was a strange dream for a man like 
Dimock to have in his sleep, though, heaven 

ing. 

Ho dreamed that the very being whom 
he had seen on the porch of the little cot- 
tage, pushed open the door of his attic- 



oould hear the steps on the stairs. He 
caught up his lamp aud rau to the door, but 
a gust of air put the sickly lUme out, and 
befitre he could kindle it ftgain the sound of 
the steps had ceased, aud away down on the 
lower floor he heard the entry- door close 
with a muffled sound. 

But what is this f Dimock's hand trem- 
bled as he took up a little white package 
that lay on the table. Rapidly he undid it, 
aud lo! there lay a beautiful gold pen and 
htdder, and a slip of paper that said : 
"God bless you, and graut you many a 
hajipy Christmas Eve in the years to come ! " 

The quick tears sprang to Dimock's eyes, 
and a strange wonder took hold upon him. 
It seemed as if the very Prince of Peace 
himself were iu the little room. Dimock 
laid the pen down, and reverently clasped 
his hands. 

" Dear Christ ! " he prayed, " pardon this 
poor, cold, ungrateful heart of mine ! 
Henceforth I am all Thiue; aud whatever 
shall be Thy will for me, is best and hap- 

The clock on the mantel struck twelve, 
and Chrifitmaa Day had begun. 



Comments on "Ames's New Compendium of Artistic Penmanship." 

ibrary, und Ihe parlor. It U the wotkW tnwBil 




n-»-f. „ A CD ■ . " J .' ^^'^.'"J*'' " ^ ^ '' '^ • a' the *1ice tif the JoLltNAL and laapagefrora tIiedepartmenl«tHouii(.lii« in'Amt' 

new Umpeudiun. of Prachca! and ArUsuo P.nmanebp Iub um.ersally acknowledged to be Ibe moat comprehensu e and prau-cal gu.de m ,he entne.ange 
orihepenmauaan ever..«ued. Cotnpmea a complei. couree ot mBtruci.on m Plam Wnlmg a full course of Ofthand riouu«hing upwmd ot fmt> ^tnnda.d and A 
ornate alphaMs. and over twenty 11x14 plate« of coinmerual deB.gn« engrosBed r«olut.on« memonals certil,ca>e9 tule pages etc etc in all B«^entj 11x11 
Keroue """'P^^^J^f everj apeciea of work m the Ime of a professional peu-artUl. Price, by mail. $5; mailed free, as a prbmium, to 
" ' '"' - - - Journal." We hereby agree that, ehonld anyone, on receipt of lhi» book, be dissalisGud with it, they ehall 



inch pi: 

ibe Bender of a club ot twej' 

be at liberty to return it, i 



' tbem the full i 






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The Close of Vol. VII. 

Wheo, nearly spven years since, the first 
oumLer of TiiE Penman's Aut Jouknai. 
was issued ae r amall four-paged sheet, 
without illuBtration?, its success was indeed 
problematical. In fact, after sabscrihing 
to the various ponineu's papers which had 
been launched forlh with great promisee, to 
shortly lind tbemselvcs the vii-liins of mis- 
placed confidence, the wuuld-be patrons uf 
such publicatiors had come to doubt even 
the feasihilily of the long and succcessful 
t-ontinuance of a penman's paper, and more 
fspecially so since the then recent mergence 
1 if the most vigorous aud promisiog of iheiii 
iill, the Penman's Gazette, into another 
i-aper, which shortly after siispended pub- 
lication. It was hut natural, tmder such 



, thH 



1 thr 



hue of penmen's papers should be viewed 
vith doubt and patrooizpd with caution. 
Such was the fdct ; subeoiiptiuuB came iu 
» lowly and for short periods, many persons 
*vea remitting ten cents monthly, no doubt 
□ the balidf or (^^t (b-tt «.wU Usue would 



be the last. This hesitancy oo the part of 
of its would-be patrons at first rendered the 
(uccess of the Journal dilEculi if not even 
doiiblfLiI ; hut as it has month after month 
made ils appearance, bearine upon its more 
numerous, aliraclive and interesting pages 
the unmistaltable stamp of progress aud 
success, the confidence and esteem of its 
patrons has been won, and now, as it closes 
its seventh volume, with 30,000 sixteen- 
paged papers, printed aud illustrated in a 
manner to entitle it to stand as a peer 
among the finest periodicals of the world, 
there can no longer remaia a doubt that 
there is a field and mission open to a pen- 

Of the present issue not leas than 10,000 
copies will go into the hands of teachers 
and school officers, to whom they afford a 
stimulus and example for good instruction 
and efficient school -woik; while other 
thousands go into homes and the hands of 
self- learners, where ihey are a constant 
source of inspiration and aid to the acquisi- 
tion of good wriliog; and there is scarcely a 
professional penman in all the land, who 
aspires to the skillful mastery of his art, 
who does not look eagerly for the monthly 
visils of the Journal, and find therein in- 
struction and examples to aid and cheer 
him in his work. While it is true that the 
patronage of the Journal comes chitfly 
from those who are ii»)re or less directly 
interested in writing as teachers, pupils or 
artists, yet upon ils subscription lists are 
names of persons in nearly every occupation 
and position in life; so numerous and varied 
in that respect are its patrons that the 
Journal can now scarcely be regarded as a 
class paper. As all classes write and are 
interested in good writiug, so all classes are 
interested in, and are coming to he pa'rons 
of, the Journal. Nor are its patrons 
limited to America, since copies are mailed 
to actual subscribers in nearly every civil- 
ized Country on the globe. 

While every number of the Journal in 
the future will contain abundant matter re- 
lating to its specialty, including a lesson in 
practical writing, there will also be carefully 
written essays upon topics of general in- 
terest, and a carefully selected miscellany ; 
and its patrons can be assured that no effort 
or expense on the part of ils publishers will 
be spared to sustain it in a manner to do 
honor and the greatest service to all classes 
interested in any department of penmanship. 
And it is believed that the facilities now at 
the command of the Journal for conduct- 
ing a penman's paper are quite boyond 
those within the reach of any other pub- 
lisher. 

To the many earnest friends of the 
Journal who have so materially aided in 
its grand success by contributing to enrich 
its columns with jiraclical and valuable 
thoughts, to embellish its pages with gems 
of ait, or to extend the list of its patrons, we 
return our most sincere thanks. 



The King and Lesser Clubs. 

The King Club for this month numbers 
one hundred and eleven, aud is sent by W. 
H. Patrick, penman at Sadler's Bryant aud 
Stratiou Business College, Baltimore, M.l. 
The Queen numbers one huyidred, and is 
sent by J. B. McKay, Kingston, Canada. 
Mr. McKay is tbe recognized agent of the 
Journal for Canada, and he is entering 
upon his work in a manner that is 
auspicious for success. 

A club of thirty -three names is sent by 
A. B. Armstrong, Principal of the Portland 
(Oregon) Business Collpge. A club of 
twenty fi-je from Uriah McKee of the Pen- 
manship Department of the Oherlia {Ohio) 
College. Daniel T. Morgan, of Oberliu, 
0'iit», sends a club of ttcelve. J. R. Long 
sends a club of thirteen fr >m Danville, lud. 
W. a. Johnson and W. T. Thomas, pen- 
men in Musselman's Gem City Businecs 
College, Quincy, 111., send a club of farty 
names. li. S. Bonsall, penman at the 
Carpenter Bryant & StrattoQ Business 
Collf^ei SU I^ouis, seads a club of twettty- 



jur names. Messrs. Vernon and Immel 
send a club of eighteen names from their 
writing-classes at Goshen, Ind. G. S. Kim- 
ball, Principal of the Commercial Depart- 
ment of the Ohio Wesleyan University, a 
club of twenty-fice names G. W. Hencley, 
of the Indianapolis Itryant & Stratton 
Business College, sends a clubof (icwifi/-onc. 
C. N. Crandle, Principal of the Penmanship 
Department of the Western Normal College 
at Bushnell, III., sends a club of twelve. 

Clubs of lessor magnitude and single sub- 
scriptions have just poured in during the 
past month in numbers quite beyond any 
precedent for the season of the year, while 
applications for specimen copies of the 
Journal by those who aro organizing 
dubs are utterly without precedent. To 
the many earnest and active friends of the 
Journal we again return our thanks, and 
assure them that we shall spare no effort 
or expense to furnish them a penman's 
paper whose merita shall vindicate their 
highest hope and best commendation. 

To the Patrons and Friends of 
the "Journal." 

In each number 
of the present issue 

liberty of inclosing 
a blank for receiv- 
ing the name and 
address of any per- 
son who may wish 
to become a sub- 
scriber to the Jour- 
nal. Will those 
who do not them- 
selves wish to fill 
out and return the 
blank do us the fa- 
vor of handing it to 
some one who will 
be most likely to 
e to do so, and also call iho attention of 
friends to the Journal, and solicit 




the 

their subscriptioc 

Terms 

With the first 

each subscriber w 



) the same t 
D Premiums. 
nber of the Journal 






choice of tlie foUo- 



ug pre- 



First. " Ames's Hand-book of Artistic 
Penmanship," which is a handsome work 
of thirty-two pages, giving examples for 
fijurishing and lettering. Second. The 
Centennial Picture of Progress, 2'2xa,'5, 
which is one of the most interealiug and 
artistic pen-pictures ever executed, giving a 
pictorial representation of changes wrought 
in our country during the one hundred 
years following the declaration of inde- 
pendence. Third. The Bounding Stag, 
which is an elegant specimen of flourishiug 
and lettering, 24x^2 inches iu size, and on 
fine heavy plate- paper. Fourth. The 
Spread Eagle — a beautifully llourished de- 
sign, same size as Stag. Fifth. The 
Gaiii-ild Memorial, which is an elaborate 
and beautiful specimen of artistic pen- work, 
10x24. Sixth. The Lord's Prayer, same 
size as the Memorial, is an elegant and 
popular pen-picture. Seventh and Eiyhth. 
A Family Record, or Marriage Certificate, 
each 18x22. Also, very attractive and 
valuable publications. 

To a club of two subscribers the Jour- 
nal will be mailed one year for $I,7,i, and 
to each subscriber a choice of the above 
named premiums. 

To a club of five subscribers, for $4 00, 
with a choice of the eight premiums. 

To a club of ten subscribers, for $7.50, 
with a choice of premiums. 

To a club of fifteen subscribers, for .?D 75. 
" twenty-five " 15(10 

" fifty aud upward, 25,00 

The above very luw rates for clubs are 
offered chiefly to euHl)le loaciiers to place 
the Journal in the hands of their pupils, 
aud for the larger clubs we shall desire to 
send the promiums in a lot, by express, to 
the person who gets up the club for diatri- 
bulioQ to the subscribers. 



Penmen's Papers. 

The bringing into competition a swarm 
of aspirants to a similar success seems to 
be a penalty to be paid by every success- 
ful undertaking. Since the successful 
imblication of the Journal no less than 
six ppnmen's papers have been started, and 
another formerly published revived. Al- 
ready three of these have retired from the 
field, and if their publishers are not fully 
satisfied with the glory won they are un- 
doubtedly 80 with a rural penmen's paper 
as a means of speculating out of pocket- 

Wo are not led into making these re- 
marks through any jealousy of these pub- 
licatious, for we most heartily wish them 
all success ; for it is not tlieir success that 
injures those that survive so much as their 



failu 



loss 



persons lose small balances paid for sub- 
scriptions, which lead them to be suspicious 
and cautions about patronizing other similar 
publications; and, besides, one vigorous, 
well- patronized and well-conducted pen- 
men's paper is capable of doing vastly 
more for penmanship and its proft^ssion than 
a eotire of small papers whose influence at 
best is only local. The facilities afforded by 
New York for conducting any publication 
are so greatly superior to smaller towns 
that, other things being equal, a penmen's 
paper published in the Metropolis must be 
the leader of its clas--. And we believe that 
any penman, pupil, or teacher, who takes 
a penmen's paper can best afford to have 
the best one published, which we are de- 
termined shall be the Journal. 



Penmanship in Washington 
Public Schools. 

Those who attended the meeting of the 
Business Educators' Association last July 
had the opportunity of seeing the re- 
markable specimens of writi-;g then on ex- 
hibition from the public Hi^hoois of Wash- 
ington, D. C. Tbe specimens were from 
the schools of the eighth grade, the last 
before the High school, and were written 
under conditions that secured what may 
properly be called the current work of the 
pupils. The average ago of pupils in that 
grade is not above fifteen years. The 
specimens were taken as follows; The ex- 
aminers, upou entering a school, were to 
announce the theme upon which the pupils 
were t<( each write an essay, within a given 
number of minutes, in their presence, and at 
the expiration of the time the essays were 
all collected and placed in a package and 
sent to the office of the superintendent. 
Such specimens were taken in each of the 
eighth grade schools; no selections were 
made, bat the work of entire classes was 
included. 

The majority of the specimens showed 
excellence of form, clean strokes, regular 
size, slant, spacing and a fair degree of ease 

the mark were from pupils who had recently 
come to Washington from other schools. 

The writing iu the Washington schools 
is taught by the regular teachers, no special 
teacher of writing being employed. The 
teachers are required to have a knowledge of 
the "Spencerian," and fonie degree of skill in 
writing upon the blackboard. Copy-books 
and charts are used, and at the stated ex- 
aminations of schools the pupils are ques- 
tioned iu regard to the theory of pen- 

Tlie idea has been entertained by some of 
our professional teachers of writiug that the 
use of a published system of writing in 
schools tends to diminish the demand for 
their services, but such is really not the 
case; the real master succeeds best in a 
community where coneidOTable is known of 
his art, and where, consequently, it is ap- 
preciated- 

In considering the merits of the Wash- 
ington specimens it should be borne in 
mind that they were samples of coinpohilion 
as well; tbat tho ponmsnahip was shown 
in its true relation — that of servant to the 



Business- Writing. 

That writioe which ie moat quickly read, 
and meet easily and rapidly written if, un- 
qiiestional'ly, the liest for Imainess purposes. 
ReBpectiuK the style of wriiiog best adapted 
for eecuricg ihe^e qualities there in a great 
diversity of npiDion. In the present article, 
we shall endeavor brielly tn point out some 
of those requisites, and offer a few hiots for 
their acquisition. 

There is, perhaps, no one criticism that 
more frequently confronts and annoys, nnt 
to say embarrasses, the pr<ifessioual teacher 
of ;rriline, than that wlurh informs hira that 
that style which he practices and teaches is 
not what. 13 employed in business. He is 
told that his writiDK is too exact, too nicely 
touched out with hair Hue and shade, and 
too ornate wilh flourishes and other artistic 
notions ; the same objections are often 
urged agaiust the fiuely engraved copies in 
the copy-books. We are not surprised that 
persons who look wholly to the rcult to be 
attaiaed, regardlfss of'the mctliods of its 
attaiutnent, should thus ihiiik and Fpeak. 
It is but natural, when one has for a life- 
lime wilaeescd the pxa<'t and nrti^Iio copies 
used ia the teacbiug (f writiug, and who 
has never ouce observed such writing in tlie 
conntiiig-room should aak, why teach that 
which is never seen or practiced ia business 
lifef 

Writing, in many respects, is the most 
peculiar of nil human attaiuments. It has 
to do with nearly every faculty of the mind, 
as well as the muscular skill of the hand 
and aru], and the ultimate excelleare of 
one's writing depends u])ou a proper train- 
ing of all the faculties of the mind ami hand 
which are called into use in its execminn. 
Firs*, the eye and jiidgtiient must be edu- 
cated respecting form, size, proportion, dis- 
tance, slope, etc.; second, a corieot taste 
must bo acquired respecliog grace of com- 
bination, ami the geueral elegauce of writ- 
ing ; Hud, third, i\,f iiniscl^s (,f the hand 
~~siid-arm- utu«t t>»4nuaod tu tba proper po- 
sition and moveaieats for imparting the 
greatest accuracy and facility for executing 

Now, in all departments of mental or 
physical culture it is a recognized principle 
that to be etf.}ctive every efl'url must be di- 
rected to the attainment of a distinct and 
specific purpose. The musician must prac- 
tice for the mastery of the scale and the 
laws of harmony. The elocuiionist must 
train his voice to precise and exact enuncia- 
tion. Neither the student of music, nor of 
elocution, in the tedious routine of their 
practice and discipHoe, present the char- 
of the skilled and accomplished 
or oiatcr; in e%ch the style and 
manner of the learuer will diftVr as widely 
from the mature praclilinner as will the 
style of writing in the echool-room from 
that of the counting-room. 

It is a generally c)nceded fact that the 
higher, more stable, and perfect, the object 
for emulalion, the higher ami better will be 



the » 



Thl 



i belie 



>bet 



of the pupil of writing. Place before him 
as a copy, a high standard of perfection, the 
forms of which shall be at all times the 
same, and bis efforts for its mastery will be 
productive of far bolter results than if be 
should vacillate in his prsclice between the 
more crude and ever varying forms that are 
met with in all writing executed with the 
pen, and especially that in the buainep^ 
world. It is true that many of our skilled 
masters write copies with a uniformity and 
pcr/cctiou well nigh equal to those en- 
graved. Where ibis is the case, written 
copies may have the preference as a means 
of greater inspiration t-) the pupils. 

Such copies— aitistic, and of uniform ex- 
cellence—are necessary for the proper di^- 
cipliue of the eye, judgment, and taste, re- 
specting the requif-iles of good writing, while 
the constant exercise of the hand imparls 
accuracy and facility in tbeir executiuu, 
which constitutes a basia (or good writing, 
but as all practice while learnieg is done 
wilh more or less thought and care, ibe 
writing of the paiustakiae learner must in- 
evitably preaent a set, formal appear&oce, of 



Cuts 1,2, 3, 4, amis. 













AitDREviATEP Writing and Capitals for Business. 
Cuts (i and 7. 




)/'^ ^ fi/^'^i^. 



':^^^^^W (%y^-^C^ /JTyyyy. 










which it can ouly be divested in the thought- 
less or habitual practioe uf after life, when 
every hand, whatever may have heeo the 
schoolroom style, will gradually assume a 
peculiar perBonality which is as certainly 
and markedly distinctive as are the pliy- 
siognomies of the various writers; but 
while the habitual writing ol persons may 
greatly change from tlfeir style as learn- 
ers, and, ia most instances, degenerate 
as regards perfection of form, yet the 
real excellence of their hand will, as a rule, 
ever soslain a close relaliuo to that with 
which they left the schoolroom. A care- 
less, awkward, style will change in its 
awkwardness, while the easy, graceful, and 
excellent style will change in iis ease and 
gracefulness, for the same qualities of mind 
and practice which have secured a certain 
quality and style as learners, will continue 
their molding influence into the habitual or 
business writing of the man, imparting to it 
tbi-se corresponding qualities. 

The difference, as it ajipears to us, be- 
tween copy-book and 6chi>olro()m writing 
and that of the business world is much 



the e 



botw 






jagged outline of a newly broken fragment 
of rock, and that of the rounded and pol- 
ished pebble. For the purpose ol illustra- 
tion, we herewith present several specimens 
(cuts I, 2, 3, 4 and 5,) in the staudard 
style of writing as engraved and printed in 
the copy-books, and give the same in a 
style changed after the manner that it 
should be in its adaptation to business 
(cuts 6 and 7). It will he observed that in 
this change the extended letters have short- 
ened, and a tendency tu adopt forms of 
letters that can be completed without rais- 
ing the pen, while every Hue and motion of 
the hand that can be spared and not detract 
from the legibility of the writing has been 
omitted. 

From this illustration the following in- 
ferences may be drawn : 

First, that good business wriling should 
be below medium in size, and not occupy 
by its extended letters beyond two-thirds or 
three-fourths of the space between the ruled 
line of the paper upon which it is written. 

Second, should have very little shade, and 
be written with a pen of medium coarseness 
(not a stub pen), so as to give a clear, 
strong, unshaded, line. 

Third, tliere should be clearly- deBned 
spaces between all words. 

Fourth, capitals, so far as may be, should 
be of a single and simple type, and be 
made with one continuous movement of the 

Fifth, omit all unnecessary or fiourished 
lines; even the customary, initial, and term- 
inal lines may be omitted. 

Sixth, all doubtful forms of letters should 
be avoided. 

Finally, it is an obvious fact that the 
hand in writing can be carried over short 
spaces more speedily and with greater ease 
than over long ones; hence the more con- 
tracted the letters, and smaller the writing, 
the more rapidly and easily it will be written ; 
and fine writing, while it is better in its ap- 
pearance, is much ■ more easily read than 
large, from the fact that there is a clearer 
space between the lines, and less interming- 
ling of the loops and capitals. 

As an illustration of the comparative la- 
bor and legibility of a small or medium 
hand and one very large, we have rtqiro- 
duced an exact fac-similo (cut 8) of a few 
lines of a letter lately received at this office 
from the U. S. Treasury Department at 
Washington. It will be seen that in the 
large writing the contracted letters occupy 
neariy one-half of the entire space between 
the ruled lines, while the capitals and 
looped letters, although dwarfed out of all 
proportion to the other letters, extend al- 
most over the entire space — loping clear 
over aud inicrsecliug eacli other, thereby 
imparting lu the page a massive aud con- 
fused appoaranc* — much more tedious for 
the eye to follow and distinguish between 
Uies aud words than in the open aud airy 
pofC as presented in Jioor wriling, while 



the labor and tardiness of the execution of 
the large, as compared with the smaller, 
writing, Is more than double. 

By measurement we Gud that in each 
stroke of the short letters in the large writ- 
ing the pen passes over a space of three- 
sixteenths of an inch, aud in the loops and 
capitals three-eighths of an inch : by count 
we ascertain tliat there are about 120 
strokes of the pen to a line upon an ordi- 
nary letter-sheet, giving an aggregate dis- 
tauce of about twenty-five inches that the 
pen must pass over in each line of writing, 
aud on a page about fifty feet. 

While in business- writing, as given 
above, the pen passes over a little more 
than one-sixteenth of an inch of space to 
each stroke ot the short letters, and four- 
sixteenth's for loops and capitals, and that 
in covering a similar page wcmid, moreover, 
only amount to about seventeen feet. And 
more than this; the long strokes of the pen 

exhaust the baud than do the short ones. 
It is this style of writing, written with the 
finger-movement, that produces the "wri- 
ter's cr.imp," or pen-paralysis. Small writ- 
ing, written with the forearm or muscular 
movement, will not only fail to produce the 
cramp, but will, if adopted, relieve those 
who are already its victims. 

Upon this subject we invite the opinion 
c»f our authors and teachers of practical 
writing, and, also, we should be pleased to 
receive specimens of what is regarded as 
good practical writing, aud also specimens 
of " business wilting." The distinction we 
would make between practical writing for 
instruction and business writing is: the 
former is thoughtful, careful, systematic, 
aud adapted for securing the best results on 
the part of the learner; business writing is 
jiractical writing modified by the thought- 
less or habitual practice oi business, and 
lacks care and uniformity. 



The Works of Chandler H. 
Peirce. 

One of the most zealous and skillful pen- 
men of this nineteenth century is Chandler 
H. Peirce, of Keokuk, Iowa. While he takes 
a high position as a business educator, and 
conducts an educational business house in 
the enterpri-oing city of Keokuk, he has no 
false modesty about his love for good wri- 
ting. With persistent and untiring industry 
Mr. Peirce has become master of the art of 
writing in its whole structure, from founda- 
tion to dome. He hides none of his genius 
and its outgrowth into practical aud beauti- 
ful works, from business men nor any class 
of his patrous. All the world may kuow 
that he esteems and honors all branches of 
chirographic art — the art of all arts. 

One of the recent achievements with the 
pen by Mr. Peirce is the development of 
over four hundred extended movement-ex- 
ercises—all oJ them rapid, useful, and beau- 
tiful. It is probable, that uu penman baa 
ever before pro<luced such a great variety of 
valuable writing - exercises. His miigic 
skill in producing the work — which, bound, 
comprises a large volume— we believe has 
never been surpassed. 

Mr. Peirce certainly has achieved a very 
high staudard of excellence in this hand- 
made volume. He evidently believes in a 
standard for writing to which all should ap- 
proximate, aud wastes no energy in trying 
to differentiate the natural differences aud 
variations between writers' productions and 
the correct standard they should strive to 
emulate. The underlying principles of the 
chir"graphto art presupposes a standard of 
excellence to which they point and lead the 

How to Remit Money. 

The best aud safest way is by Post-office 
Order, or a bank draft, on New York ; next, 
by registered letter. For fractional parts of 
a dollar, send postage-stamps. Do not send 
personal checks, especially for small sums, 
nor Canadian puatage-stampg. 



Writing-Lessons. 

In the January issue of the JodRNAL 
Prof. A. H. Hinman will give the first of 
a aeries of lessons in practical writing. If 
we mistake not, this course of lessons will 
be of great practical value to all teachers 
and pupils of writing, and specially so to 
those who are striving for self-improvement. 
Mr. Hiuman has had a very large and very 
successful experience as a teacher of writing ; 
indeed, few teachers in the country have 
been more popularly before the public dur- 
ing the past twenty years, and it is with the 
most positive assurance that we say to our 
readers that these lessons will alone be 
worth many times the price of a year's sub- 
scription. 



Autograph Exchangers. 



In 



lorda 



mggestioti in the 



last number, the following-named persons 
have signified their willingnee-s or desire to 
exchange autographs, upon the Peircerian 
plan, aa set forth in the August number of 
the Journal: 

C. C. Cochran, Central High School, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 
J. M. Shepherd, La Grange, Mo. 

C. J. Wolcott, Sherman, N. Y- 

R. H. Maring, Columbus (Ohio) Business 

CoUege. 
Wilson M. Tylor, Marshall Seminary, Eas- 

ton, N. Y. 
J. W. Brose, Keokuk, Iowa. 
J. W. Tisher, Brunswick, Me. 

0. J. Hill, Dryden, N. Y. 

L. H. Shaver, Cave Springs, Va. 
W. D. Strong, Ottumwa, Iowa. 
J. H. W. York, Woodstock, Ontario. 
Charies Hills, 234 llth Street, Philadelphia. 
W. E. Ernst, Sherwood, Michigan. 
E. C. Bosworth, Business University, Roch- 
ester. N. Y. 

D. C. Griffiths, Waxahachie, Texas. 
C. W. Slocum. Chillicothe, Ohio. 

H. S. Taylor, Business College, Rochester, 

NY. 
J. W. Westervelt, Woodstock, Ontario. 
H K. Hostetter, Box Ib33, Sterling, 111. 

C. W. Tiilloian, Hillsdale. Mich. 
Randolph Appleby, Jr., Summit Ave., Jer- 
sey City, N- J. 

D. A. Welch, Medford, Wis. 

C. H. Kimming, 1022 Water St., Phila., 
Pa. 

1. S. Preston, 104 Flatbush Ave., Brooklyn, 
N. Y. 

G. Bixler, Shauesville, Ohio. 

W. R, Foster, Troy Grove, 111. 

A. R. KeUey, care of Ritner's Bus. Col., 
St. Joseph, Mo. 

W. L. Mace, Mound City Commercial Col- 
lege, St. Louis, Mo. 



When to Subscribe. 

While subscriptions are received at any 
time and for any period to suit subscribers, 
yet it is desirable that subscriptions begin 
with the year, and especially so now, as 
Prof. Hinman will then commence his series 
of practical lessons in writing ; besides, this 
is a convenient occasion for both subscribers 
and publishers. 

Bo-sTON, Dec. 3d, 1883. 

Editor Journal:— I was quite interested 
in the article given in last issue, headed 
" Handy with his Pen." I think, however, 
this (the concluding paragraph) the author 
did not intend to be read in Boston : "A 
man I knew recently paid f 5,000 to another 
man in Boston as a bonus to him for the 
privilege to exercise professional card-writ- 
ing in a certain store." The above I pro- 
nounce pure, unadulterated fiction, not to 
call it by any stronger title, and I am not 
alone in t\i\« opinion. If the man is in this 
city and " certain store " found here let him 
give names, and some persons residing in 
B., and who consider themselveB somewhat 
well-posted in regard to such matters per- 
taiuiug to their buainesB, I will give in. 

I would suggest, however, that if tiction 
was the basis of the article in question, the 
author might perhips prove more entertain- 
ing if he should give to the readers of the 
Journal some new adventures of " Baron 
Munchausen," " Sinbad," or " Aladdin." 

H. C. Kendall. 




Answered. 



[ Under this head answers wiH b« givvn to 
all (jueBTionR— the replies to which will be ol 
valuD or general interest to readers. Questions 
which ar» personal, or to which answers would 
be wiihout gwieral int«rf«t, will receive no at- 
tention. Tbii" will explain to many who pro- 
pound (]U«8tionB why no answers are giv^n.] 

J. M. H., Watkins Run, Ohio.— What is 
meant by cross hatch and stippling t Ana. 
Cross hatch is a tint made by line lines 
crossing each other, and stipple is a tint 
made with fine dots. 

0. H. M., Warrington, Ud.— First, 
Which movement is best to teach in public 
schools, where penmanship is considered to 
be a small accomplishment? Second. For 
the execution of systematic penmanship, 
which pen is best adapted, gold or steel f 
Third. Why is systematic penmanship more 
easily executed when writing a familiar 
sentence, than when writing your ovni 
thoughts t Ans. 1. The fore-arm or mus- 
cular movement should be taught at all 
times and in all places; in fact, it is the 
only movement that ever should be taught 
for practical writing; but unfortunately, in 
the class of schools mentioned by our cor- 
respondent are always to be found teachers 
utterly incompetent to teach writing, being 
themselves without knowledge or experience 
sufficient to instruct in the proper move- 
ments, either by precept or example. Of 
course in schools conducted by such teachers, 
or where too little tiuie ia allowed to the 
exercise, it is idle to mention anything but 
the finger movement, and even were the 
teacher qualified much time should be 
given. Ans. 2. A steel pen, because the 
points, being less round and smooth than 
are those of gold, cling more to the paper, 
thereby rendering their niovpinents more 
completely subject to the control of the 
hand, enabling it to produce clearer aneles 
and more perfectly defined characteristics 
through all the writing. Ans. 3. Because 
in transcribing a familiar sentence the mind 
is less diverted from the mechanical opera- 
tion of the hand than when absorbed with 
original matter. 

W. E. S., Washington, Kas.— I have 
great difficulty to keep the correct position 
of the pen. Can you suggest a remedy t 
Ans. Yes, a certain one; be sure your 
position is correct and then stick to it. 

A. B., Elizabethtown, N. C— Which 
is the correct way of holding the pen — 
by placing the thumb under the holder 
opposite the Erst finger joint or at the sidet 
Second. Does it make any difference 
whether the holder be held above or below 
the knuckle joint? Third. How high 
should the wrist be above the paper while 
writing? Should the face of the nails 
(third and fourth fingers), touch the paper 
or the end of nails, aud would it make 
any difference if the flesh of the fingers 
touch. Ans. 1. We prefer that the thumb 
be hold at the side of the holder. Ans. 2. 
The holder should be held back and below 
the knuckle joint except for finger move- 
ment, when it should be iu front, as that 
l)08ition enables greater ease and freedom 
of action to the fingers. Ans. 3. The 
wrist should be only raised clear of the 
table, while the hand should rest upon the 
ends of the third aud fourth linger nails. 

R. F. Do L,, WashiuKtou, D. C, asks if 
we will publish a lessoa on pt^n - holding. 
Prof. Spencer, in the lessons just closed, has 
treated most fully that subject, and so, no 
doubt, will Prof. Hiuman in his course to 
begin in the January number, Mr. De L. 
will fiiid a further answer to his question 
in an article entitled '* Business Writing," 
on page eight of this issue. 

R. J. H., St. Paul, Minn.— iS-trs^ Why 
is it that a writer who cau cover page after 
page in a good legible hand will, when hur- 
ried or in any way excited, write crabbed 



and irregular! Second. Wby is it that 
ttoine persons when desiriog to write their 
very best, only succeetl in writiog their very 
worst! TTtird. Why is it, after neglecting 
to write for several days, the hand hecotneB 
atiff, andthe letters cannot he freely formed ? 
Ans. I. A person has a normal rate of 
speed for writing as well as for tipeaking 
or walking, and su long a? he is within that 
rate to which he is habituated, be writes, 
talks and walks gracefully, but when forced 
(|uite beyond this accustomed rate he is, as 
it were, forced into a new sphere of actioo 
to which he is all unaccustomed ; his hand, 
toague and limits may thus pass beyond his 
coutrol, and his pen make awkward mo- 
tions, his tongue stammer, while his feet 
Btiimhle. Ans. We do not admit this 
affirmation to be true, as a rule, though fre- 
quently it is ! And when so, it is because 
the writer is not wholly the master of his 
hand, and hia great anxiety to do bis best so 
operates upon his nerves as to produce a 
restraint that deprives his hand of its habit- 
ual freedom of motion. Ans. S. It is an 
obvious fact that coDStaot exercise of any of 
the human faculties is necessary to their 
highest and best efforts, and this is no more 
true in the skillful use of the pen than 
in any other attaiument. The musician, 
the athlete and the artisan "fiud constant 
practice no less indispensable to their sue- 
oeBsful performance than does the pen- 



meeting with eocouraging BuoceHs. The 
Timet uf ihitt city says: 

The ball occupied is large enough to furnish ; 
departmeuts for a bank, jobbing-office, recita- 
tion-room and bu8iae«a offices. Meearx. Cubb 
& Mc Kee are energetic buMiDeiB men and dn- 
»«rve the unbounded aucceps they are makiug 
of the bueiueas college. This college adds one 
more to the list of educalioual institutions of 
which Champaign may well be proud. 



C. N. Craiidle. of the PenmaDBliip Deparl- 
Qient of the Normal CulUge, Busbnell, III., a 
letter. 

Uriah McKee. principal of the Writing D«- 
parlment of the Oberliu (Ohio) College, a 
letler. 




penman at MuBeelman'i 
College, Quincy. III.. ( 



ting 1 




And School Items. 



flending specimens for notice io 
should see that the pBckagee con- 
aame are poulage paid in full at 
A large proportion of tbeae pack- 
hort paid, for Bums ranging from 
upward, which, of course, we are 
This IB scarcely a desirable 
for a gratuituua notice.] 



• pay. 



considerati 

O. C. Vernon, Goshen, Ind., a letter. 
J. C. Proctor, Madison, Wis., a letter. 
C. L. Ricketle, Keokuk, Iowa, a letter. 
F. A. FroBt, Springfield, Mass., a letter. 
Alexander Smith, Chester, Pa., a letter. 
L. W. Hallett, Milleretown, Pa., a letter. 
A. B. JohuBOH, Elizabeth, N. C, a letter. 
David T. Morgan, Oberlin. Oliio, a letter. 
Harry Fox, Sharon, Ohio, a letter and cards. 
W. H, Lathrop, South Boston, Mass., a letter, 
nab, Ga., a letter and 



G. £. Youmans, Sa< 

W. R. Foster, Troy Grove, III, 



I letter f 



Ihe evt.niug High eclioola of Brooklyn. 

E. J. Keep is teaching penmanship at Gran- 
ger's Business College, Indianapolis, Ind. 

A. C. Webb has opened an institute of pen- 
manahip al Nashville, Tenn. He writea a 
good hand, and cuts a graceful Houriah. 

B. MuBser, of Smilhville, Ohio, who wrilee 
himself down as one of Ibe " old boys" (aged 
69 yearB ) incloses Beveral specimenB of prac- 
tical writing that would furnish worthy exam- 
ples lor many of the '-younger boys." 

Tickets, elegantly engraved, have been is- 
sued for the Eighteeuth Anniversary, on Dec. 
15th, of the Trenton ( N. J.) Business' Col lege, 
conducted by A. J. Ryder. We express our 
regrets for being uuable to accept the invita- 



H. C. Clark, who has for i 



' yeaTB past 



ville. Pa., has lately opened another college at 
Erie, Pa. Mr. Clark purposes to lake per- 
sonal charge of the school at Ene. We wish 
him BuccesB. 

E. H. IsaacB, of Valparaiso, Ind., has is- 
sued ilie tirst number of a publication, entitled 
TAf Ckirotjraphtr, which is an attractive paper 
of eight .|uarlo pages. It ia edited with ability, 
and bide fair to be a creditable addition to the 
list of penman's papers. 

J. M. Parson, book-keeper for Spencer & 
Tucker, Fort Worth, Texas, writes a superior 
busiueBB hand, He says : " I have not missed 
a copy of Ihe JounXAl. for three veare. 1 
find myself greatly benefiled by it, especially 
by your articles oii letler- writing." 

Thomas J. Rieinger, for Ihe past five yehrs 
superintendent of penmanship and book-keep- 
ing in the schools of New Castle and Sharon. 
Pa., is now teacher of penmanship, iheoiellcal 
book-keeping, commercial law and letter-wri- 
liufT in the Spencerian BueinesB College, De- 
troit, Mich. 

J. H. Bryant, from the Rpei.cerian Business 
College of Cleveland, Ohio, hae been added to 
the faculty of the Spencerian College in Wash- 
ington, and entered upon the duties of his 
position Monday, Nov. lUth, large 
of students having rendered necessary 
crease in the number of teachers. 



Mei 



I. Cobb & McKee, who lately opened 
isB college at Champaign, III,, are 



J. W. Weatervelt, Woodstock, Ontario, a 
letter. 

H. S. Taylor, Business College, N. Y., a 
letter. 

H. C. Kendall, artist-penman, Boston, Mass., 
a tetter. 

Wilson M. Taylor, Easton, N. Y., Hourished 

W. H. Wright, Baltimore, Md., cards and 
copy-slips. 

F. S. Heath, Epsom, N. H., cards and busi- 
ness capitals. 

H. K. Hosteller, Steriing, 111., cards and 
flourished bird. 

C. D. Small, Grand Valley, Pa., a letter and 
flourished bird. 

A. E. Dewhursl, Ulica, N. Y., plain and 
flourished cards. 



W. A. McCartney, Randolph, Pa., 
for autograpli album. 



I. S. Preston, Brooklyn, N. Y., a letter and 
elegant card-specimeue. 



F. P. Preuitl, of the Fort Worth (Texas) 
Business College, a letter. 

H. C. Clark, of the Erie aud Titusville (Pa.) 
BuBinese Colleges, a tetter. 

W. H. Johnaon, of the Glen City Business 
College, Quincy. HI., a letler. 

J. D. Hayworth, aged sixteen, Kinmundy, 
111., a letter and cards, well written. 

J. W. Piersou, penman at Elliott's Buriing- 
lou (Iowa) Buaiiiess College, & letter. 

James McBride, penman at Nelson's Busi- 
ness College, Cincinnati, Ohio, a letter. 

G. W. Hensley, penman at the Indianapolis 
( lad.) B. & S. Business College, cards. 

W. H. Patrick, penman at Sadler's B. & S. 
Business College, Baltimore, Md., a letter. 

R. S. Bonsall, penman at Carpenter's B. & 
S. Business College. St. Louie, Mo., a letter. 

J. H. Bryant, penman at the Spencerian 
BusiiieSB College, WsBhingtou, D. C, a letter. 

C. R. WellB, epecial teacher of writing in 
the public Bcbools of Syracuse, N. Y., a letter. 

E- L. Burnett, Penmanship Depaiiment of 
the Elmira (N. Y. ) BusineBs College, a skill- 
fully-executed hand- specimen. 



H. W. Johnso; 
Gem City Buaini 

Anna E. Hill, special teacher of 
the public schools of Springli>-ld, Maes. 

Harry Cobo, a student at Vernon & Immel's 
Business Institute, Goshen, Ind., flourished 
specimens. 

8. R. Webster, of the Corresponding School 
of Phonography and Penmanship, Rock Creek, 
Ohio, a letter. 

C. P. Housen, penman at the Central Ten- 
nesaee College, Nashville, Tenn., a letter. He 
Bays: "The Joi'IINal ia of inestimable aid to 
me iu my work." 

D. E. Blake, Saybrook, III., a lad of Bixteen 
years, writes a handsome letter, with card- 
BpecimeuB, and complains that the penmen's 
papers do not sufficiently erticourage the eflbris 
of young penmen, and sufc-gesta that some way 
be opened whereby young writers may enter 
into a fair competition with each other. We 
think well of the suggeslion, and ivill here- 
after comment specially upon specimens for- 
warded by such writers under sixteen 
years of age, and preserve all such iu a spe- 
cial collection; and at the end uf the coming 
year name ihe per«<iiiB aending the three best 
specimens during the year, and publish one of 
each of the bni specimens of plain and artistic 
peumaiichip in the December, 1884, number of 
the JouknaL. All fpecimena must be well 
autheniicaled respecting the age of the writer, 
and be marked specially for competition, and 
may he in any department of penmanship. 



Comments of the Press on the 
"Journal." 

Below we rjuote from a few of the many 
hielily- complimentary notices which the 
press of the country has been pleased to 
bestovr upon the Journal : 



A I., either aj Tvgvib 
■ typography, or the 



.hlp-bolh plait, luirt 



\\» finely illustroted pngeit lire a feaat to 
ery admirer of beauliFiil petiinanBliip."— £ 



" II ii a really artiitic ami exoflloot pn)dutlloa, There 
are iu ilJDit such IhingB aa gUdOen Ihe btotts of the 
youth, Blimul&iing them to iDi|in>ve their wriling, aad 

I too highly 
iHon. For 



mniended. Each number, hy v 



n(e"""''' 


' "'"' ' 


be p.n 


■-B^^K. SK^,. 


'tziz 


■-"L'l 


H 


"' »'"• I«l>e™ pub- 
liflnel penman to ap- 


r...l,™g 


T"-.i, 


(> Enffltind SiJIitiff.. 


Bfl nearly 
perfect n 


orld. The apprainao. is fine. Ihe mat- 
B Ting uomietakable. H. C. Spencer'. 


»'&™r. 




'on 


a a penman', pape,.'' 


Boy.' and 


e endeavoring 1 
OirU- Wukly. 


JOURNAU"— fVaR* 


«...llj. ,.11 


TZ'. 


'^7™ 


s]y .nbioriptionprioe, 
owing boys nod giria 


b.,.,,riv 


,'.i"«r 


lb''. 


'o'^'n»,»L''ir,Z 



;'au do hy simply »ut«cribiog f 
itSAL Every number in filled 



—Sltidtnt'M Jour- 



liful. but highly e 
ishiDg how this 8p 



ilionably Ibe &n 



be Boknotrledged 
ome twelve-page 



Index to Volume VII. 

A. ] 

A<lri«.to roiing M«. by Mr. Burd«IIe 

A Talk About WriliDgr 

A Modttro ProdiiralSoD 

All May Write a Good IIsDd J 

An AmmiDg Court 8«ne J 

Ad Appeal to the Buvineu EdDoelora ofAm- 
A Train fur Dude. ■; 

A N«w Card-bou«a 1 

AotORrapbs ( 

Amrncan Oblique Pent and Oblique Peabold- 

A Conrtemoed SfDlin*! ]] 

A Letter and Reply 1] 

ACipli^r 11 

A Cbspterin First Thioga 11 

Autograph Bichaaget li 

B. 
Beo Gaj-lordon tbe Situation 1 

Buck Kumlwrt of Ihp JOUiI<{AL .1 

Brother Gardner on Charity ^ 

Breaking up a School i 

Moral. ( 

Book Arcount*, And How to Tnuuuct Busi- 

0. 

Card fur the Public ] 

Cbarlei Chabot, Bugli.ta Expert In Hand- 

Compllmeiitary, from the Prew to the "Jour- 
Can Bu«iDes« wriiing be Taught I . 

Betrayed by the Pea. i 

Co-Bdurwioa , 

Character in Penmanship i 

Copy-bw)h«lu SohuoK . 

Charily at the Lime-kUo Club II 

Coriuui FaoUor Natural Blitofy 1 

Commenia on "Amea'a New Uompcndlum of 
AMUiloPenmaiKhlp jl 

College CurrAoy 1] 

Drill— DrUl * 

Dr Dlx and Education of Women '. 

Dlilinclloni in ilandwritlDg. aud Value otEi- 

pert EvIdsDoe In Uallenuf Forgery , 

Dude Wnilog M. Good Wrillog 

Dignity I 

Direction* fur Preparing Speoimma, LeH«i», 

Dimook'a Wonderlul Pea. 1 

EdnaallODalKoleiaBdFandee,byB F.Eelley 



Ie..„ 



d Fanolea, by B P Kelley 



Exbibl 


■ at the Co 
e ol Q<M)iI 
dloary Mei 

glDg Aulog 

Stationery 

Majhe^.L 


ory.. 
Ilfhcllng 






L'lr 


aa la WrII 


"S 


Eichao 






Former 


F. 




Fifty Y 


Tu"' 


Ba»y Llf 


. Hon. 


Flflyie 


LfT. 


R. DaatOB 


ograpb- 


OlHHlDo^e. 




O. 




am ling 




..!.... 






Oreel-j 


riiinf^and 
riling Not 

Villiam El 
ery City o 

ihip With 


hi,. ... 

BadSp 
a out.. 

Up.a 
a Sped 

Type* 








Diploma! 






foJarCo.7 


Inhab- 


HowBa 








e of Nat Tunier'i 




the TPBoh 
udy and I 


nr™"e" 


■ir.og 




Home S 


ent 




Ilaody 








L 





nquirera from Various Parts of the Country. . 3 . 


IncoTOOt Ta 




'I Thought 


I Wouldn't" 5 .. 

holding.— Its Causes and Effeoti, 


dent.flcatloi 


Been a Special Gilt R .. 

by Handwriting e .. 

riling Teachable? 6 .. 







ifg.Ko.S, by H.O.Spencer 1 



{Iteptint) 11 .. ICI 

.T.Ames 1 .. 5 

2 -. eo 

;| ... . 3 .. 37 

"'.'.'. 6 '.'. 64 

II 8 .. 115 

*■ <Reprioi) 11 !". llil 

11 .. es) 



Mental Condition ; Or, The Spirit ol tbe Room 
Magical Nuinbera— The No. H2857 Again. 



J BrookljTi Suspension Bridge.. 6 . 



Over Thirty Yesr» a Business Eduoatoi 
Our Kesi Course of Lessons 



Practioal Wrtlifig . 

Penmanship io Public SobooU 9 . 



Pusiiion and Movement in Wriliog 

PenDiaoshlp in Washington Ptiblio Schools.. 
Queilioos for the Beaders ol Ibe Jouhkal... 



(iOMtDurj in Advortisiflf . . 



Report of ihe OoDrention 

Rufiis Chuale's Clilrognipby , 

Remloiicances 

Fifth Annual Coi 









s. 


Solar Systems 


Other Than Our Otrn 'J.. 


Some Scraps of Illitory 3 .. 


Sclentlflo Ins 


ruction i Or, Tru» Teaohing- 


Singing in 8n 
Slopping Hat 
Spencer Mem 




»K ■! -■ 

rial Hall and Library 4.. 

Seronty ( Poem ) 5 .. 










Society to En 
Scholarly Pen 

Tha Scrap -bo 


T. 




The Sleep of 


he Just ( Poetry ) 1 .. 



SrUools 
le Joi;itXAL and Biisin 
leCoDTenlion 



a Demands Good 



>fOod.. 



the Father of Spenoerlan Penmanabip 

The Sleelpen Trade 

The Patronage of Ihe Jouii:ial 

Tha Depopulation of tint Pulpit 

The Wizard and the King— Iloudin Put tc 

T«t by Loui* Philippe, and Came 



ThenPea(Puem) l 

The JOUKSALand Proolical Writing 1 

The Versatile Villsin Agn'o 1 

The Jot;ilXAL'B Ke«l Course of Practical 

Wrillng Lessons , . 1 

Teaching Murallty i 

The (louniel Suppose a Cue 1 



doable Aids lo Good Wrilln 
ritlog in Country Uools.. 



Writing ( Poem 
ingare Un. 



" Youia Truly ■• \ ., 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 
Ko. 1. 

Bird O. N. Crendle 

lpenr*r. 

Birds, P*n and Poem (Tbo 
" Jouniar'Offlee 



and Left Ilaml Carl S 



Govt 



I Hand. 



kol^ 



t. Clear 



Diploma Circular, andMisoeIlKneousCuls"Joumal" Office 

No, 3. 
S. 8 Packard (Porlr«it). 
Binl*. Sorill and Writing E. K. I^asos 

G. W. Slicbael 

ilationtolheOraduatingEx- 



V Letter. , 
^ard of In< 






loess Col 



Copy of Resolallnos Engrossed in Mem- 
ory of Jesse Hoyt ", 

Speoimen ot Business Letter/ 



SpeclmensShon-ing Progress of Popil 

for Six Months Master Albert Levy 

Gothic Large and Small Alphabets, and 

Fi]rar>B ( Hand-book, page 13) "Journal" Office 

Cuts of Paper- healings " 



Variety Capitals ( One hall of page 
Cuts of Paper and Letter- headings. 



Hiklyn Suspeukloo Bridge ( Co[ 



Our Sanctum (Inten 


or View of "Journal" 


OIBoe)... 


. J n 


Alphabet mGemian 


Round hand (Hand- 


Resolutions EogroSi 


ed in Memory of 


Hon. Wm. Saue 





Henry William Ellsn-orib ( Porlr 

Specimen of Lettering 

No. 8. 

Flourished Bird 

Warienq. S.idler('OriraIt). 



'Journal" Offloe 



.AlonioWebb 
"Journal " Office 



SpH'iuiens ot Hound-hand, or Ledger- 

wriliug . "Journal ■ 

Title |>agt)of Hand-book 

Preface ol New Compendliim " 









d Commercial Cat* 





V. >' 






^^ ^^■^wfiM'tifif 




^^•'iSc' 



^fTt)^|IilllUWji) 






College Currency. 
- — ■ — Usd«r-<ho>«trJn{^«iit lawe nnci rulines of tlie UuiteJ Snitos Treasury ofBcials, rpspocting tlic atylo nnd dnrictcr »f 
CoHpcO CmTL-iiiv tli;it \v;is pfiinUs:ilit<', it h:is hem very (UIKkuU to arruiigo designs that would bo ia their view uiol ](c 

tionablc. umi u i!i' ., , !„ ,ii ,11 ,,,., |,: iLl, 111 shools as currcncyj Imt this, we helieve, we Imve now uccomplishcd 

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